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SLU ECE 528T1: Design of Communication Systems Module 1

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An introduction to the design of communication systems focusing on established standards organizations a primary source of standards.

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SLU ECE 528T1: Design of Communication Systems Module 1

  1. 1. ECE 528: Module 1 Design of Communication Systems ECE 528 (Design of Communication Systems) ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City, Philippines 1 Prepared by: Engr. Jeffrey Des B. Binwag http://www.slideshare.net/desbinwag
  2. 2. Course Requirements • Quizzes • Groupworks • Homeworks • Exams • 60% Class Standing Scores – Quizzes, Groupworks, Homeworks • 40% Exam Score • Term Grade= 50 + 30(CS)/TCS+20(Exam)/Exam Total • FG=(PG+MG+TFG)/3 ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 2 Grading System
  3. 3. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 3 21 3 4 cm 3 cm 2 cm 2 cm 3 cm 2 cm Page Format (for homeworks/ seatworks) • Computer printout • Margins in red ink • Text in black ink • Section 1 contains the • Subject • Schedule • Room • Section 2 contains the names of group members in two columns • Section 3 remains blank for scores/remarks • Font is Arial, 12 pt. • CONTENTS • Homework Title/ Coverage • Answers to Questions/ Solutions to Problems • Essential Learning Insights
  4. 4. Module 1 Introduction to Design of Communication Systems, Standards Organizations ECE 528 (Design of Communication Systems) ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City, Philippines 4 Prepared by: Engr. Jeffrey Des B. Binwag http://www.slideshare.net/desbinwag
  5. 5. Introduction • Electronic Communication Systems. An organized collection of equipment, processes, and procedures designed for the transmission and reception of information using electronics as primary enabling technology. • Major Fields of Electronic Communication Systems. o Telecommunications and Broadcasting o Fire Detection and Alarm Systems (FDAS) o Community Antenna Television (CATV) o Distributed Antenna Systems (DAS) • Design of Communication Systems. Refers to the various techniques utilized to plan, implement/ establish, operate, and maintain electronics communication systems according to established protocols and standards. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 5
  6. 6. Introduction • Protocol. Sets of rules governing the orderly operation of systems. • Standard. An object or procedure considered by an authority or by general consent as a basis of comparison. For instance, data communication standards are guidelines that have been generally accepted by the data communications industry. They outline procedures and equipment configurations that help ensure an orderly transfer of information between two or more data communication equipment of networks. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 6
  7. 7. Introduction ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 7 • Classification of Standards. – Proprietary Standards. Closed system standards generally manufactured or controlled by one company. – Open System Standards. Guidelines that can be used by any company to produce compatible equipment or software after a royalty has been paid to the original company.
  8. 8. Associated Standards Organizations for Electronic Communication Systems • ACM. Association for Computing Machinery • ANSI. American National Standards Institute • ATIS. Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions • CCITT. International Consultative Committee for Telegraphy and Telephony (Comité Consultatif Internationale de Télégraphie et Téléphonie • CENELEC. European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization • CISPR. International Special Committee on Radio Interference (Comité International Spécial des Perturbations Radioélectriques) ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 8
  9. 9. Associated Standards Organizations for Electronic Communication Systems • BICSI. Building Industry Consulting International • ECMA. European Computer Manufacturer’s Association • EIA. Electronics Industry Association • FCC. Federal Communications Commission • IAB. Internet Architecture Board • IEC. International Electrotechnical Commision • IETF. Internet Engineering Task Force • IEEE. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers • IRTF. Internet Research Task Force • ISO. International Standards Organization ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 9
  10. 10. Associated Standards Organizations for Electronic Communication Systems • ITU-T. International Telecommunications Union • JEDEC. Joint electron Device Engineering Council • JEITA. Japan Electronic Industries and Technologies Association • NIST. National Institute of Standards and Technology • OMG. Object Management Group • OSF. Open Software Foundation • SAG. SQL (Structured Query Language) Access Group • TIA. Telecommunications Industry Association ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 10
  11. 11. Associated Standards Organizations for Electronic Communication Systems International Organization for Standardization (ISO) • Founded in 1947 and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ISO has three official languages: English, French, and Russian. Its membership comprises national standards organizations, one from each of 163 countries. • ISO defines a standard as “a document that provides requirements, specifications, guidelines or characteristics that can be used consistently to ensure that materials, products, processes and services are fit for their purpose.” ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 11
  12. 12. Associated Standards Organizations for Electronic Communication Systems International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) • Creates and publishes standards for electrical and electronic technologies. Founded in 1906 and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. • Members of the IEC are called National Committees. Each country can have just one National Committee in the IEC. There are 82 members. ANSI represents the United States. • IEC has more than 170 technical committee and subcommittees, along with about 700 project/ maintenance teams that produce and maintain their standards. Individuals who work on IEC standards do so through their country’s National Committee. Voting on IEC standards follows a “one country, one vote” model. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 12
