Phonetics consonants and vowels 2011

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Phonetics consonants and vowels 2011

  1. 1. Quiz 1 <ul><li>What’s linguistics ? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s a gloss ? </li></ul><ul><li>Write an immaginary example of synchronic and diachronic linguistics </li></ul><ul><li>What’s language planning ? </li></ul><ul><li>Write a small conceptual map with the branches of linguistics . </li></ul>
  2. 2. Phonetics M.C. Rafael Alberto Velasco Argente
  3. 3. Phonetics and Phonology <ul><li>Phonetic is different to Phonology in matters that the former refers to the origin and production of sounds. Phonology, in the other hand refers to the sound systems of a language. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why do I need to learn Phonetics? <ul><li>Phonetics increases your knowledge in matters of pronunciation. </li></ul><ul><li>By knowing how languages are produce you can better your pronunciation. </li></ul><ul><li>It facilitates the acquisition of new words. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps you to read the dictionary using the correct sounds inscripted in the words . </li></ul>
  5. 5. What’s the first thing to learn about phonetics? <ul><li>First of all you need to know that there are 3 different kinds of Phonetics </li></ul>Auditory Articulatory Acoustic
  6. 6. Ok, I get it…what’s next? <ul><li>Another thing you should master is the Points of Articulation. </li></ul><ul><li>The Points of Articulation are the essential components of the vocal tract that allow human beings to produce sounds or phonemes </li></ul><ul><li>A phoneme is the minimun part of sound </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Points of Articulation 1 2 4 3 6 9 11 7 10 5 8 12 13 <ul><li>Nasal Cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Lips </li></ul><ul><li>Teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Alveolar ridge </li></ul><ul><li>Hard palate </li></ul><ul><li>Soft palate </li></ul><ul><li>Tip of the tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Blade of the tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Back of the tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Epiglottis </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal folds </li></ul><ul><li>Pharinx </li></ul>
  8. 8. How to start noticing the sounds? <ul><li>The first thing to notice is whether the sounds are voiced or voiceless </li></ul><ul><li>Secondly, to notice whether the sounds are nasal or non-nasal </li></ul><ul><li>Third, to notice whether the sounds are aspirated or unaspirated </li></ul>
  9. 9. Very good…and the sounds? <ul><li>Sounds can be classified as consonants ( ety. conssonare ‘to sound together, to sound loud’ and vowels (ety. vocalis ‘from the voice’) . </li></ul><ul><li>Today we’ll just study the Consonant sounds. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Consonants of American English <ul><li>The consonats are classified in 3 large groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manner of pronunciation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place of production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice of production </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Let’s practice! <ul><li>http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/english/frameset.html </li></ul>
  12. 12. Practice 1 <ul><li>Write the three categories of the following sounds of American English </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/p/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/k/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>/ŋ/ </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. I know the vowels. What can you tell me about the vowel sounds? <ul><li>Different from the Consonant sounds , The Vowels sounds generate a vibration. This means that all those sounds are voiced. </li></ul><ul><li>Graphically there are just 5 vowels symbols in our alphabet but there are 12 vowels sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the words containing vowels use the sound ‘Ə’ Shwa </li></ul>
  14. 15. Let’s practice! <ul><li>http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/english/frameset.html </li></ul>
  15. 16. Let’s practice how good you are practicing with pronunciation…
  16. 17. Phonology
  17. 18. What’s phonology? <ul><li>According to Yule (2003) Phonology consists in the description of the systems and patters of speech sounds in a language. </li></ul><ul><li>In Human: Phonology refers in how the sounds work when they are pronounced. </li></ul>
  18. 19. What aspects of Phonology should I know? <ul><li>Phonemes and phones </li></ul><ul><li>Allophones </li></ul><ul><li>Minipal pairs and sets </li></ul><ul><li>Phonotactics </li></ul><ul><li>Syllables and clusters </li></ul><ul><li>Co-articulation effects </li></ul>
  19. 20. Phonemes and Phones <ul><li>The phoneme is the minimal unit of sound. This sound is usually represented with a set of slash marks. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>/t/ /k/ /d/ /Ə/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When someone utters one of these sounds inside a word or phrase then it might turn into a phone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A phone is when you pronounce for example the /t/ in the following words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tar - classical /t/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Star- aspirated /t/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Writer- flap /t/ turns into /D/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eight- /t/ with dental articulation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Minimal Pairs and Minimal Sets <ul><li>Sometimes listening activities are complicated because of the minimal pairs. MPs are two word that just differ in one phoneme. Some of them are very similar in pronunciation and context helps a lot to identify what word they are referring to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sh ee p-sh i p </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sh ee t-sh i t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S i te-si d e </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B e t-b a t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S ou p-s oa p </li></ul></ul>To practice minimal pairs in English you can visit this website http://www.shiporsheep.com/
  21. 22. Minimal Pairs and Minimal Sets <ul><li>A minimal set is a group of words that can be differentiated by changing one phoneme. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feat, fit, fat, fate,fought, foot. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Big, pig, rig, gig, dig, wig </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example in the vocal tract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://linguistics.berkeley.edu/~kjohnson/ling110/Lecture_Slides/1_PhoneticTranscription/English_vowels.pdf </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Phonotactics <ul><li>Phonotactics are your phonetic knowledge into practice. It happens when your mind recognizes that the sound you are producing can/cannot be a word </li></ul><ul><li>[fskŋ] </li></ul><ul><li>[tʃƏ] </li></ul>
  23. 24. Syllables and clusters <ul><li>A syllable must contain (at least in English and Spanish) at least a vowel sound. The most common syllable is the one using CV . </li></ul>Coda nucleus Syllable Onset rime Consonant(s)
  24. 25. Next class… <ul><li>Bring an English-Spanish Dictionary! </li></ul><ul><li>Application of phonetics and phonology! </li></ul>

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