7.1 human breathing system

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7.1 human breathing system

  1. 1. DESMOND SO, RD
  2. 2. What makes us yawn?
  3. 3. What makes us yawn?
  4. 4. What makes us yawn?
  5. 5. Which part of ourbody are in action when we yawn ?
  6. 6. Where does theexchange of oxygenand carbon dioxidetake place between our body and atmosphere ?
  7. 7. In what forms areoxygen and carbon dioxide carriedaround our body?
  8. 8. DESMOND SO, RD
  9. 9. In very small organisms: O2 CO2• diffuses across cell membrane
  10. 10. In larger organisms:  O2  CO2• cannot diffuse across body surface
  11. 11. In larger organisms:1. breathing system (呼吸系統) - for gas exchange2. transport system (運送系統) - for carrying gases to body cells
  12. 12. Human breathing system
  13. 13. Human breathing system
  14. 14. Human breathing system
  15. 15. air nasal cavity pharynx larynx trachea
  16. 16. air bronchus bronchiole air sac
  17. 17. 1 Nostrils and nasal cavityi) Hairs •filter larger dust particles
  18. 18. 1 Nostrils and nasal cavityii) Mucus-secreting cellstraps dust particles & moistens air mucus
  19. 19. 1 Nostrils and nasal cavityiii) Ciliated epithelial cellsCilia sweep mucus with dustparticles towards pharynx cilia
  20. 20. 1 Nostrils and nasal cavityiv) Capillaries •blood warms up air
  21. 21. Self Quiz! Which of the following structures is/are found in the nasal cavity? (1) ciliated epithelium (2) mucus-secreting cells (3) hairs A (1) only B (1) and (2) only C (1) and (3) only D (1), (2) and (3)
  22. 22. 2 Pharynx and larynx
  23. 23. 2 Pharynx and larynx pharynxlarynx oesophagus trachea
  24. 24. 2 Pharynx and larynx foodlarynx oesophagus
  25. 25. 2 Pharynx and larynx 1 Tongue pushes food towards pharynxlarynx oesophagus
  26. 26. 2 Pharynx and larynx 2 Soft palate moves up, preventing food from entering nasal cavitylarynx oesophagus
  27. 27. 2 Pharynx and larynx 3 Larynx rises and epiglottis covers entrance to trachea, preventing chokinglarynx oesophagus
  28. 28. 2 Pharynx and larynxepiglottislarynx• made up of cartilage
  29. 29. 2 Pharynx and larynxvocal cords (聲帶)• can vibrate to produce sound
  30. 30. 2 Pharynx and larynx
  31. 31. 3 Trachea, bronchi and bronchioles trachea bronchus bronchioles
  32. 32. 3 Trachea, bronchi and bronchioles trachea bronchus bronchioles
  33. 33. 3 Trachea, bronchi and bronchioles lumen C-shaped cartilage • prevents collapse ciliated epithelial cell
  34. 34. 3 Trachea, bronchi and bronchioles Trachea Bronchi BronchiolesCiliated Yes Yes YesepithelialcellsMucus- Yes Yes Absent insecreting smallercells bronchiolesCapillaries Yes Yes YesCartilage C-shaped Circular Absent
  35. 35. Self Quiz! The trachea is supported by many C- shaped cartilages. These cartilages A trap dust particles and bacteria. B warm up the inhaled air. C vibrate and produce sound. D keep the trachea open for breathing.
  36. 36. Self Quiz! Mucus in the respiratory tract helps (1) warm up the air. (2) moisten the air. (3) trap the dust particles in the air. A (1) and (2) only B (1) and (3) only C (2) and (3) only D (1), (2) and (3)
  37. 37. 4 Air sacs•large respiratory surface air sac capillary
  38. 38. 5 Lungs•composed of bronchioles and air sacs•in thoracic cavity (胸腔)
  39. 39. 5 Lungs•protected by rib cage (肋骨籃) vertebral column (脊柱) ribs sternumcartilage (胸骨)
  40. 40. 5 Lungs intercostaldiaphragm muscles• sheet of muscle
  41. 41. 5 Lungs
  42. 42. 5 Lungs rib intercostal muscle outer pleural membrane right inner pleural membrane lung pleural cavity
  43. 43. 5 Lungs•pleural cavity filled with pleural fluid (胸腺液) as lubricant (潤滑劑) right lung pleural cavity
  44. 44. Misconceptions !! Hairs are present inside the nasal cavity to filter air
  45. 45. Misconceptions !! Hairs are present at the nostrils of the nose to filter the incoming air
  46. 46. Misconceptions !! Dust particles are trapped by cilia inside the nasal cavity
  47. 47. Misconceptions !! Dust particles are trapped by mucus. The trapped dust particles are swept by the beating action of cilia to the pharynx where they are swallowed or coughed out
  48. 48. Self Quiz! The human breathing system consists of the respiratory tract and structures that aid breathing.
  49. 49. Self Quiz! Air flow along respiratory tract: nostrils nasal cavity pharynx larynx trachea bronchi bronchioles air sacs
  50. 50. Self Quiz! In the nostrils, hairs filter larger dust particles.
  51. 51. Self Quiz! In the lining of nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi and mucus-secreting cells bronchioles, mucus-secreting cells mucus secrete mucus to moisten the air.
  52. 52. Self Quiz! In the lining of nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles,mucus mucus traps the dust particles and bacteria.
  53. 53. Self Quiz! In the lining of nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles, blood in the capillaries blood warms the incoming air.

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