DESIGN&ENGINEERINGOIL SPILL EQUIPMENTSTUDY PROJECT OF DESIGN & ENGINEERING MASTER’S PROGRAMME 2011 TALLINN
DESIGN&ENGINEERING INTRODUCTION“No product is an island. A product ismore than the product. It is a cohesive,integrated set of experiences. Thinkthrough all of the stages of a product orservice – from initial intentions throughfinal reflections, from first usage to help,service, and maintenance. Make them allwork together seamlessly. That’s systemsthinking.”Don NormanThis booklet is a summary development is to create on absorbent of the sameof a spring project for understanding and name, that can be used both Synergy between different fields is best achieved in group work environment, therefore nine designstudies of product design common work culture for on water and on land. These and engineering students worked as one team on the solving of the business problem of absorbentand development MA both parties – designers products are used by ports, producer Bonusvia.study programme. Study and engineers. The fuel terminals and gas stations.programme of product design guiding principle of the study Also enterprises involved withand development is based process was „learning by mining, waste conditioningon combining the strengths doing“. Although working and rescue service.of business, technological independently and applyingcompetence and user centred methods learnt previouslydesign. Both the technological on lectures, the students stillknowledge of the engineering had the constant support ofand product design students instructors.as creative problem solvingof the design students were Work partner Bonusvia OÜapplied. is a small enterprise in Baltic region, that has specializedIn the centre of the on cleaning materials ofunified study programme oil and chemical spillage.of design and product Bonsuvia’s products are based
DESIGN&ENGINEERING TEAM AND TUTORS Liivar Kongi Aap Piho Karl Annus Tallinn University of Estonian Academy of Arts, Tartu Art College, Furniture Technology, Interior Architecture, BA design and preparation, BA product development, BA „Project offered a great „I learnt to better express my „Because of particular features experience on how such ideas and thoughts. It is very of the skimmers’ application a relatively large project is important while working in a field, this project taught me structured during different large team. You must express about critical parameters phases, what decisions turned an idea well if you want it to in skimmer designing. Got out to be right and what reach everybody.“ to experiment with the wrong and how to reach moreMartin Eerme Martin Pärn Sven Sõrmus simulation of airflow in small effectively for wanted result.“Professor, department of Professor of strategic design, Industrial designer, supervisor, vacuum-system. Met newmechanics, Tallinn University Estonian Academy of Arts Estonian Academy of Arts people, their workhabits andof Technology therefore joys and sorrows of groupwork.Tõnis Kalve Katrin Rekor Iiris Rausk Egert Uibo Maarja Mõtus Mihkel JoostEstonian Academy of Arts, Estonian Academy of Arts, Estonian University of Life Estonian Academy of Arts, Estonian Academy of Arts, Tallinn University of Interior Architecture, BA product design, BA Sciences, ergonomics branch product design, BA product design, BA Technology, product of mechanics and technology, development, BA„Learnt basics of design „To do, to do, to do!“ BA „Power of the group work. „Learnt from experience thattheory and methods. Can If group is well motivated to ideas may look good on paper „In the beginning of thealso understand engineers’ „I learnt to listen to one act, then the process is much but rapid prototyping will project you must find outworldview. I can now see that another and wait for my faster than alone. People expose its true merit.“ from the client exactly whatnot a single project can be turn in discussions. Learnt to from different fields can help their problems are and whatfinished without them.“ communicate with people that with know-how, that is not they need.“ are nor easy to communicate reachable for others.“ with.“
DESIGN&ENGINEERING MAPPING OF THE THEMEABSORBENT AND OIL POLLUTION All these services were visited as well to get an adequate information on what must beAbsorbent is a bibulous material, which is concluded while developing a skimmer.used to remove a variety of liquid pollutants- chemicals, oil, water, mazsut and otherdangerous liquids. Absorbent that is meantfor oil pollution removal has the an ability to MEETINGS WITH PARTIESremove the stickiness of oil, which makes thecleaning easier and quicker. 1. BONUSVIAWhile speaking about oil pollution, it is Before we started to create a skimmer, therenecessary to know that different oils have was a meeting with Bonusvia representativesdifferent viscosity, which means that lower and „design and engineering“ workgroup,the viscosity, the thinner and less sticky it where company’s wishes and specificationsis and harder to clean by using methods of were discussed. By the end of the firstadhesiveness. Therefore absorbent helps to meeting the following specifications andclean oils with low viscosity, even from water, criteria became apparent:from where it is not possible to clean it with theprinciple, where oil should stick to the brushand be removed from water. • Skimmer works with absorbentIf there is an oil pollution, then the first to be • Skimmer works on watercalled is a Estonian Rescue Service, whoseresponsibility is to take care of the pollution on • Suitable for small bodies of water -water, and the next is Estonian Fund of Nature, lakes, rivers and for harbours andwhose responsibility is to take care of the shores.nature and animals on ashore. If the pollutionoccurs off the shore, the Boarder Guard Board To give us a better understanding on whatis responsible for handling it. If the pollution the workgroup was going to be working, thereaches the shore, then the Estonian Rescue company made a brief presentation aboutService is to take action. their absorbent and how it works and how it is produced. Estonian Rescue Service and Estonian Fund for Nature at field training
