• Product Introduction: The Products I am going to investigate are the design of the latest American Football helmets, which have been certiﬁed for the 2011- 2012 season and downhill/ off road mountain bike full face helmets.• The primary functions are predominately the same for both types of product. This is to protect the head from sudden blows from different directions The development timeline of American football helmets The popularity of American Football is Downhill mountain biking is a relatively new sport. The ﬁrst downhill time-trial race took on October 22, 1976 on a ﬁre-road in Fairfax California and ten riders made the obviously great in the USA. However, it has 1300 feet descent in about 5 minutes. The road was named Repack Road after the been making a breakthrough in other event because it was necessary to repack the single rear hub brake after each descent continents, especially in Europe (where of the road. The bikes used were based on beach cruisers, which had a single rear there was an NFL until 2007). In England brake that worked by pedalling backwards and it always had to be ﬁlled with grease. This was to prevent a “metal to metal” brake from snatching. The heavy use of the there are now several leagues (Youth, brake during the descent caused the brake to over-heat, which melted the grease Junior, Adult, University and Flag) all of until it drained from the hub and then it required repacking. The ﬁrst bikes used for which have several divisions and a Brit Bowl descending were known as "klunkers" or "paperboy bikes" - coaster brake cruisers using balloon tires and were ﬁrst imported to America by Ignatz Schwinn. at the end of it. Also, the NFL itself has been bringing international league games to Charlie Kelly and Gary Fisher, who were two of the race organisers and also Wembley and 2011’s game will be the ﬁrst competitors of the Repack Downhill, founded their company in 1979 and gave the sport the name of Mountain Biking. The sport grew enormously during the 1980s and where the teams will hold a talent camp for downhill riders continued to use either rigid or limited suspension travel bicycles. 16 - 19 year olds, which gives UK talent the The development timeline of Purpose made downhill bikes were not manufactured until the 1990s and opportunity to attend high school or college incorporated innovations in their design such as dual crown suspension forks and in the USA on a scholarship. full faced downhill biking disc brakes, as well as very elaborate frame suspension designs. helmets Riders from all disciplines of cycling started to focus on downhill and many BMX The appeal of the helmet itself is more racers made the crossover to Mountain Biking, including champions such as John materialistic. Helmets are coloured and Tomac (Team Tomac Bikes) and Brian Lopes. They inﬂuenced the increased difficulty of the design of many courses, especially in the design of the big jumps and drops styled to team speciﬁcations and usually aspects of downhill. Downhill biking came into its own when the sport was included come in four sizes. Another appeal is the at the ﬁrst UCI Mountain Bike Championship, which was held in 1990 in Durango, feel that the user can get of being Colorado. “invincible” or “large” when combined with Protective clothing for the safety of the riders had to be improved as the bike the shoulder pads. However, this can technology developed and this included the helmets. The latest helmet design evolved from the traditional road bike helmet. As the tracks started to develop in sometimes be a problem, as the main areas like the hilly forests (e.g. Wistler, Canada) and urban favelas (e.g. Rio de purpose is to protect the player’s head. Janeiro, Brazil) the protective requirements changed. Due to obvious problems with potential facial and head injuries, it was decided that the certiﬁed helmet had to be “full-faced”. This would absorb more impact and enables full customisation by the The league (NFL) is currently investigating user , for example either with vinyls, stickers, sponsors logos or any other desired the reasons for the current average of eight add-on. concussions a season per player, to help However, wearing the helmet does not necessarily prevent the user from incurring prevent them and also make youth games concussions or any other impact related injury and the technology behind the helmet Original safer in the future. It is also thought to be “hairnet” is continuously being investigated and improved. linked to advanced signs of Alzheimer’s in “661” is one of the leading companies behind downhill biking and motocross ex-players. protective clothing and have some of the best helmet technology in the world.
