Research Problem                Research Question(s)                  Review and Closing Remarks           Crowd-sourcing ...
Research Problem              Research Question(s)        Review and Closing RemarksOutline      1    Research Problem    ...
Research Problem               Research Question(s)       Review and Closing RemarksOutline      1    Research Problem    ...
Research Problem               Research Question(s)       Review and Closing RemarksOutline      1    Research Problem    ...
Research Problem    Research Question(s)                   Review and Closing RemarksResearch Area and Topic              ...
Research Problem              Research Question(s)           Review and Closing RemarksData vs. Information      Definition...
Research Problem                   Research Question(s)   Review and Closing RemarksWhat Can Be Answered by Geographic Dat...
Research Problem                 Research Question(s)         Review and Closing RemarksApplications of Geographic Data an...
Research Problem      Research Question(s)   Review and Closing RemarksApplications - Public Health
Research Problem    Research Question(s)   Review and Closing RemarksApplications - Emergency and Disaster Management
Research Problem     Research Question(s)     Review and Closing RemarksApplications - Social Justice and CommunityEmpower...
Research Problem    Research Question(s)   Review and Closing RemarksCopyright and the Devaluation of Freedom
Research Problem                  Research Question(s)           Review and Closing RemarksCopyright and the Devaluation o...
Research Problem                Research Question(s)          Review and Closing RemarksThe World Wide Web (WWW) and the C...
Research Problem                 Research Question(s)            Review and Closing RemarksThe Paradigm Shift Extending to...
Research Problem               Research Question(s)   Review and Closing RemarksWhat is Crowd-sourcing        Definition   ...
Research Problem                    Research Question(s)        Review and Closing RemarksWikipedia              Establish...
Research Problem                 Research Question(s)           Review and Closing RemarksOpenStreetMap (OSM)?            ...
Research Problem                 Research Question(s)           Review and Closing RemarksWhat Do I Mean By Geographic Inf...
Research Problem     Research Question(s)                Review and Closing RemarksAnother Example of the Poverty and its ...
Research Problem                  Research Question(s)             Review and Closing RemarksIs OSM and by Extension VGI P...
Research Problem                   Research Question(s)        Review and Closing RemarksSelection of Key Literature for D...
Research Problem                  Research Question(s)          Review and Closing RemarksTheoretical Framework for Unders...
Research Problem                 Research Question(s)           Review and Closing RemarksWhat are the Research Questions ...
Research Problem                     Research Question(s)   Review and Closing RemarksResearch Methods                   P...
Research Problem                  Research Question(s)          Review and Closing RemarksWhat are the Preliminary Variabl...
Research Problem                 Research Question(s)           Review and Closing RemarksTransit Web Planner and Scheduli...
Research Problem                 Research Question(s)            Review and Closing RemarksSummary              Geographic...
Research Problem                Research Question(s)   Review and Closing RemarksQuestions?              Thank you for you...
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Crowd-sourcing free and open geographic data: information poverty solutions for developing nations

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Crowd-sourcing free and open geographic data: information poverty solutions for developing nations


Stephen A. Debique

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Crowd-sourcing free and open geographic data: information poverty solutions for developing nations

