Classification 2011

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Classification 2011

  1. 1. NAMING &CLASSIFICATION<br />In Life Science<br />
  2. 2. There are about 380 000 different kinds of plants and about 2 million, of animals<br />each organism should have a precise, internationally recognized, NAME.<br />
  3. 3. TAXONOMY<br />Concerned with naming organisms and classifying them into groups is known as TAXONOMY<br />TAXONOMY (based on structure) or SYSTEMATICS(based on evolutionary classification). <br />
  4. 4. Levels of Classification<br />-based on contributions of both Aristotle and Linnaeus<br />There are 7 levels of classification. <br />Remember the first letter of this sentence:<br />King Philip Came Over For Good Spaghetti.<br />
  5. 5. 7 Levels of Classification<br />Kingdom broadest level<br />Phylum <br />Class<br />Order<br />Family<br />Genus <br />Species most specific<br />
  6. 6. The major classification levels,from most general to most specific<br /> (several of these have subdivisions)<br />A group at any level is a taxon.<br />
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
  10. 10. KINGDOM : Monera (BACTERIA)<br />KINGDOM : Protista (AMOEBA)<br />KINGDOM : Fungi<br />KINGDOM : Plants<br />KINGDOM : Animals<br />THE FIVE KINGDOM SYSTEM OF CLASSIFICATION<br />
  11. 11. Swedish botanist Carl Linne (more popularly known as Linnaeus, after the common practice of the day which was to latinize names of learned men), attempted to pigeon-hole all known species of his time (1753) into immutable categories. <br />Linnaean hierarchical classification was based on the premise that the species was the smallest unit, and that each species (or taxon) belonged to a higher category.<br />
  12. 12. KingdomAnimalia<br />PhylumChordata <br />ClassMammalia <br />OrderPrimates <br />FamilyHominidae<br />Genus Homo<br />speciessapiens<br />
  13. 13.
  14. 14. BINOMIAL NAMING<br />For international understanding<br />Man in English is Hombre in Spanish, Herr in German, and Homo in Latin<br />Linnaeus settled on Latin<br />An organism’s proper name is indicated by its generic name (the genus to which it belongs) followed by its specific name (its species). <br />
  15. 15. When printed, these names always appear in italics; when typed or written by hand; they must be underlined (separately) and the generic name must being with a Capital letter; the specific name, with a small letter<br />For example, Felis leo; <br />Felisdomestica<br />
  16. 16.
  17. 17. VIRUSES<br />On the borderline between living and non-living. Can only be seen with the electron microscope. No cell structure. Reproduce inside other organisms and cause diseases<br />
  18. 18. BACTERIA KINGDOM<br />mm<br />Can only be seen with the high power of the light microscope. Consist of a single cell with a wall; no proper nucleus Occur in air, water, soil or inside other organisms. Many of them cause diseases<br />
  19. 19. Prokaryotic Cell<br />
  20. 20. PROTIST KINGDOM<br />Some can be seen with the low power of the microscope. Consist of a singly cell. Some are plant-like and others are animal-like. Live mainly in water or inside other organisms.<br />
  21. 21. Eukaryotic Cell<br />
  22. 22. FUNGUS KINGDOM<br />m<br />Consistof fine threads which may be interwoven to form mushrooms or toadstools. <br />Live in soil or inside other organisms, especially plants. Reproduce rapidly by spores Have no chlorophyll <br />