DESIGN&ENGINEERING SURVEY OF COMPETITION COMPANY Petroleum Bonus via Versatech &2. ESTONIAN FUND FOR NATURE (ELF) Passage Skimoil Oilsorb Elastec Hisorb Lamor Action PRODUCT ClearA coordinator of volunteers made us thinkabout the following issues. Absorbent is easily Abs. spreaderflying and dust like. It is harmful to peopleworking with it. Cleaning birds with it damages Brush skimmertheir respiratory system. Cleaning of shore Belt skimmeris time-consuming handwork that has tobe done with shovels and brushes. Weir skimmer Drum skimmer Grinder skimmer Abs. skimmer Abs. granules Abs. Mats3. ESTONIAN RESCUE SERVICE BoomsRescue service gave us next important tips. Abs. BoomsMachine should consist of standard Hand toolsdetails, so when necessary it would Mat/boom kitspossible to cooperate with neighbouringcountries and combine our equipmentwith their equipment. Machine must be Table shows products offered by different companies offer andcompact, light weight and multifunctional, so reflects which areas these companies are concentrated on.it could be transported to the places that aredifficulty reachable and that it could be used inas many different operations as possible. From the table it can be mentioned as important absorbent is a perfect product concluded, that Lamor competitor, as it offers its for relatively easy cleaning is a strong competitor clients brush skimmers as well of oil spills and it is known with its wide choice of as absorbent mats, booms and that skimmer has proved its skimmers as well as by kits. efficiency in cleaning oil spill4 .ENVIRONMENTAL INSPECTORATE offering booms and hand from surface of the water. tools. Compared to other As a conclusion, Bonusvia as Therefore there is opportunityEnvironmental inspectorate gave us competitors, Lamor offers a absorbent and absorbent to come to the market with afollowing information. They provided us different brush skimmers, belt product producer is on new idea by putting these twowith an overview of an Estonian absorbent skimmer and weir skimmer, the same position as its things work together.manufacturer, Oilsorb OÜ, and suggested while Skimoil and Action strong competitor Oilsorbwe visited pollution clean up ship at Muuga Petroleum have specialized as Bonusvia offers granules, As a Bonusvia’s aim isport. We also found out that there are natural only on weir and drum booms, mats and kits. If we to put skimmers workabsorbents, such as peat and sawdust. Nature skimmer manufacturing. consider Bonusvia’s objective on absorbent, there isis self-renewable, loss of two dozen birds is to expand into the field of an opportunity to gainnot a natural disaster. We were also told that In the field of absorbent skimmer manufacturing, then momentum and get aheadfiguratively speaking the seabed around a port the market leader is Bonusvia has a very good of the competitors.is covered with asphalt. Oilsorb with its absorbent chance to become the market granules, mats, booms leader in absorbent field and kits. Clear Passage by entering into the field of Products could also be skimmers. It is well known that
DESIGN&ENGINEERING PREMISES PREMISES Considering Bonusvia’s wishes and conditions, • Can be combined with other information provided by parties involved with machines and components to pollution and experiences of client’s who use facilitate cooperating with other such products, the following premises for task rescue services were concluded: • Weights less than 50 kg per person, meant for 2 people • Skimmer works with absorbent • Wide scattering of absorbent can be • Suitable for work on small bodies of avoided water — rivers, lakes, ports, shores • Autonomous, easy to clean • Small dimensions to facilitate transportation to places that are difficult to reach
DESIGN&ENGINEERING PROCESSTESTS MORPHOLOGICAL DEVELOPING OF GROUPING OF IDEAS MATRIX CONCEPTSBefore starting the product development The first step was to put Next step for each team As we had many ideas inprocess, the team carried out different tests together a morphological member was to outline the conception creationwith Bonusvia absorbent in order to find out matrix, where machine was 3–5 ideas while taking phase after composing thethe exact characteristics and possible future divided into details (absorbent different solutions from morphological matrix, theopportunities for following work. Results of crusher, spreader, collector, the morphological matrix. next logical step was tothese tests were following: energy source etc.) and for Ideas had to be logical and aggregate them together. every detail there were written thought out. That was the The product groups of similar down all possible solutions. All part of process where many products emerged. They• The absorbent has to be put directly to the group member participated conceptions were created were belt skimmers, buoys, polluted area. in it. Such a approach helps (some of them overlapped) karakatitsas (self-made vehicles to create an overview of the and during discussions it for driving on thin ice),• After saturation absorbent smears. possible solutions. became apparent which catamarans, buoys, „vacuum• It is important to have absorbent granules details and principles were cleaner“, shore connected in optimal size for maximum saturation. favoured and where potential system. was seen.• Absorbent loses its effectiveness when filled with water.