  1. 1. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing Remarks Crowd-sourcing free and open geographic data: information poverty solutions for developing nations in partial fulfillment of the Masters of Philosophy in Information Technology Stephen A. Debique Supervisor: Dr. Adel M. Sharaf, P. Eng, SMIEEE Information and Communications Technology Center for Energy Studies University of Trinidad and Tobago September 9, 2011
  2. 2. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksOutline 1 Research Problem What is Geographic Data and Information? Digital Commons, Produsers and Web 2.0: Paradigm Shift Crowd-sourcing Geographic Information Poverty in T&T
  3. 3. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksOutline 1 Research Problem What is Geographic Data and Information? Digital Commons, Produsers and Web 2.0: Paradigm Shift Crowd-sourcing Geographic Information Poverty in T&T 2 Research Question(s) Literature Review Identification of Research Questions Methods and Variables of Interest
  4. 4. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksOutline 1 Research Problem What is Geographic Data and Information? Digital Commons, Produsers and Web 2.0: Paradigm Shift Crowd-sourcing Geographic Information Poverty in T&T 2 Research Question(s) Literature Review Identification of Research Questions Methods and Variables of Interest 3 Review and Closing Remarks
  5. 5. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksResearch Area and Topic Digital user production, Web 2.0, and the public domain Geographic information science (GIS) and volunteered geographic information (VGI) Behavioral economics and social psychology Participatory GIS, crowdsourcing, and citizen science
  6. 6. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksData vs. Information Definition Data are symbols that represent selective measurements of the physical and social aspects of our world (DiBiase 2011). Definition Whereas information is “data that is created or selected in response to a question” (Dibiase 2011).
  7. 7. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksWhat Can Be Answered by Geographic Data andTechnology? Questions about single entities Questions about space Questions about attributes Questions about time Questions concerning multiple entities Spatial relationships Attribute relationships Temporal relationships
  8. 8. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksApplications of Geographic Data and Technology Public health Emergency and disaster management Social justice and community empowerment Transportation planning and information dissemination Utility and energy planning Asset management Crime fighting Environmental monitoring...
  9. 9. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksApplications - Public Health
  10. 10. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksApplications - Emergency and Disaster Management
  11. 11. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksApplications - Social Justice and CommunityEmpowerment
  12. 12. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksCopyright and the Devaluation of Freedom
  13. 13. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksCopyright and the Devaluation of Freedom Traditional texts and sharing Statute of Anne, Copyright Act 1709 1886 Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works 1994 Agreement of Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (the TRIPs Agreement) Utilitarian view of the majority of original lawmakers
  14. 14. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksThe World Wide Web (WWW) and the ChangingEconomic Dynamics Free software and the Free Software Definition Definition Freedom 0: The freedom to run the program for any purpose. Freedom 1: The freedom to study how the program works, and change it to make it do what you wish. Freedom 2: The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor. Freedom 3: The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements to the public, so that the whole community benefits. Tim Berners Lee and the WWW Widespread peer production and sharing (Web 2.0)
  15. 15. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksThe Paradigm Shift Extending to Many Information Goods The Open Knowledge Definition (OKD) sets out principles to define ‘openness’ in knowledge – that’s any kind of content or data ‘from sonnets to statistics, genes to geodata’. The definition can be summed up in the statement that “A piece of content or data is open if anyone is free to use, reuse, and redistribute it — subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and share-alike.”.
  16. 16. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksWhat is Crowd-sourcing Definition Crowd-sourcing is the outsourcing of a task to a large group of people - normally solicited through the WWW
  17. 17. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksWikipedia Established in 2001 Millions of article in 2008 Anyone is free to edit, contribute, and use it content (open) Quality? (Lih 2004, Nature 2005)
  18. 18. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksOpenStreetMap (OSM)? “OpenStreetMap is a project to build a free geographic database of the world” Wiki-like system - anyone free to edit, contribute, and use A manifestation of volunteered geographic information (VGI) (Goodchild 2007) Spatial data infrastructure (SDI) is the aggregate of agencies, technologies, people, and data that together constitute a nation’s mapping enterprise (NRC 1993, Goodchild 2007). Linus’ law and quality work done by Professor Haklay
  19. 19. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksWhat Do I Mean By Geographic Information Poverty? Lack of freely available data and information for decision making (Baban 2005) “...in reality world mapping [and hence collection of geographic data] has been in decline for several decades” (Goodchild 2007) Global trade negotiations have been used to limit freedom of sharing and knowledge transfer
  20. 20. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksAnother Example of the Poverty and its Importance “collate spatial data concerning administrative districts, transport networks and population data for the Caribbean Basin”
  21. 21. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksIs OSM and by Extension VGI Part of the Solution? Education, professional workforce, use of new technologies Patchwork SDI and VGI (Hybrid SDI) Lack of contribution in the Caribbean “I will spend an hour OpenStreetMapping features on Caribbean islands from Yahoo! aerial imagery and will also donate £10 to the OpenStreetMap Foundation but only if 60 other people will do the same.” Lack of feasibility studies in application areas - local context
  22. 22. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksSelection of Key Literature for Developing a TheoreticalFramework Warschauer 2002 Ostrom et al. 2005 Budhathoki et al. 2008 Coleman et al. 2009 Priedhorsky 2010 Ling et al. 2005 Ek et al. 2010 Dr. Muki Haklay’s work in this space Mikel Maron Warren 2010 - Grassroots mapping and others...
  23. 23. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksTheoretical Framework for Understanding Crowd-sourcedGeospatial Data Contribution Both access and digital skills are important (Warschauer 2002) Free and open data is part of a digital commons and can be understood in this context (Ostrom et al. 2005) Several motivating factors for user content contribution and specifically VGI (Budhathoki et al. 2008) VGI contribution is done by a multitude of stakeholder groups (Coleman et al. 2009) Insights from social science may help in soliciting user work - social psychology and behavioral economics (Priedhorsky 2010, Ling et al., Ek et al. 2010) Opportunity cost of contributing Goal setting Personal value Information and social norms
  24. 24. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksWhat are the Research Questions Formulated from thisTheory 1 What factors and socio-technical barriers affect the willingness of T&T citizens to contribute to OSM? 2 How does personal value, social norms, and goal setting affect the willingness of T&T citizens to contribute to OSM? 3 What are the motivations for contribution to OSM in T&T 4 What is the feasibility of using OSM data and free software to dessiminate public transit routing information to the general public of T&T?
  25. 25. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksResearch Methods Pilot study to inform survey instrumentation Information/education via mapping parties Survey instruments Interviews Feasibility study - public transit
  26. 26. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksWhat are the Preliminary Variables of Interest? Contribution and potential contribution (predictor) Internet access (attribute) Socio-demographics (attribute) Geographic expertise (attribute) Information on importance to T&T (treatment) Goal setting (treatment) Method of contribution (attribute/treatment)
  27. 27. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksTransit Web Planner and Scheduling Feasibility Study GTFS and free software Mixed system of public buses, ferries and private mini-buses and taxis Multimodal planner proven feasible in the North American context (Barbeau 2011)
  28. 28. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksSummary Geographic data, its importance and VGI Lack of contribution Key literature and theoretical framework Specific research questions and Research methods, variables of interest and feasibility study
  29. 29. Research Problem Research Question(s) Review and Closing RemarksQuestions? Thank you for your time. Contact information stephen.debique@gmail.com

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