  23. 23. PLANT KINGDOM<br />Many-celled organisms, which contain the green substance chlorophyll and make their own food by photosynthesis.<br />
  24. 24. How are plants organized?<br />PLANTS<br />Vascular<br />Nonvascular<br />Seedless Plants<br />Seed Plants<br />Ferns & related plants<br />Mosses & related plants<br />Angiosperms<br />Gymnosperms<br />
  25. 25. Vascular Plants<br />plants that have tube-like cells in their roots, stems, & leaves that carry H2O and nutrients<br />Vascular Plants-<br /><ul><li>Vascular comes from the Latin word “vasculum” which means “vessel”
  26. 26. they lose their leaves like a pet sheds
  27. 27. roots, stems, and leaves of a plant are all called organs</li></li></ul><li>PLANT KINGDOM<br />Algae<br />Simple plants, which do not have roots, stems or leaves. Usually green, but sometimes brown or red. Live in water. <br />
  28. 28. PLANT KINGDOM<br />Mosses and liverworts (Bryophytes)<br />Have simple leaves or leaf-like form. Found mainly in damp places. Reproductive spores are formed in capsule.<br />
  29. 29. 2 Main Types of Nonvascular Plants<br />A small simple nonvascular plant that has both stems and leaves…but NO ROOTS<br />1) moss-<br /><ul><li>Mosses are considered nonvascular and are grouped with liverworts because:</li></ul>a) their vascular (inner) tissue is very simple<br />b) they both have similar life cycles<br />
  30. 30. PLANT KINGDOM<br />Ferns (Pleridophytes)<br />Have proper roots and stems, and leaf-like fronds. Found mainly in damp places. <br />Reproductive spores are formed on the undersides of the fronds.<br />
  31. 31. Vascular Plants: Seedless (ferns)<br />4 Parts of a Fern:<br />roots-<br />rhizoid-<br />Frond-<br />Fiddlehead-<br />
  32. 32. PLANT KINGDOM<br />Conifers (Gymnosperms)<br />Large plants with seed-bearing cones for reproduction. Good at surviving in dry or cold climates. Most of them keep their leaves throughout the year.<br />
  33. 33. Vascular Plants: Seed Plants (conifers)<br />a type of seed plant that produces its seeds inside a cone<br />Conifer-<br />2 main parts :<br />embryo-<br />An organism that contains a new young plant and stored food in its earliest stage of birth<br />seed-<br />A plant embryo that contains a new young plant and stored food surrounded by a protective coat<br />
  34. 34. CONIFERS<br />
  35. 35. Vascular Plants: Seed Plants (conifers)<br />a type of conifer that keeps its leaves all year long<br />Evergreens-<br />example: pine, spruce, & fir trees <br /><ul><li>they lose their leaves like a pet sheds </li></ul>(not all at the same time)<br /><ul><li>some lose their leaves in the fall only such as:
  36. 36. larch, dawn redwood, & bald cypress</li></li></ul><li>Vascular Plants: Seed Plants (conifers)<br />5 important facts about conifers<br />1) ¾ of the worlds lumber is from conifers<br />2) provide almost all of the worlds paper<br />3) source of turpentine's, disinfectants, and fuel<br />4) Provides food for many animals<br />5) Provides shelter for many animals<br />
  37. 37. Flowering plants (Angiosperms)<br />Wide range of plants with seed-bearing flowers for reproduction. Seeds protected inside fruits.<br />Range from small herbs to massive trees.<br />Divided into dicotyledons and monocotyledons.<br />
  38. 38. dicotyledons<br />Seed contains an embryo with two seed-leaves (cotyledons). <br />Broad leaves with branched veins forming a network.<br />
  39. 39. Monocotyledons<br />Seed contains an embryo with one seed-leaf (cotyledon).<br />Narrow leaves with straight parallel veins.<br />
  40. 40.
