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The past and the next 20 years? Scalable computing as a key evolution


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The past and the next 20 years? Scalable computing as a key evolution

  1. 1. The Past & The Next 20 Years. Scalable Computing As A Key Evolution Haydn Povey, Director Product Marketing Processor Division, ARM
  2. 2. 1991
  3. 3. ARM Founded 27 th Nov 1990 <ul><li>A barn, some energy, experience and belief: “We’re going to be the Global Standard” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I gave ARM two things for success – no staff </li></ul><ul><li>and no money” – Sir Robin Saxby </li></ul><ul><li>Originally 12 employees </li></ul><ul><li>Two decades of Partnership success </li></ul><ul><li>8 Partners at first Partner meeting </li></ul><ul><li>>500 Partners at 2011 Partner meeting </li></ul>
  4. 4. A 1991 View of the Industry
  5. 5. The Early Market for 32-Bit 1989 1995 Embedded Control Revenue in $M. 32-bit Growth >45% per annum Early ARM Design Win: ACORN Archimedes Polygon Pushing at ARM
  6. 6. The 20 Year Journey <ul><li>ARM1 3  6k gates </li></ul><ul><li>7mm x 7mm = 49mm 2 </li></ul>December 2010 . Cortex M0 20nm 8k gates 0.07mm x 0.07mm M0 1/10,000 th size Cortex-M0 Subsystem Phenomenal Power, Performance & Area Improvements
  7. 7. 2011
  8. 8. Our Increasingly Connected World <ul><li>Faster data rates can increase complexity, power and cost </li></ul><ul><li>Devices are becoming more multi-purpose, open, general computing platform </li></ul><ul><li>All devices are becoming energy constrained </li></ul>
  9. 9. Increasing Demands On Chip Design <ul><li>Hardware and software reuse </li></ul><ul><li>Power efficient processing </li></ul><ul><li>Optimized implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous design </li></ul><ul><li>Simplified software integration </li></ul>Today The Chip Is The System
  10. 10. Power efficiency and Performance <ul><li>Mobile SoC’s have experience of balancing power with performance </li></ul><ul><li>Optimized processing units designed for specific tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s SoC contains many diverse components </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Chip is the System <ul><li>Heterogeneous hardware: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimum power efficiency requires HW perfect for each task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implies a demand for multiple HW accelerators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to a proliferation of engines, more levels of parallelism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits from HW coherency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homogenous software: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application software and OS efficiency will increasingly rely on a unified memory model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aligning memory systems (page tables, address spaces, coherency) between the different units becomes critical for high performance </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Cortex-A15: The New Market Standard <ul><li>Performance enables new product types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large-screen, connected, slim-profile, light </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All your compute needs in a superphone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expect innovative mobile MP platforms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advanced capabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for OS virtualization, larger memory </li></ul></ul>Cortex-A15 measurements on equivalent system. Frequency varies dependent on process Relative performance <ul><li>First silicon undergoing test </li></ul><ul><li>Linux and browsing optimizations reviewed and upstreamed </li></ul><ul><li>Optimized tool-chains available </li></ul>Cortex-A15 Available now
  13. 13. Cortex-A7: Redefining Energy-Efficiency <ul><li>Most energy-efficient applications processor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5x the energy efficiency of mainstream phones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance to handle common workloads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>>2x the performance of mainstream phone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feature set and software compliant with Cortex-A15 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full backward compatibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scalable and extensible </li></ul></ul>Browsing workload comparison Today’s dual-core high-end smartphones Relative Performance 1 GHz 1.2 GHz 1.2 GHz Energy Efficiency 45nm 28nm
  14. 14. Introducing big.LITTLE Processing <ul><li>Uses the right processor for the right job </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 70% energy savings on common workloads </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible and transparent to apps – importance of seamless software handover </li></ul>big LITTLE Cortex-A15 MPCore L2 Cache CPU Cortex-A7 MPCore L2 Cache CCI-400 Coherent Interconnect CPU CPU CPU Interrupt Control
