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Datacom module 2: Data Communication Architecture, Protocols, and Standards

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Data Communication Lecture Slides containing the discussion on Data Communication Architecture, Protocols, and Standards including the OSI, TCP-IP, and CISCO Three Layer Model. Based largely on the book Electronic Communication Systems by Wayne Tomasi.

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Datacom module 2: Data Communication Architecture, Protocols, and Standards

  1. 1. Module 2 Datacom Network, Architecture, Protocols, and Standards Chapter 21 Electronic Communications Sytems , Fifth Editon By: Wayne Tomasi ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 1 Prepared by: Engr. Jeffrey Des B. Binwag
  2. 2. Datacom Network, Architecture, Protocols, and Standards • Network Architecture. A system that outlines the products and services necessary for the individual components within a data communications network to operate together. It is a set of equipment, transmission media, and procedures that ensures that a specific sequence of events occurs in a network in the proper order to produce the intended results. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 2
  3. 3. Datacom Network, Architecture, Protocols, and Standards • Data Communications Protocol. Sets of rules governing the orderly exchange of data within the network or a portion of the network. • Protocol Stack. The list of protocols used by a system which normally includes one protocol per layer. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 3
  4. 4. Datacom Network, Architecture, Protocols, and Standards • Network Protocol Clasification. – Current. Most modern and sophisticated – Legacy. Old but still useful – Legendary. Old and no longer in use • Computer Network General Classification. – Broadcast. Involves all stations in the network sharing the communications channel. – Point to point. Involves only two stations at a time. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 4
  5. 5. Datacom Network, Architecture, Protocols, and Standards • Connection-Oriented Protocol. – Requires a handshake prior to transmission – Generally requires acknowledgement procedures – Often provides an error control mechanism – Connection is dropped by a specific handshake when it is no longer needed *Handshake. A connection procedure that ensures the integrity of the connection between stations in a network prior to the exchange of data between them. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 5
  6. 6. Datacom Network, Architecture, Protocols, and Standards • Connectionless Protocol. –Does not require a handshake prior to transmission –Does not support error control or acknowledgment procedures –Is more efficient because the data being transmitted do not justify the extra overhead required by connection-oriented protocols ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 6
  7. 7. Datacom Network, Architecture, Protocols, and Standards • Standard. An object or procedure considered by an authority or by general consent as a basis of comparison. • Data Communications Standards. Guidelines that have been generally accepted by the data communications industry. They outline procedures and equipment configurations that help ensure an orderly transfer of information between two or more data communication equipment of networks. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 7
  8. 8. Datacom Network, Architecture, Protocols, and Standards • Classification of Standards. –Proprietary Standards. Closed system standards generally manufactured or controlled by one company. –Open System Standards. Guidelines that can be used by any company to produce compatible equipment or software after a royalty has been paid to the original company. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 8
  9. 9. Standards Organizations for Data Communications • ISO. International Standards Organization • ITU-T. International Telecommunications Union- Telecommunications Sector • CCITT. Comité Consultatif Internationale de Télégraphie et Téléphonie • IEEE. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers • ANSI. American National Standards Institute • EIA. Electronics Industry Association • TIA. Telecommunications Industry Association ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 9
  10. 10. Standards Organizations for Data Communications ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 10 ISO ITU-T IEEE ANSI EIA TIA
  11. 11. Standards Organizations for Data Communications • ITU-T Study Groups: – Network and Service Operation – Tariff and Accounting Principles – Telecommunications Management Network and Network Interface – Protection Against Electromagnetic Environment Effects – Outside Plant – Data Networks and Open Systems Communications – Characteristics of Telematic Systems – Television and Sound Transmission – Language and General Software Aspects of Telecommunication Systems – Signaling Requirements and Protocols – End-to-end Transmission Performance of Networks and Terminals – General Network Aspects – Transport Networks, Systems, and Equipment – Multimedia Services and Systems ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 11
  12. 12. Standards Organizations for Data Communications • IAB. Internet Architecture Board – Oversees Internet architecture protocols and procedures. – Manages processes used to create Internet standards and serves as an appeal board for complaints on the proper of execution of such processes. – Administers various Internet assigned numbers. – Represents Internet Society interests in liaison relationships with other organizations. – Source of advice for guidance to the Internet Society concerning technical, architectural, procedural, and policy matters concerning the Internet and its enabling technologies. • IETF. Internet Engineering Task Force • IRTF. Internet Research Task Force ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 12
  13. 13. Standards Organizations for Data Communications ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 13 IAB IETF IRTF
  14. 14. Layered Network Architecture • The layering of network responsibilities allows each layer to add value to services provided by sets of lower layers. • Layered architecture facililitates peer-to-peer network protocols. • Layered architecture allows different computers to communicate at different levels. • When technological advances occur, it is easier to modify one layer’s protocol without having to modify all the other layers. • The disadvantage of layered architecture is the tremendous amount of overhead required. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 14
  15. 15. Layered Network Architecture • Protocol Data Unit (PDU). A unit of data used to facilitate seamless exchange of information between layers of the protocol stack. Consists of a header and/or trailer appended to the data as it passes through a layer. • Encapsulation. The process of adding a protocol data unit as the data frame passes from an upper layer to the layer immediately below it. (Downward direction) • Decapsulation. The process of removing a protocol data unit as the data frame passes from a lower to the layer immediately above it. (Upward direction) ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 15
  16. 16. Popular Layered Protocols • OSI (Open Systems Interconnection). A seven layer protocol developed and adopted by the ISO and the ITU-T in 1983. • TCP-IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol). A three or four layer protocol developed by the Department of Defense of the United States before the inception of the OSI model. • CISCO THREE-LAYER MODEL. A Three-layer logical hierarchy developed by CISCO that specifies where things belong, how they fit together, and what functions go where. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 16
  17. 17. Open Systems Interconnection  User networking applications and interfacing to the network  Encoding language used in transmission  Job management tracking  Data tracking as it moves through a network  Network addressing and packet transmission on the network  Frame formatting for transmitting data across a physical communications link  Transmission method used to propagate bits through a network ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 17 LAYERS FUNCTIONS
  18. 18. Open Systems Interconnection ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 18 TCP/IP
  19. 19. Open Systems Interconnection ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 19
  20. 20. OSI and its Protocol Data Units ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 20
  21. 21. TCP-IP Protocol Layers • Network Access Layer. Provides a means of physically delivering data packets using frames or cells. • Host-to-host Layer. Services the process and Internet layers to handle the reliability and session aspects of data transmission. • Internet Layer. Contains information that pertains to how data can be routed through the network. • Process Layer. Provides applications support. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 21
  22. 22. CISCO Protocol Layers • Core Layer. Top layer responsible for transporting large amounts of data traffic reliably and quickly. Primarily tasked to switch traffic as quickly as possible. • Distribution Layer/Workgroup Layer. The communication point between the access and the core layers that provides routing, filtering, WAN access, and control on the number of data packets allowed to access the core layer. • Access Layer/Desktop Layer. Responsible for access control, segmentation (creation of collision domains), and workgroup connectivity to the distribution layer. ECE @Saint Louis University, Baguio City 22

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