  41. 41. The Animal Kingdom<br />GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS:<br /><ul><li>Most complex of all kingdoms
  42. 42. Multicellular (made of many cells)
  43. 43. They obtain food from OUTSIDE SOURCES
  44. 44. They move from place to place to get food
  45. 45. They swallow their foodand they digest food inside the body.</li></li></ul><li>The Animal Kingdom- REVIEW<br /> INVERTEBRATE-An animal that does not have a backbone<br />2) VERTEBRATE-An animal that has a backbone<br />
  46. 46. 9 Phyla of the Animal kingdom<br />Porifera 6) Mollusca<br />Coelenterata 7) Echinoderm<br />Flatworms 8) Arthropoda<br />Roundworms 9) Chordata<br />Segmented worms<br />
  47. 47. The Animal Kingdom Cont’d<br />Porifera:<br /><ul><li>Means “having pores”
  48. 48. Ex: sponges</li></li></ul><li>ANIMAL KINGDOM<br />Coelenterates<br />Simple body with tentacles and stinging cells.<br />Live singly or in colonies, either attached or floating. <br />May produce an external coating (e.g corals). Most live in the sea, a few in fresh water.<br />
  49. 49. The Animal Kingdom<br />Coelentrata:<br /><ul><li>Sac-like body
  50. 50. Have tentacles
  51. 51. Ex: hydras, jelly fish, coral, sea anemones</li></li></ul><li>Flatworms<br />ANIMAL KINGDOM<br />Body longish and flat. Some live in fresh water, but most are parasites of animals.<br />
  52. 52. 3 Phyla of Worms:<br /><ul><li>Flatworms
  53. 53. Roundworms
  54. 54. Segmented worms</li></li></ul><li>ANIMAL KINGDOM<br />Roundworms (Nematodes)<br />Body long and thread-like, round in cross section. <br />Some live in soil but most are parasites of plants or animals.<br />
  55. 55. ANIMAL KINGDOM<br />Segmented warms (Annelids)<br />Body long and divided by rings into a series of<br />segments. Most are aquatic (live in water), but some live in the soil. <br />Some are external parasites.<br />
  56. 56. Molluscs<br />ANIMAL KINGDOM<br />Body soft and unsegmented, in most cases covered by a shell. <br />Most are aquatic, some live on the seashore and on land. <br />
  57. 57. Mollusca:<br /><ul><li>Hard shell surrounding soft body parts
  58. 58. Live in water & damp places
  59. 59. Examples:
  60. 60. Snail, & Sea Scallop
  61. 61. Only a few do not have shells:
  62. 62. Octopus & Sea slug</li></li></ul><li>Echinoderms<br />ANIMAL KINGDOM<br />Body based on a pattern of five parts and with a tough skin, often with spines. <br />All live in the sea.<br />
  63. 63. Echinoderms:<br /><ul><li>Means “spiny-skin”
  64. 64. Star shaped
  65. 65. Spiny</li></ul>Ex: <br />Starfish & Sea Urchin<br />
  66. 66. Arthropoda:<br /><ul><li>Makes up 75% of the animal kingdom
  67. 67. Basic Characteristics:
  68. 68. hard external skeleton
  69. 69. segmented body
  70. 70. jointed legs
  71. 71. Ex: beetle, milli & centipede, spider, crab</li></li></ul><li>ANIMAL KINGDOM<br />PHYLUM ARTHROPODA (exoskeleton)<br />
  72. 72. Myriapods<br />ANIMAL KINGDOM<br />Lots of legs. <br />One pair of antennae. <br />Body long and clearly segmented. <br />Live on land<br />
  73. 73. Crustaceans<br />ANIMAL KINGDOM<br /><ul><li>Quite a lot of legs. Two pairs of antennae
  74. 74. (feelers). Front part of body usually protected by a shield-like cover.
  75. 75. Mainly aquatic.</li></li></ul><li>Arachnids<br />ANIMAL KINGDOM<br />Four pairs of legs.<br />No antennae.<br />Mouthparts with pincers.<br />Live on land; some are external parasites.<br />
  76. 76. Insects<br />ANIMAL KINGDOM<br />Three pairs of legs. <br />One pair of antennae <br />Body divided into three parts: head, thorax and abdomen. <br />Usually two pairs of wings<br />
  77. 77. ANIMAL KINGDOM<br />Animals with backbones (vertebrates)<br />
  78. 78. Chordata:<br /><ul><li>Vertebrates
  79. 79. Have internal skeleton
  80. 80. Vertebral column
  81. 81. Limbs
  82. 82. Ex: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals</li></li></ul><li>Fishes<br />ANIMAL KINGDOM<br />Have a covering of scales. <br />Live in water and have gills for breathing. Muscular body and fins for swimming Skeleton of cartilage or bone. Shape varied. Eggs laid in the water.<br />Cold-blooded.<br />
