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The Respiratory system

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  1. 1. >> is consist of the : Nose Pharynx(throat) Larynx(voice box) Trachea(windpipe) Bronchi Lungs
  2. 2. >> Its parts can be classified according to either structureor function.1.Structurally i. Upper respiratory system Nose, Nasal cavity, Pharynx, and associated structures ii. Lower respiratory system Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, and lungs
  3. 3. 2.Functionallyi. Conducting zone ii. Respiratory zone >> consist oftubes and>> consist of a series tissues within the lungsinterconnecting where gas exchangecavities and tubes bothoutside and with in occurs.the lungs. > It includes the respiratory > It includes the nose, bronchioles, alveolar ducts, nasal cavity, pharynx, alveolar sacs, and alveoli larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and terminal bronchioles. It is the main sites ofFunction: is to filter, gas exchange betweenwarm, moisten air and air and blood.conduct it into lungs.
  4. 4. Functions of the RESPIRATORYSYSTEM1. Provides for gas exchange: intake of O2 fordelivery to the body and removal of CO2 producedby body cells.2. Helps regulate blood pH.3. Contains receptors for sense of smell, filtersinspired air, produces vocal sounds(phonation)and excretes small amounts of water and heat.
  5. 5. Respiration - a collective term for the following processes:Pulmonary ventilation Movement of air into the lungs (inspiration) Movement of air out of the lungs(expiration)External respiration Movement of O2 from the lungs to the blood. Movement of CO2 from the blood to the lungs.Transport of respiratory gases Transport of O2 from the lungs to the tissues. Transport of CO2 from the tissues to the lungs.Internal respiration Movement of O2 from blood to the tissue cells. Movement of CO2 from tissue cells to the blood.
  6. 6. Principal organs of the respiratorysystemNose Function: Provides an airway for respiration. Moistens and warms entering air. Filters and cleans inspired air. Resonating chamber for speech. Detects odor in the airstream. Anatomical features: Vibrissae(guard hairs) – stiff hairs that filters large particles from the air. Nasal cilia – hair-like projections that propel trapped particles towards the throat for digestion
  7. 7. Main parts of the nose:1. Root – superior attachment of the nose to the frontal bone.2. Apex – tip of nose.3. Bridge – bony framework 1of nose formed by nasal 3bones. 2 44. External naris/nostrils –external opening into the nasalcavity.
  8. 8. Nasal conchae – folds in the mucous membrane thatincreases air turbulence and ensures that moist air contactsthe mucous membrane. Olfactory mucosa – mucous membranes that contain smell receptor. Respiratory mucosa – pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium containing goblet that secretes mucus.Pharynx(throat) Three regions of the pharynx: Nasopharynx – air passage (pseudostratified columnar epithelium). Oropharynx – passageway for air, food, and drink (stratified squamous epithelium). Laryngopharynx – passageway for air, food, and drink (stratified squamous epithelium) near the larynx.
  9. 9. Larynx(voice box) Function: Keeps food and drink out of the airway. Sound production. Acts as a sphincter during abdominal straining (ex. During defecation and heavy lifting). Anatomical features: Nine c-rings of hyaline cartilage form the framework of the larynx. Muscular walls aid in voice production and swallowing reflex. Glottis – the superior opening of the larynx. Epiglottis – prevents food and drink from entering airway when swallowing. False vocal cords – aids in closing the glottis when swallowing.
  10. 10. True vocal cords – produce sound when air passes through between them: High pitched sound is produced when faster air moves over them. Low pitched sound is produced when slower air moves after them.Trachea (windpipe) Functions: Air passageway. Cleans, warms and moistens incoming air. Anatomical features: Rings of hyaline cartilage – reinforce the trachea and keep it from collapsing when you inhale. Ciliated psuedostratified epithelium – traps inhaled debris and propels mucus up to the pharynx where it is swallowed.
  11. 11. Esophagus Trachea Cartilage of trachea Esophagus
  12. 12. Bronchi Functions: Solely an air passageway. Anatomical features: Left and right primary bronchi branch off from trachea. Once the left and right primary bronchi enter the lungs they are subdivided into smaller tubes: •Secondary bronchi(one for each lobe) Tertiary bronchiRespiratory bronchioles Terminal bronchioles bronchioles Alveolar ducts Alveolar sacs Alveolar sacs are clusters of alveoli •Alveoli are the site of gas exchange.
  13. 13. •Cell populations present in alveoli: oType I alveolar cells – allow for diffusion of gases (simple squamous epithelia) oType II alveolar cells – also called septal cells. Secrete surfactant (simple cuboidal epithelia) oDust cells – alveolar macrophages (leokocyte)Other tissue types present in the alveoli: oSmooth muscle rings aid in resistance to air flow. oElastic connective tissue fibers aid in expelling air from the lungs.