  15. 15. Performance AND Energy efficiency <ul><li>Simple, in-order, 8 stage pipeline </li></ul><ul><li>Performance better than today’s mainstream, high-volume smartphones </li></ul><ul><li>Complex, out-of-order, multi-issue pipeline </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 5x the performance of today’s mainstream, high-volume smartphones </li></ul>Cortex-A7 Cortex-A15 LITTLE big Most energy-efficient applications processor from ARM Highest performance in mobile power envelope Queue Issue Integer
  16. 16. The Right Processor for the Right Job Processing energy saved versus today’s high-end multicore phones Cortex-A15 provides the high-end performance Cortex-A7 is ideal for Low to mid-range tasks * Dual Cortex-A15 + Dual Cortex-A7 big.LITTLE system estimate in 32/28nm compared with a dual-Cortex-A9 system estimate in 40nm LITTLE cluster activity dominates Cortex-A7 Big cluster activity dominates Cortex-A15
  17. 17. Cortex ™ -A Series: Optimum Performance Scalable performance with low power for broad application scope Mobile Internet Smart TV Automotive Infotainment Network Infrastructure Servers Cortex-A5 MPCore <ul><li>Most efficient ARM processor </li></ul><ul><li>Big.LITTLE with Cortex-A15 </li></ul><ul><li>First superscalar design </li></ul><ul><li>Market proven, wide adoption </li></ul>Cortex-A7 MPCore Cortex-A8 Cortex-A9 MPCore <ul><li>High-efficiency multicore </li></ul><ul><li>High-performance hard macro </li></ul>Cortex-A15 MPCore <ul><li>Unprecedented performance </li></ul><ul><li>Broad application capability </li></ul><ul><li>64-bit architecture </li></ul><ul><li>ARMv7-A compatibility </li></ul>ARMv8-A Architecture <ul><li>Low-cost internet </li></ul><ul><li>Migration from classic ARM </li></ul>Wide Application Range Cortex-A High Performance Scalable Efficient BROAD PORTFOLIO WIDELY ADOPTED MARKET PROVEN
  18. 18. Bringing Visual Computing to Life <ul><li>Visual & graphical expectations continue to grow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scaling to all resolutions from VGA to 1080p </li></ul></ul>Samsung Galaxy SII Hardkernel ODROID-A WinAccord PTT 1026 Ramos W10 Samsung Smart TV Skyworth Smart TV TomTom GO LIVE 1000
  19. 19. Evolving Processing Demands <ul><li>OpenGL ® ES ‘Halti’ and Microsoft ® DirectX ® 11 enabling advanced content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content keeps advancing, look at history to predict the future </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GPU computing – OpenCL ™ , Renderscript, DirectCompute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations of a common user experience across any consumer product leading to ever-higher performance demands in low-power portable devices </li></ul></ul>25x increase in complexity Polarbit – Raging Thunder Unigine Corp – Heaven Unity – Sixits ExoVerse
  20. 20. System Design Scalability 400 Series Coherency Virtualization External Memory Subsystem Rest of SoC Interconnect <ul><ul><li>CCI-400 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Big.LITTLE coherency </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I/O coherency </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritization and utilization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MMU-400 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OS level virtualization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GIC-400 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual interrupts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multicore support </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External Memory Subsystem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DMC-400 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DDR utilization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PHY integration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NIC-400 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Routing efficiency </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Advanced Physical IP 14nm - 32nm 40nm - 65nm 90nm - 250nm 8 Physical IP Platforms 15 Physical IP Platforms 69 Physical IP Platforms
  22. 22. The Next 20 Years 2010s Mobiles Soon Pervasive Devices Ubiquitous Environments Heterogeneous Compute Engines Functionality Energy × $ Functionality Available Energy × $ Functionality $ Breakthroughs? Silicon technology Non-volatile memory tech Battery technology Charging speed ?
  23. 23. Enabling Scalability - From 1mm 3 to 1km 3 8.75mm 3 platform solar cell 0.18 µm Cortex™-M3 12 µ Ah Li-ion battery University of Michigan 1mm 3 platform 1km 1km 3 platform 4200 ARM Neutrino Detectors 70 bore holes 2.5km deep 60 detectors per bore hole supported by the National Science Foundation and University of Wisconsin-Madison
  24. 24. Thank You