DESIGN&ENGINEERING CONCEPT RETHINKING & NEW POSSIBILITIES Absorbent cleaning traditionally consist of Questions raised in rethinking the problem: granulating, spreading and collecting the How we can shorten the process of oil filled absorbent. Granulated absorbent absorbent based cleaning? though is dusty and flyable, not a comfortable working environment. Also, the need of granulation makes the process of cleaning How can we built an absorbentEVALUATION MATRIX STRONGER PRINCIPLES REFINED PREMISES a 3 step process: granulating, spreading, based cleaning system without the collecting. need of granulation and causingEach solution was evaluated After finding out the product Considering previous the dusty working environment?within the group according ideas, people were for the first brainstorming,to the evaluation matrix. time divided into workgroups evaluations and tests, theAccording to the matrix the and started the more in team members found thatcriteria for evaluating the depth work. Product ideas initial grand ideas wereconception were: mobility were tested with simple not quite as powerful asof the device, efficiency, user models, rapid prototyping they had thought.friendliness, manpower, method. What were the problems inoverhead expenses, easy analyzing previous thoughts,usability, safety, reliability, By the end of this process ideas and principles?dimensions, weight, ect. many ideas were worked NEW WORK CONCEPT, through, including catamaran, KEBAB PRINCIPLE • Too many machinesEvaluation brought our karaktitsa and buoy. Mainwork ideas, that received collection ideas were bristles • High price Absorbent is not crushedmost points. Better detailed and tapes from fabric that • Problems with weight and and in is placed into machinesolutions were screened out and these did not were most dimensions on the shape of a rollers.and table helped to find the successful in tests. • Lengthy work process Absorbent is not crushedsolutions with better potential but in the device as roll. • Ideas were not workingand smart specifics. It was difficult to integrate Absorbent’s roller spins across crushing, spreading and • Spreading of absorbent the water. Surface that has collecting into function one were too dusty absorbed the oil is cut off and skimmer while considering collected. weight limits and need for Since the ideas that emerged compact system that were form the process were provided by rescue services. unsuitable for the initial task This approach had also because of the lengthy work transportation difficulties. process and dustiness of Final solution was nowhere to absorbent, we had to take an be seen. u-turn and start to think out of the box.
DESIGN&ENGINEERING SKIMMERPROCESSIn order to find a solution for different functionsa morphological matrix was created, where wasset a task about what this machine’s capabilityhas to be. Brainstorming brought out plenty ofideas about each function. Combining of theseideas gave many different solutions.
DESIGN&ENGINEERING CYCLON COLLECTION TANK VACUUM PUMP ABSORBENT ROLL FINAL SOLUTION SATURATED ABSORBENT MUZZLE FLOATS ABSORBENT ROLLResult is a catamaran-type skimmer, Length of the machine is 1,25 m and width iswith working principle that an 1 m, so it fits into special transportation that isabsorbent roll that is partially in the used by rescue services.water rotates around its axis, the part inthe water absorbs the oil spill and oil saturatedcoating is cut off in every rotation andvacuumed into collection tank.