  13. 13. Associated Standards Organizations for Electronic Communication Systems International Telecommunication Union (ITU) • A specialized agency of the United Nations. Its original name was the International Telegraph Union, and it was founded in Paris in 1865. • Serves the field of information and communications technology. Now headquartered in Geneva, it has a membership of 193 countries and over 700 private sector entities and academic institutions. It operates using the six official languages of the United Nations: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish. • The ITU allocates global radio spectrum and satellite orbits. It also develops technical standards for interconnecting networks and other technologies in international telecommunications. Some of its standards work deals with economic and policy issues as well. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 13
  14. 14. Associated Standards Organizations for Electronic Communication Systems • ITU-T Study Groups: – Network and Service Operation – Tariff and Accounting Principles – Telecommunications Management Network and Network Interface – Protection Against Electromagnetic Environment Effects – Outside Plant – Data Networks and Open Systems Communications – Characteristics of Telematic Systems – Television and Sound Transmission – Language and General Software Aspects of Telecommunication Systems – Signaling Requirements and Protocols – End-to-end Transmission Performance of Networks and Terminals – General Network Aspects – Transport Networks, Systems, and Equipment – Multimedia Services and Systems ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 14
  15. 15. Associated Standards Organizations for Electronic Communication Systems Joint Electron Device Engineering Council (JEDEC) • A semiconductor engineering trade organization that also develops standards for the microelectronics industry. It was created around the same time that the IC was invented, in 1958, by the Electronics Industry Association (EIA). EIA had previously helped establish the Joint Electron Tube Engineering Council. • JEDEC’s headquarters are located in Arlington, Va. It is accredited by ANSI and has almost 300 member companies. More than 4000 people from these companies volunteer on JEDEC’s standards committees. Voting on JEDEC standards follows the “one company, one vote” model. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 15
  16. 16. Associated Standards Organizations for Electronic Communication Systems American National Standards Institute (ANSI) • Founded in 1918 and is headquartered in Washington, D.C., with an operational office in New York City. Its mission is “to enhance both the global competitiveness of U.S. business and the U.S. quality of life by promoting and facilitating voluntary consensus standards and conformity assessment systems, and safeguarding their integrity.” • The private, non-profit organization oversees the development of voluntary, consensus-developed standards. It is dedicated to strengthening the U.S. in the global marketplace while ensuring the health and safety of consumers and the environment. Its annual budget is a modest $22 million. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 16
  17. 17. Associated Standards Organizations for Electronic Communication Systems Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) • Headquartered in New York City, it was founded in 1947. ACM is dedicated solely to computing. This scientific and educational society has more than 100,000 members around the world from industry, academia, and governments. The current president of ACM is Vint Cerf, well known as one of the “fathers of the Internet” (along with Bob Kahn). • ACM has many special interest groups (SIGs), and some of them address standardization in their fields of interest. For example, one of ACM’s SIGs standardized the Ada programming language. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 17
  18. 18. Associated Standards Organizations for Electronic Communication Systems National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) • Part of the U.S. Department of Commerce, it was founded in 1901 as the National Bureau of Standards. In 1988 its name was changed to NIST to include a general technology direction for its standards in addition to its original charter of measurement standards. • NIST’s overall goal is to enhance industry in the U.S. through standards-related tools and information to more effectively compete in the global marketplace. NIST standards touch a wide range of technologies including the smart power grid, nanoscience, and semiconductors. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 18
  19. 19. Associated Standards Organizations for Electronic Communication Systems Ecma International • A private, non-profit organization based in Geneva. It enables the creation of standards for consumer electronics (CE) and information and communications technology (ICT). • Formed in 1961 as the European Computer Manufacturers Association (ECMA). In 1994 it changed its name to Ecma International, dropping the acronym and full capitalization, to signify the global nature of its activities. Today, Ecma’s Web site specifically calls out its versions in the Belorussian and Romanian languages. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 19
  20. 20. Associated Standards Organizations for Electronic Communication Systems CENELEC • The European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization. It was founded in 1973 as a merger of two previous European organizations and is headquartered in Brussels, Belgium. • It is a non-profit organization set up under Belgium law and is responsible for standardization in Electrotechnical engineering. The European Commission has designated CENELEC as one of the three European Standards Organizations, along with the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) and the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 20
  21. 21. Associated Standards Organizations for Electronic Communication Systems JEITA • Formed in 2000 from the merger of two long-standing previous organizations, the Electronic Industries Association of Japan (EIAJ) and the Japan Electronic Industries Development Association (JEIDA). • Its charter is to further Japan’s economy by advancing its electronics and information technology industries. JEITA supports manufacturing, trade, and consumption internationally of products from these industries. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 21
