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ECESLU Microprocessors lecture


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A lecture slide on the the introduction to microprocessors and microcomputers as outlined from the book Microprocessors and MIcrocomputers by John Uffenbeck

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ECESLU Microprocessors lecture

  1. 1. Lecture 01 Introduction to Microprocessors Microcomputers and Microprocessors By: John Uffenbeck ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 1 Prepared by: Engr. Jeffrey Des B. Binwag
  2. 2. Microprocessor • Defined as an entire central processing unit of a computer constructed on a single piece of silicon chip. • The microprocessor concept was developed in 1969 by INTEL engineers Ted Hoff and Stan Mazor but its implementation was undertaken by INTEL process engineer Federico Faggin in a chip set that became to be known as the INTEL 4000 family. • The INTEL 4004 version was followed by the 8 bit 8008 in 1972 and an improved version called the 8080 in 1974. • Similar chips to the 8080 were developed by Motorola (MC 6800) and Zilog (Z-80). These chips had 8-bit data bus widths, and 16-bit address buses. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 2
  3. 3. 1979 Issue of Byte Magazine ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 3
  4. 4. Evolution of the INTEL Microprocessors ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 4
  5. 5. Microcontroller • An entire computer on a chip • A microprocessor with an on-chip memory and input/output (I/O) capability. • Typically designed into embedded systems with a “canned program” or a program that never changes. • Modern microcontrollers allow reprogramming in the field to fit specific customer requirements. • Dataquest, a market research firm in the United States, reports that microcontrollers outsell microprocessors by as much as 10 to 1. • Popular applications are in HVAC, Car controls, and Consumer appliances. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 5
  6. 6. Computers • An electronic machine designed to perform general to specific purpose computations involving logical and arithmetic computations. • A Stored-Program Computer is a computer that executes programs that must first be saved into the computer’s memory unit. • PARTS OF A COMPUTER – Central Processing Unit (CPU) or Microprocessor – Memory Unit – Input/ Output Devices or Peripherals ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 6
  7. 7. Evolution of Computers • Vacuum-tube Era (First Generation) • Transistor Era (Second Generation) • Integrated Circuit Era (Third Generation) • Microprocessor Era ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 7
  8. 8. Vacuum Tube Era • Characterized by massive machines made up of thousands of vacuum tubes occupying entire rooms and requiring an air-conditioned environment to operate reliably. • Based on the vacuum-tube technology, Remington Rand delivered the first Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC I) in 1951. • In 1952, International Business Machines (IBM) came up with its Model 701 Data Processing System. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 8
  9. 9. Transistor Era • Initiated by the invention of the Bipolar Transistor in 1948 by Bell Laboratory scientists William Shockley and John Bardeen for which they were given the Nobel Physics Prize in 1956. • TRADIC, the first fully transistorized computer was invented by another Bell Laboratory team in 1954. TRADIC produced less heat than its vacuum tube counterpart making it more reliable and less costly. • In 1958, IBM announced its first transistorized computer, the 7070/7090 followed by the business oriented 1401 in 1959. These machines were built on circuit boards mounted into rack panels and frames. Thus the term “mainframe.” ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 9
  10. 10. Integrated Circuits Era • Spurred by the most significant invention of the 20th century (the integrated circuit) in 1959, by Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation and Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments. • Integrated circuits made it possible for all circuit components like resistors and transistors to be fabricated on one piece of semiconductor material. • In 1964, IBM announced one of the most famous computers using IC technology, the 32-bit 360 series. This computer was known to be capable of 375,000 computations per second. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 10
  11. 11. Minicomputers and Microcomputers • In 1965, Edson De Castro of Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) spearheaded the completion of the first minicomputer (or a scaled down mainframe) costing $25,000 and called the Programmed Data Processor (PDP-8). • A microcomputer is a computer whose CPU is on a single microprocessor chip. • Today, the distinction between a minicomputer, a mainframe, and a microcomputer is not so clear. The term supermini was also coined for minicomputers that rival the performance of mainframes. • Minicomputers of today are used primarily by small environments in a time-shared environment with 50-100 users. However, with the advent of LAN and WAN environments, even this distinction is fading. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 11
  12. 12. Personal Computers • Personal computers were coined in 1982 by IBM to market a computer that featured a system board designed around the INTEL 8088 8-bit microprocessor, 16kB memory, and five expansions slots that allowed third-party vendors to supply video, printer, modem disk drives, and RS-232 serial adapter cards. • The IBM personal computer led to the development of the generic PC , a computer with interchangeable components manufactured by a variety of companies. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 12 (END)
  13. 13. IBM Personal Computer Ad ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 13
  14. 14. Supercomputers • A supercomputer is the most powerful computer available at any given time. • These machines are used to solve a complex problem to such as the design of a supersonic aircraft, the modeling of global climates, and the prediction of complex financial behavior is securities markets. • The first supercomputer, the Cray-I is generally acknowledged to have been developed by Seymour Cray in 1976 using high-speed emitter-coupled logic (ECL). ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 14 (END)
  15. 15. Cray-1 Supercomputer ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 15
  16. 16. Supercomputers • ECLs were the fastest logic circuits at the time. • Each circuit board on the Cray-I had each circuit board mounted on a copper heat exchanger through which liquid Freon was circulated. • The Cray-I consumed 128 KW of power, had a processing speed of 130 million floating-point operations per minute (MFLOPS), and was sold at $ 5.1 million each. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 16 (END)
  17. 17. Parallel Processors • Most computers are single-processor, sequential machines that leveled off in their performance due to the finite length of time required for an electrical signal to propagate through a piece of wire. • To overcome single-processor limitations, multiple processors were wired together via common bus, with each processor given a problem to solve. This was called Parallel processing. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 17 (END)
  18. 18. Parallel Processors • Parallel processing increased computer performance levels from single-processors operating at MFLOPS levels to tens of GFLOPS and even at TFLOPS levels today. • Early parallel processor architecture used hypercubes made up of an arrangement of processors in the form of n-dimensional cubes each connected by a high-speed data channel. • More recently, supercomputer designers have opted for a two-dimensional rectangular mesh architecture with multiple processors at each connecting node. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 18 (END)
  19. 19. Parallel Processor Hypercube ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 19
  20. 20. RISC and CISC Processors • Reduced Instruction Set Computers (RISCs) are computers with a small number of instruction sets (less than 128) as compared to Complex Instruction Set Computers (CISCs). • CISCs are characterized by: – Large number of variable length instructions – Multiple addressing modes – Small number of internal processor registers – Instructions require multiple clock cycles for execution ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 20 (END)
  21. 21. DSP • Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) are microprocessors used to perform complex mathematical computations on converted analog data at real time speeds. • DSPs are different from conventional microprocessors in the following aspects: – Use Harvard Architecture – Use multipliers and adders built into the processor optimized to perform a calculation in a single cycle – Use arithmetic pipelining – Use DO loops to speed up repetitive operations – Provided with multiple I/O ports for communication with other processors ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 21 (END)
  22. 22. Thank You ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 22