Coastalmegacityatriskfromcc. benjamin deridder


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  • This presentation is my final project of the Massive Open online Course on CC developed and facilitated by the WB. Through this short presentation I would like to showcase the process of CCA/M within a megacity context like Accra. As climate change has multiple cross-cutting effects the focus lies on the coastal impacts caused by climate change.
  • The urban population in Africa will likely triple from 359 million in 2009 to 1.23 billion in 2050. 60 per cent of the African population then will be living in urban areas.
  • There has been significant progress in our understanding of sea level change since the AR4. Paleo data now provide high confidence that sea levels were substantially higher when GHG concentrations were higher or surface temperatures were warmer than pre-industrial. The combination of paleo sea level data and long tide gauge records confirms that the rate of rise has increased from low rates of change during the late Holocene (order tenths of mm yr–1) to rates of almost 2 mm yr–1 averaged over the 20th century, with a likely continuing acceleration during the 20th centuryThese observations, together with our current scientific understanding and projections of future climate and sea level, imply that it is virtually certain that sea level will continue to rise during the 21st century and beyond. For all scenarios, the rate of 21st century GMSL rise is very likely to exceed the average rate during the 20th century. Despite this progress, significant uncertainties remain, particularly related to the magnitude and rate of the ice-sheet contribution for the 21st century and beyond, the regional distribution of sea level rise, and the regional changes in storm frequency and intensity. For coastal planning, sea level rise needs to be considered in a risk management framework
  • Several other impacts (direct or indirect) can be contributed to climate change. The complexity stresses the need for improved intersectoral coordination while integrating the CC discussion within the national development planning.
  • Climate change is a global challenge that requires a concerted effort by all nations. The National Climate Change Policy (NCCP) isGhana’s integrated response to climate change. It has been prepared and designed within the context of national sustainable development priorities; it provides a clearly defined pathway for dealing with the challenges of climate change within the current socio-economic context of Ghana, and looks ahead to the opportunities and benefits of a green economy.
  • The government has adopted constructing hard engineering structures to manage coastal erosion in the critical areas along the coast. This approach is not sustainable as the erosion problem is simply transferred down-drift of the coast. There is therefore the need to explore the option of using soft engineering measures, such as beach nourishment which facilitate managing with nature, to manage the erosion problems in the western section. The measures if adopted would preserve the source of livelihood of the inhabitants as well as their social life. A number of hard and soft Adaptation options were identified to enhance resilience and robustness of natural and human systems in the coastal zone
  • Policies are one thing, implementation and enforcement are another. This is why awareness raising, early buy in and education are key if we want to be succesfull in the long run.
  • Coastalmegacityatriskfromcc. benjamin deridder

    1. 1. Coastal megacity at risk from CC Accra, Ghana Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4°C Warmer World Must be Avoided 27 January – 24 February 2014 Benjamin De Ridder
    2. 2. Climate Change is real and impacts are being felt everywhere • Consensus: 97% of climate scientists agree • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change • “Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level.”13 IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Summary for Policymakers (2007) © Nyani Quarmyne 2010
    3. 3. General context • Strong economic growth in Africa
    4. 4. General context • Urbanization trends – coastal megacities
    5. 5. Detailed context • Economic importance of Ghana’s coastal zone
    6. 6. Context CC impacts • Direct impacts  Sea-level rise IPCC, AR5, 2013
    7. 7. Context CC impacts • Direct impacts  Increased storm surges Climate change threatens Ghana's coast Coastal erosion has forced a town of thousands to flee into a swampy, trash-filled area. HELP!...Azizanya is drowning, Friday, August 20, 2010, 16 February 2014 Keta, ‘eaten’ by the sea, but remains resilient
    8. 8. Context CC impacts • Direct impacts  Changes in disease vectors  Prolonged droughts  Erratic rainfall patterns and flooding • Indirect impacts      Salt water intrusion Migration Loss of biodiversity, ecosystem services and goods Loss of livelihoods (fisheries, tourism) Food Insecurity Saltwater poisoning threatens Ghana
    9. 9. Actions taken • National Climate Change Policy Five main areas: • Agriculture and Food Security • Disaster Preparedness and Response • Natural Resource Management • Equitable Social Development • Energy, Industrial and Infrastructural Development Ten Programme areas: 1.Develop climate-resilient agriculture and food ecurity systems 2.Build climate-resilient infrastructure 3.Increase resilience of vulnerable communities to climate-related risks 4.Increase carbon sinks 5.Improve management and resilience of terrestrial, aquatic and marine ecosystems 6.Address impacts of climate change on human health 7.Minimize impacts of climate change on access to water and sanitation 8.Address gender issues in climate change 9.Address climate change and migration, and 10.Minimize greenhouse gas emissions
    10. 10. Actions taken • National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy • Ghana Plan of Action for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation • Several stocktaking and vulnerability assessments (The government has also identified 17 erosion hotspots along the shoreline). • Several multilateral and bilateral support programs on the way to develop future models based on the different scenarios • For exemple WB Case study on Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change (WB, 2010)
    11. 11. Actions ongoing ICZM framework • • • • Hard measures integrating short-term and long-term planning strengthening or creating observation networks improving governance for coastal planning developing practices for integrated coastal zone management that reduce pressures from unplanned development Modeling Economics of Adaptation GHANA’S SEA DEFENSE PROJECT A 67 MILLION EUROS SEA DEFENCE WALL ALONG ADA COASTLINE Soft measures • • • • • Early Warning Systems GIS and satellite imagery Sustianable use of coastal wetlands & mangroves Beach nourishment Development of climatesmart building standards
    12. 12. Way forward • Advance knowledge of climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction • Develop strategies and methodologies for climate change adaptation • Enhance practitioner and academic capacity and transfer knowledge
    13. 13. Policies are one thing…