  83. 83. Amphibians<br />ANIMAL KINGDOM<br />Have a moist skin without scales. <br />Tadpole (larva) lives in water and has gills for breathing. <br />Adult lives on land and has lungs for breathing. Can swim, walk or hop. <br />Eggs laid in the water.<br />Cold-blooded<br />
  84. 84. Reptiles<br />ANIMAL KINGDOM<br />Have a dry, waterproof skin with scales. Most<br />live an land and have lungs for breathing.<br />Most have four. legs for walking; and some can Swim. Others have reduced legs and slide along the ground. <br />Eggs have a soft shell and are laid on land <br />Cold-blooded.<br />
  85. 85. Birds<br />ANIMAL KINGDOM<br />Have a covering of feathers. Live on land and in the air. Have lungs for breathing. Have wings for flying and a beak for feeding. Eggs have a hard shell and are laid in nests.<br />Warm-blooded.<br />
  86. 86. Mammals<br />ANIMAL KINGDOM<br />Have hair. <br />The young usually develop inside the mother and after birth are fed on milk produced by the mother’s mammary glands. <br />Live on land, in water and in the air. Walk, swim or fly. Have lungs<br />Warm-blooded.<br />Young develop inside the mother. Attached to a placenta.<br />
  87. 87. Mammals<br />ANIMAL KINGDOM<br />
  88. 88. DICHOTOMOUS KEYS AND HOW TO USE THEM<br />Taxonomic Key <br />(AKA Dichotomous Key)<br />paired statements that describe the physical characteristics of different organisms<br />
  89. 89. Taxonomic Key<br />1a Fruits occur singly ....................................................... Go to 3<br />1b Fruits occur in clusters of two or more ......................... Go to 2<br />2a Fruits are round ....................................................... Grapes<br />2b Fruits are elongate ................................................... Bananas<br />3a Thick skin that separates easily from flesh .............Oranges<br />3b Thin skin that adheres to flesh .............................. Go to 4<br />4a More than one seed per fruit ............................ Apples<br />4b One seed per fruit ............................................ Go to 5<br />5a Skin covered with velvety hairs .................... Peaches<br />5b Skin smooth, without hairs ........................... Plums<br />
  90. 90.
  91. 91. Example 2<br />1 a) Hair present …………………... CLASS: MAMMALIA<br /> b) Hair absent ……………………………. go to 2<br />2. a) Feathers present ………………………………… CLASS: AVES<br /> b) Feathers absent …………………………………. go to 3<br />3. a) Jaws present ………………………….. go to 4<br /> b) Jaws absent ……………………... CLASS: CYCLOSTOMATA<br />4. a) Paired fins present ……………………………… go to 5 <br /> b) Paired fins absent ……………………………….. go to 6 <br />5. a) Skeleton of bone …………………… CLASS: OSTEICTHYES<br /> b) Skeleton of cartilage ……………… CLASS: CHONDRICTHYES<br />6. a) Skin covered with scales…………..CLASS: REPTILIA<br /> b) no scales on skin……………………...CLASS: AMPHIBIA<br />
  92. 92. MAKING A KEYThis can be a lot of fun!<br />To make it easier to complete the construction of our key, we number the drawing on the right.<br />
  93. 93. Now construct the key:<br />1 a Four legs …. Go to 2<br /> b No legs …….SNAKE<br />2 a No shell …….go to 3<br /> b Scales for shell . TORTOISE<br />3. a Large scales ….CROCODILE<br /> b Small scales …. CHAMELEON<br />
  94. 94. CONSTRUCT A KEY<br />
  95. 95.
  96. 96. TURN THIS INTO A FOOD WEB<br />Dog whelks feed on mussels and barnacles. Crabs feed on dog whelks, periwinkles and mussels. Barnacles feed on animal and plant plankton. Mussels feed on animal and plant plankton too. Periwinkles feed on seaweed. Animal plankton feeds on plant plankton. Seaweeds and plant plankton are producers. Starfish feed on mussels and dog whelks<br />
  97. 97. FOOD WEB<br />Crabs<br />Starfish<br />dog whelks<br />Mussels<br />Periwinkles<br />barnacles<br />Animal plankton<br />Seaweeds<br />plant plankton<br />
  98. 98. LEGS<br />NO LEGS<br />SHELLS<br />NO SHELLS<br />NOT SPIRAL SHELL<br />SPIRAL SHELL<br />

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