DESIGN&ENGINEERING HANDLE„Peeled“ saturated absorbent is sucked of the projected collection tank is 50 litres.from the blade into collection tank by Rollers attached at the front of the tank allowvacuum pump. Muzzle of the suction system easy mounting and transportation on land.is projected so that for cross-section of themuzzle airflow speed would be as even as Skimmer is powered by two Li-Ion battery thatpossible. Collection tank has conical chamber are placed in the middle of the floats. Batteries FLOATSor cyclon. Vacuum pump creates cyclon that are estimated to power until absorbent barby centrifugal force cleans the air from solid is completely worn off (90 minutes) and INSIDE FLOATS: LI ION BATTERYmatter that is thrown into collection tank. getting back to the land. In the back of both ENGINE floats there are propellers that give good PROPELLERSIn front of the vacuum pump there is a filter manoeuvreability. In addition to propellerthat prevents small matters to get into the engine, the vacuum pump and engines topump. Bar’s initial diameter is 380 mm. regulate and rotate absorbent bar work fromAs the diameter lessens, the bar that is the batteries.held between two „claws“ is let lower byelectrical engine, so that the bar stays Present solution offers skimmer driving byconstantly in the same depth of water. radio transmitter. For further developmentBlade moves in sync with the „claws“ and we think of making skimmer autonomousmaintains the same cutting depth. Based on machine, that can map the spillage and removethe absorption volume of the bar, that volume it by itself. SKIMMER KIMMER CYCLON AIRFLOW SPEED PAAK COLLECTION TANK ROLLERS
DESIGN&ENGINEERING BACKGROUND HAND TOOLSAs study group was encouraged in first offering an absorbent based skimmer for low From a meeting with the ELF volunteers from the boat with manual tools was theirstage of contextual analysis look the waters that were effective in cleaning viscous responsible of shoreline and bird cleaning, the regular practice. Question that was raised:field of oil cleaning in wide perspective. oil, currently an less developed area in oil study group learned about the difficulties of How to ease the manual shorelineFrom contextual understanding also from the cleaning. As skimmer was a meant to be shoreline cleaning, which is a time consuming cleaning using absorbent?market analysis settled out that there is an sold with the base product absorbent, manual labour. Study group visited Muugaopportunity to widen the market of Bonusvia study group asked what other Port and studied their oil cleaning practices.absorbent company. First, company was opportunities can be found to increase In their work, smaller oil spills are also notlooking for ways to expand their business by Bonusvia’s market share? collected with large skimmers but workingStudy group visited Muuga Port and studied their oil cleaning practices. Testing in natural outdoor environment at Paljasaare beach.
DESIGN&ENGINEERING PROCESSHand tools working group was formed of Real environmental testing revealed the 3. Brush and absorbent in granulesthree members: Karl Annus, Katrin Rekor and weak sides of the absorbent cleaning usage: industrial environmentMaarja Mõtus. They focused on prototyping bars and previously believed winningand testing in natural outdoor environment at solution failed. What was learned from the testing: (similar environment): good resultsMuuga Port and at Paljasaare beach, as well as process was, that a prototype should first be on cleanliness, approved conceptin studio space. prototyped itself too. Sooner the better, decision: develop special tool by thus fast prototyping before prototyping combining brush and mop ( 1. quick and is a must to confirm the workability of rough collecting 2. surface cleaning and final the idea. collecting)1. Absorbent cleaning bars 2. Absorbent cleaning bars 4. Landing net and absorbent granules 5. Landing net and absorbent granules usage: shoreline usage: industrial environment usage: shoreline, on sea usage: shoreline, on sea testing in real environment, failed concept testing (similar environment): failed testing in real environment. possible but testing in Muuga port with 13 m/sec wind. decision: failed due environment, find concept. poor results in cleanliness, time further testing needed. Failed in strong wind and heavy waves. alternative market consuming decision: Suitable in inland waters and board decision: develop further decision: stop concept, move back to area. granule absorbent
DESIGN&ENGINEERING FINAL SOLUTIONBRUSHMOP AND SHOVEL ABSORBENT HANDNET AND CONTAINERBrushmop is a tool for Brushmop makes cleaning Negative side effect is theindustrial environment with absorbent less dusty. absorbent dust. Current Handnet is a tool for waters, where due to shorelines.to car repairs, machinery One can collect most of the absorbent granules are not oil spill collection, the small pollution scale Handnet consists of the lightindustry ect. absorbed oil fast with the mop so much granules in their counteracting in low manual work is more cost- aluminium handle and a side. Then, for a second step, form, but rather a powder. effective than skimmer changeable polyethylene net. cleaner can collect what was For further development machine transport and Operateable in low water from left in the floor cracks with the absorbent granules installing. foot or possibly from boat. brush side. could be made more comfortable for workers Absorbent net enables to Used and oily absorbent can In comparison with the first respiratory systems. collect low viscose oil spills be collected to the container. concept idea of absorbent with absorbent. In comparison Handnet and container form bars, this offers much faster with skimmers, handnet is a toolkit, handnet is fixable on cleaning, and collects oil from also usable in stone covered the side of the container. floor cracks.
DESIGN&ENGINEERINGWriting and Editing:Mihkel JoostMaarja MõtusIiris RauskTranslation:Tea TammDesign:Maarja MõtusPhotography: D&E students and cortesy of partnersThe views expressed in booklet are those of the authors.DESIGN&ENGINEERING STUDIO E-MAIL: INFO@DESIGN-ENGINEERING.EEAKADEEMIA TEE 21-D, ROOM 305 WEBSITE: WWW.DESIGN-ENGINEERING.EE12618 TALLINN