  22. 22. Associated Standards Organizations for Electronic Communication Systems Comité Consultatif Internationale de Télégraphie et Téléphonie (CCITT) • Based in Geneva, Switzerland, it was established as part of the United Nations International Telecommunications Union (ITU), and ITU remains its parent organization. The CCITT studies and recommends use of communications standards that are recognized throughout the world, and publishes its recommendations every four years. • The CCITT has been divided into study groups for the 1997-2000 study period; each study group is preparing recommendations for standards in a different subject area. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 22
  23. 23. Associated Standards Organizations for Electronic Communication Systems Electronics Industries Association (EIA) • An organization founded in 1924 by U.S. manufacturers of electronic parts and equipment. It develops industry standards for the interface between data processing and communications equipment and has published many standards associated with telecommunications and computer communication. • The EIA works closely with other associations such as ANSI and ITU (CCITT). ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 23
  24. 24. Associated Standards Organizations for Electronic Communication Systems Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) • A U.S.-based society that publishes a variety of standards including those for data communications. • A subgroup of the IEEE, the 802 committees began developing network specifications in 1980 to ensure low-cost interfaces. These specifications are passed on to the ANSI for approval and standardization within the United States. They are also forwarded to the ISO. • The IEEE realized that a single network standard would be inadequate because it would not be able to account for the diverse hardware and emerging architectures. To adequately cover the wide range of subjects, the society established committees that were to be responsible for defining standards in different networking areas. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 24
  25. 25. Associated Standards Organizations for Electronic Communication Systems • The IEEE standards development process can be broken down into seven basic steps: 1. Securing Sponsorship 2. Requesting Project Authorization 3. Assembling a Working Group 4. Drafting the Standard 5. Balloting 6. Review Committee 7. Final Vote • Each year, the IEEE-SA conducts over 200 standards ballots, a process by which proposed standards are voted upon for technical reliability and soundness. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 25
  26. 26. Associated Standards Organizations for Electronic Communication Systems Object Management Group (OMG) • Consists of almost 300 organizations involved in developing a suite of languages, interfaces, and protocol standards that vendors can use to create applications that will operate in multivendor environments. • OMG certifies products designed to meet the standards and specifications agreed upon by the OMG members. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 26
  27. 27. Associated Standards Organizations for Electronic Communication Systems Building Industry Consulting Service International (BICSI) • A global professional association that supports the information and communication technology (ICT) community. • BICSI members and credential holders are individuals that design, install and maintain ICT infrastructure. • Serves more than 23,000 ICT professionals through training, publications, conferences, and credentialing programs. • Its headquarters is located in Tampa, Florida, USA with a membership spanning nearly 100 countries ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 27
  28. 28. Associated Standards Organizations for Electronic Communication Systems Open Software Foundation (OSF) • The OSF, part of the Open Group, creates computing environments by acquiring and combining technologies from other vendors and distributing the results to interested parties. • These vendor-neutral environments, referred to as the Open System Software Environment, can be used to create a collection of open systems technologies in which users can incorporate software and hardware from several sources. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 28
  29. 29. Associated Standards Organizations for Electronic Communication Systems SQL Access Group (SAG) • A part of the ANSI standards, SAG is a consortium of 39 companies that was founded in 1989 by Hewlett-Packard, Digital, Oracle Corporation, and Sun Microsystems. Its charter is to work with the ISO to create standards covering the interoperability of front- and back-end systems. • SAG's purpose is to promote interoperability among structured query language (SQL) standards so that several SQL-based relational databases and tools can work together in a multivendor database environment. This will make it possible for different database applications running on different platforms to share and exchange data. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 29
  30. 30. Associated Standards Organizations for Electronic Communication Systems Internet Architecture Board (IAB) • IAB earlier known as Internet Activities Board is a committee created by ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) so as to analyse the activities of ARPANET whose purpose is to accelerate the advancement of technologies useful for U.S military. IAB is a technical advisory group of the Internet Society and its responsibilities are: A. Oversees the architecture protocols and procedures used by the Internet. B. Manages the processes used to create Internet Standards and also serves as an appeal board for complaints regarding improper execution of standardization process. C. Responsible for administration of the various Internet assigned numbers. D. Acts as a representative for Internet Society interest in liaison relationships with other organizations E. Acts as a source of advice and guidance to the board of trustees and officers of Internet Society concerning various aspects of internet and its technologies. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 30
  31. 31. Associated Standards Organizations for Electronic Communication Systems Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) • The IETF is a large international community of network designers, operators, vendors and researchers concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and smooth operation of the Internet. Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) • The IRTF promotes research of importance to the evolution of the future Internet by creating focused, long-term and small research groups working on topics related to Internet protocols, applications, architecture and technology. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 31

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