1. Determinants of Language Shift (general)According to Hotman (1991: 16), when a community does not maintain itslanguage, but gradually adopts another language, it regards to languageshift.A language shift occures when community sharing similar mother tongueabandon it, and collectively shift to speak onother language, it‟s caused bypresence of multilingualism.“Hotman also observed that under certain cultural, social, politicalconditions in which a community might opt to change one set of linguistictools for another, where this phenomenon is accute in this case ofmigrant communities.”Language MaintenanceSomething refers to a situation when members of community attempt tokeep the language they have always used.
According to Fishman (1991: 1), language shift refers to fenomenon ofspeech communities‟ native language proceeding negatively, with fewerand fewer users or uses every generation.Language shift is part to language change in which to understand thecaueses of change that it is necessary to know where in the socialstructure the cahnge originated, how it spreaded to other socialgroups and which group should most resistence to it (Labov, 1966).
According to paper witten by Remco Knooihuizen in “Lel PostgraduateConference in 2006” that there are three issues which frequently come upin discussion of language shift (Weinreich, et al, 1967). nemely:a. Changing patterns of the language use where this is based on the idea that there is pattern of which language variety that people use in what situation (Fishman, 1972: 247-248). As Joshua Fishman (1972: 79–88), it is seen as a very neat domain-by- domain shift, so that the abandoned language is gradually replaced by the target language.b. Language shift happens in a speech community.c. Language shift happens in a situation of language contact.
Factors affecting language shift (Holmes, 1992: 65-70)a. Demographic factorb. Attitude/Value factorsc. Economic factord. Social and political factor
Demographic factorA factor playing role in the process of language shift in which there is acommunity of language moving to a region whose a language is differentfrom another language, thus presence of tendency to shift toward a newlanguage.Let‟s see the example at the following:1. “ I was born in Lombok so, my mother toungue is Sasaknese which is usedby the whole neighborhood of mine as well as a media of instructionalchores in my school. Then, I move to Jakarta, since then I always talk inBahasa Indonesia to my new neighbor, in which using Sasaknese only withmy family at home. Finally, due to presence of high frequency of contact withpeople coming from different ethnic group using Bahsa Indonesia, graduallyI shift my Sasaknese. “
2. “The communities in New Zaeland in which Maori has survivedlongest term are relatively inaccessible rural area, populated almostby Maori peole. They always talk by Maori either informal conversationor formal Maory in speech events. Before, maori always used in averyaspect of life but, In which the shcool is the only domain that English isregularly used in this community so, children start keepingcommunication with English in every domain (shcool, pub, bus services,television, and media).”
Richard Benton, a Sociolinguist having surveyed the use of Maori inNew Zealand sums up the situation that Maorians being the isolatedcommunities in which Maori is now a language which can only be usedbetween consenting adults.
Attitudes/valuesA. Negative attitudes (determinent affecting to shift) A negative attitude toward the language can also accelerate languageshift, it can be occuring when an ethnic language is not highly valuedand it is not seen as a symbol of identity. Holmes stated that “young people are the fastest to shift languages(1992; 60).
b. Possitive attitudes (factors to language maintenance)Possitive might support effects to use the minority language in variety ofdomains and also help people resist to pressure from the majority group toswitch to their language (Holmes, 1992: 68).The language would not be shift in which the minority language is highlyvalued thus, when the language is seen as an important symbol of ethnicidentity, it is generally maintained longer.There two examples of language maintenance through possitive attitudehighly valued as :a. Frence maintenace in Canada as well as in U.S due to Frence internationally contribute to the possitive attitude as an national status so, it has been an international prestige.b. Most of the Greek immigrants to another country. Due to the contribution of Greek to Western Philosophy and Culture, thus this awareness helps them to resist their language from another language.