  14. 14. larynx trachea Right lung Left lungVisceral pleuraParietal pleuraPleural cavity Location of carinaR.P bronchus L.P bronchus R.S bronchus L.S bronchus L.T bronchusR.T bronchus L. bronchiole R. bronchiole L. terminal R. terminal Cardiac notch bronchiole bronchiole diaphragm
  15. 15. Terminal bronchiole Pulmonary venule Pulmonary arteriole Lymphatic vessel Elastic C.T Respiratory bronchiole alveoli Alveolar ductsPulmonary capillary Visceral pleura Alveolar sac alveoli Enlarged alveoli
  16. 16. Lungs Right and left lung Left •Divided into 2 lobes. •Smaller than the right lung. •Cardiac notch accommodate the heart. Right •Divided into 3 lobes Each lobe is separated by connective tissues and has itsown arteries and veins. It allows compartmentalization, esp.when portions of the lungs are diseased. Serous membranes cover the entire surface of the lungs and produce pleural fluid. Pleural fluid enables the lungs to expand and contract with in minimal friction
  17. 17. Lateral view of the: Apex Superior lobe Oblique Horizontal Oblique fissure fissure fissureInferior Middle lobe Inferiorlobe lobe Base Right lung Left lung
  18. 18. Respiratory System of Frogs Three types of respiration: Cutaneous respiration (35% of respiration) is through the body surface. During the hibernation and aestivation, frog respires only through this method. Buccopharyngeal respiration occurs through thelining of buccal cavity. It occurs only when frog is out of water(0.9% of total respiration). The mucus membrane of the buccalcavity is moist which dissolves oxygen and diffuses it into theblood capillaries. Pulmonary respiration: Lungs in frogs are not efficient respiratory organs because only mixed air enters into them and mainly function as hydrostatic organs. Lungs are pair of thin walled, translucent with inner surface divided into alveoli by septa. Pulmonary respiration has a maximum frequency of 20/minute. It occurs when more energy is required. Mouth and gullet are kept closed during pulmonary respiration.
  19. 19. Rhinoplasty - commonly called a “nose job,” is a surgical procedure in which the shape of the external nose is altered. Although rhinoplasty is often done for cosmetic reasons, it is sometimes performed to repair a fractured nose or a deviated nasal septum.Tonsillitis - inflammation of the tonsils; tonsils that develop anabscess or tumor; or tonsils that obstruct breathing during sleep Laryngitis is an inflammation of the larynx that is most often caused by a respiratory infection or irritants such as cigarette smoke. Common cold - a group of viruses called Rhinoviruses is responsible for about 40% of all colds in adults. Typical symptoms include sneezing, excessive nasal secretion, dry cough, and congestion. The uncomplicated common cold is not usually accompanied by a feverSeasonal influenza (flu)is also caused by a virus. Its symptoms include chills, fever, headache, andmuscular aches. Seasonal influenza can become life-threatening and maydevelop into pneumonia. It is important to recognize that influenza is arespiratory disease, not a gastrointestinal (GI) disease. Many peoplemistakenly report having seasonal flu when they are suffering from a GI illness
  20. 20. Diseases of Lungs Pneumonia Pneumonia is an infection of the alveoli. It can be caused by many kinds of both bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus pneumoniae) and viruses. Tissue fluids accumulate in the alveoli reducing the surface area exposed to air. If enough alveoli are affected, the patient may need supplemental oxygen. Asthma In asthma, periodic constriction of the bronchi and bronchiolesmakes it more difficult to breathe in and, especially, out. Attacks of asthmacan betriggered by airborne irritants such as chemical fumes and cigarettesmoke airborne particles to which the patient is allergic. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Irritation of the lungs can lead to asthma, emphysema, andchronic bronchitis. And, in fact, many people develop two or three ofthese together. This constellation is known as chronic obstructivepulmonary disease(COPD).Among the causes of COPD are: cigarette smoke (often) cystic fibrosis (rare)
  21. 21. How to keep you Respiratory SystemTryhealthy to avoid: - Smoking - Being around second hand smokers. - Inhaling other chemicals and drugs. - Being around dusty or thick polluted air.What to do : - Exercise - Eat healthy foods - Go to annual doctor checkups.
  22. 22. The Pathway: Air enters the nostrils passes through the nasopharynx, the oral pharynx through the glottis into the trachea into the right and left bronchi, which branches and rebranches into bronchioles, each of which terminates in a cluster of alveoli