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Every athlete has been into an injury zone and back at sometime in their active lives. Some for a short time and some for a really long time. It is something we live with day in – day out because we subject our bodies to the rigours of exercise. However there are simple steps we can take that will help us minimize the damage.

Dr. Ajit Mapari, Consulting sport doctor at Deccan Gymkhana Club looks at athletes like us everyday. He will be our speaker at the a session on “Injury Prevention”.

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  1. 1. Dr. Ajit Mapari Consultant Sports & Exercise Medicine
  2. 2. What does running involve?  One leg hopping  Leg absorbs force  Requires flexibility  Requires hip girdle strength  Lengthening Contraction  Most damaging to muscle and requires great strength  Fatigue?
  3. 3. Common Injuries/Problems  Hips/Knees  Patellofemoral Pain (PFPS)  Iliotibial Band Pain (ITB syndrome)  Greater Trochanteric Bursitis  Feet/Ankles  Plantar Fasciitis  Achilles tendonosis  “Shin Splints”  Stress Reaction/Fractures  Hydration (cramps)
  4. 4. Kinetic Chain  Proximal segments can influence distal segment motion  Distal segments can influence proximal segment motion
  5. 5. Broad classification  Acute  Sub-acute  Chronic
  6. 6. Other injuries  Stitch Pain felt just below the ribs esp. on the left side
  7. 7. Ways to Prevent or Lessen the Pain of the Common Side Stitch 1) Do not Run on a Full Stomach 2) Decrease Pace and Breath Deeply 3) Pre-Stretch With Side Torso Twists 4) Perform Lower Back and Abdominal Exercises
  8. 8. Injury Risk Factors  Extrinsic factors  Training errors  Equipment  Shoe type  Shoe age  Environment  Surface type  Intrinsic factors  Bone alignment  Muscle imbalance  Biomechanical deficits
  9. 9. Causes of Injury  Trauma (less common)  Overuse  “Too Much Too Soon Too Fast”  Asymmetries  Previous injury  Inflexibility/strength differences  Terrain (hills)
  10. 10. Training Errors too much, too soon, too fast  Inadequate warm-up  Inadequate flexibility and strength  Inadequate rest between runs  Too many kilometers, too soon  Too much interval/speed training
  11. 11. Remember Focus on good technique of running  Up and down movement causes a lot of load on the joints  It is a major cause of early fatigue in long distance running
  12. 12. Patellofemoral Pain  “Runner’s Knee”  Pain located beneath and/or around knee cap  Softening and compression of cartilage under the knee cap  >25% incidence in athletes  Females > Males
  13. 13. Iliotibial Band Syndrome  Localized tenderness on the outside of the knee  Especially common when training for longer distances  Repetitive motion causes rubbing and inflammation
  14. 14. Trochanteric Bursitis  Pain over outer hip  May radiate down outside of thigh  Back or deeper hip problem?  Pain laying on side  Increased frequency in running or contact sports  Females>Males
  15. 15. Foot & Ankle
  16. 16. Plantar Fasciitis  Common cause of heel pain  Pain in the arch or near heel on bottom of foot  Worst with 1st am step
  17. 17. AchillesTendonsis  If Chronic then called Tendonopathy  Pain in back of heel  Bump present?  Pain with push-off
  18. 18. “Shin Splints” (Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome)  Pain located on the front or inside of shin  Overuse tendonitis of posterior/anterior tibialis, soleus muscles
  19. 19. Stress Fractures  Distance (>30 kms/week)  Usually worse with activity  Worse as run progresses  Better with rest  Potential for devastating injury  Can occur in hip, thigh, or shin
  20. 20.  Simple rest and ice is not alleviating your pain  You are unable to train at the intensity you desire  You are limited in your day to day activities because of your pain  Joint swelling is your body telling you something is wrong; this should be medically evaluated  We all get aches and pains with running, but if your pain is persistent, this should be medically evaluated Running Injuries WHEN TO SEE THE DOCTOR:
  21. 21. Can we prevent injuries?
  22. 22. What you should do ?  Warm-up  Warm down / cooling  When cramping  When in ‘stitch’
  23. 23. Warm up Usually  12-15 min  Loosening joints  Move all the major joints  Dynamic stretches  Technically correct
  24. 24. Warm down / Stretching  As important as warm up  Technique need to be right  Spend some time stretching.... Don’t rush
  25. 25. Cramps Prevention  Hydration: Rule of thumb 150-170 ml of fluids every 20 min (For longer runs)
  26. 26. How to manage one? Tips  Improve fitness and avoid muscle fatigue(overtraining)  Stretch regularly after exercise  Warm up before exercise  Most muscle cramps are not serious. If your muscle cramps are severe, frequent, constant or of concern, see your doctor.
  27. 27. Recommendations  If activity less than 90 minutes, use water  But 6-8% CHO has been shown to sustain better power output after 60 minutes, so it may improve performance particularly if no other nourishment
  28. 28. Running Injuries Conclusion  Proper diagnosis of injury  Understand goals  Treat underlying cause  Treat kinetic chain  Focus on technique  Don’t neglect frequent signals by the body
  29. 29. Thank you