Motivations of negative attitude to language shifta. A teenager moving to big city, gradually he tries to abondan his indigenous language in cese having various levels of formality.b. It is considered that the usage of ethnic language would be quitely difficult as well as inproper as a medium of instructional activities in school.c. They must be required to shoose an another language to talk with other people in formality.d. The speaker felt more prestigious when using other languages than using his ethnic language.e. The speaker does not have the need to show his identity with ethnic language rathen than by a new language he would like to part of the global economic, politic, social, and culture.
Economic FactorMain factor leading toward language shift from using one language toanother language (abondaned), in which the most obvious factor is thatthe community sees an important reason for learning the secondlanguage is economic (Holmes, 1992: 65)Economic factor encouraging to language decline always results inbilligualism where it is as a precursor of language shift.As Holmes says that “ Job seekers see the importance of learning anew language which is widely used in business.
Political and social factorsPolitical factor imposes on language shift in multilingual country, theauthority usually chooses one language as the lingua franca to unify thevarious kinds of ethnic groups, consequently most of the speakershaving particular indigenous langauge decrease.“ The official languages of many African countries were determined bytheir former colonialists. Then, they replaced the tribal Africanlanguages so, they led to the langauge deplacement leading to languageshift (Bayer: 2005).”Social Factor where the language shift occuring as most communitiesconsidering another language in predominantly monolingual societythat dominated by one mojority group language in all major institutionaldomains (shcool, TV, news, goverment, court, and work).
Language shift usually happens over different cases as several shcolarsdoing studies on local vernecular languages (Javanese, Balinese,Sundanese etc) being worried with the reducing numbers of the users ofthe local tongues thus, those shift to use another language.The different cases of language shift as:a. The case occuring at East timor shifting from Indonesian to Portuguese, since its independence in 1999.b. As study reported that in south Sumatra that most of the young Sumatraneses leave the local toungue even their parents and grands do. It is due to trigger by some social changes.
Language shift is a gradual process (Fasold, 1984).It is said that language shift will be proceeded in three generations(Holmes, 1992).It is proved by Jendra namely: as the sifting of local language toward a new language as :a. At first time, the immigrant families only use their local language in a foreign land. Gradually, they have attempts to stick their toungue to borrow some words from the local langauge, that they may begin to be billingualist.b. The immigrants become fully billingual speakers, thus the forward generations may begin to consider using the predominantly local language fluently as early age as possible.c. The decide to quit their old language as the result in this stage, they only have competence in such a new language meant that shifting to a new language.
2. The revival of languageAn attempt by interested parties including individuals, cultural orcommunity groups, government, or political authorities to reverse thedecline of a language.The goal of language revival is to recover the spoken use of particularlanguage left, extinct, and endangered to death in order to return to dailyuse of ccommunication.According to Fishman (1991) cites that reversing language shift involvesestablishing the degree to which particular language has been dislocated inorder to determine the best way to assist or revive the language.As Zuckermann (2011: 31), that language revival inter alia explores theuniversal constraints and mechanism involves in languagereclamation, renewal, and revitalization of the sleeping tongues.And also Zuckermann said that the term „Revival Linguistics (languagerevival) is modelled upon contact linguistics (language contact).
Steps in reversing language (language revival) as quoted in Fishman‟s “reversingthe threatned language for making it sustainable. There are 8 steps as thefolowing :a. Process of langauge acquisition proceeded by adults as the language apprentices.b. creating socially integrated population of active speakers of the language.c. Locally, peole habitually using common language, in which they encourage the informal use of the language amongs of all ages.Bolstering the daily use through establishing local institution in which language is encouraged, protected and used exclusively.d. In particular area, the oral language competence must be achieved in all ages as well as they encourage the literacy of language withoud depending upon the assistence from the state education system.e. Where the state permites it, thus the community of language may encourage the use of language as compulsory state education.
f. When the above stages have been achieved thus, the user of such language must consolidate to workplace from (lower to higher one).g. Where, if the obove have been achived then the user of language must consolidate it into massmedia, local goverman service etc.h. When, the all stages above have been achieved so, the such language might be consolidated as well as encouraged as use of language in higher education and government.
Thank you.... for nice attention and Let’s have a discussion!!