Product Specification: Schutt Ion 4D Function:Materials and Components: • To protect the user’s entire head from continuous Form:• The majority of the helmet exterior is made of a hard polycarbonate composite alloy blows from all angles Over the years, the shape of the helmet has been developed for the following- • To glance off blows so that impacts are not direct, the shell is offset to the internalMaterials, • To reduce the initial force of impact components of the helmet, with a mall gap in bet ween to dissipate the impact energy• ThermoPlastic polyUrethane (TPU) Crown Cushioning and AiR Maxx (TPU) Jaw Pads inside helmet- • To look aesthetically pleasing in terms of team design further • First elastomer to be made using thermoset methods and effectively sales based on these professional • Large offset/ standoff shell to allow more and bigger TPU to fit inside the helmet and users wearing it also to absorb more of the force from impacts • Comes in a wide range of hardness grades • To be suited to players of all ages (in terms of head • The shape is very aerodynamic and looks “cool” which adds to popularity of sales and • outstanding abrasion resistance, size and shape) and position (in terms of face cage effectively the speed of a player (including breaking through tackles with the sleeker • good low temperature flexibility, needed) shape) • oil resistant, • Face cage needs to be able to block and players hands • Team customisation is another great aspect of this helmet. There are over 50 different from entering from the front, without the sacrifice colour options, which come in either pro gloss, kandy, pearl and metal flake accent. In • great load-bearing capability of loss off vision addition to this, professional and college players have their team logo and other designs • Additives can improve dimensional stability and heat resistance, reduce friction, and increase painted onto their helmets, but these are usually stuck on with 3 mm thick vinyl cut to flame retardancy, fungus resistance, and weatherability shape via a CAD/ CAM process. This makes them durable enough to withstand at least a season of collisions. Award decals are also custom ordered by teams for players with an • Resulting in- better Heat Management, resiliency and hygienics Picture showing how close the outstanding performance.Components, brain is to the surface of a • The shell is made from a desired mixture of polycarbonate alloy, which is fed in pellet• Titanium face cage- form into an injection moulderTitanium face cages are nearly 50% lighter than normal face cages and stronger than stainless steel., and regular helmet, therefore the • All of the components need to be anthropometrically suited to a human headare just as affordable. The normal carbon steel blends of face cages are also available force of the impact will directly • Shell is lacquered after it has been painted, to protect the finish and make the shell moreComponents, affect the brain without any durable. It also adds to the aesthetics• Moisture Management Pad- reduction or absorption or force • Made from a variety of moisture absorbing materials, placed in layers around an inflatable bladder• SUREFIT Air Liner-The t wo-piece air liner has t wo inflation ports, which gives a precise custom fit and is made from a soft, butdurable anti-microbial material, that fits on to the forehead pad• Valve Attachment System- Performance Requirements:A hook and loop attachment system locks the inflation valves of the inflatable bladders (attached to the • ShellTPU) into place, • Must be highly durable to continuous impacts (i.e. not crack or shatter• Quarter Turn Release- • Must be lacquered to add protection to the surface finish and also to waterproof it and make it easy toThe attachment system for the face cage maintain• Energy Wedge face cage- • TPU -The Energy Wedge face cageface cage acts as a shock absorber for the ION 4D • must be resistant for day to day use with minimal maintenance• Chin Strap Attachment- • SUREFIT Air Liner-Because the Energy Wedge face cage is stronger than traditional face cages, the chin strap can be attached • To increase the user’s comfort, by removing sweat from the headthrough the face cage. Other attachment methods, such as the 4-Point High, can still be used as the ION 4D • Valve Attachment System-is pre-scored for the installation of chin strap snaps. A hard or soft cup chin guard can be chosen • so there is no struggle to keep the valve aligned to the helmet shell• Nose Bumper- • Quarter Turn Release- • Made from ABS, with either the Schutt logo or custom logo imprinted, it also holds the top of the face cage in place • which locks it into place, but if needed a simple quarter turn of the screw releases the face cage for the quick and easy access in an injury situation, without too much head movement• A neck bumper- Made from ABS, with either the Schutt logo or custom logo imprinted • Energy Wedge face cage-• Large Ventilation Holes- • absorbing up to 15% more impact from direct frontal impacts than traditional face cage. It is stronger• Fasteners- There are at least 4 snap fasteners to attach the chin cup straps to, made from either a than traditional face cages and gives a wide, unobstructed view of the entire field of play nickel/ brass alloy or ABS. These are paired at either a low, high or back position. These are also used to Illustration on • To protect the user’s face from heavy impacts attach the jaw pads as their sizes can vary. how • Energy Wedge must not jam when compressed during impact concussions • Nose Bumper- using regular, • This not only keeps the face cage aligned with the helmet, but it also helps to absorb frontal impact to none cushioned the forehead helmets occur • Neck Bumper- TPU • Is vital to prevent neck injuries from the thin edge of the base of the helmet Cushioning • Ventilation- System and • To compensate for the removal of the sweat to cool the user Sureﬁt Air liner • Six crown vent holes provide maximum air flow for better heat management
Product Specification: Schutt Ion 4D An example of a helmet with a Scale of Production and Cost: poor attachment system and • All components must be mass produced, to deal with An example of the countless the high popularity and consequent sales, especially too much ﬂexibility in its shell to serious high school and college teams, who will bulk number of collisions during the material buy custom designs and also buy regularly to replace sport, which can affect the damaged or overused helmets, which need to be reconditioned users head • Retails at £400 when first produced, now £240 after 2 years (some slight changes made, but still top of the range)Quality:• Exterior Shell- • Must be completely smooth and untarnished • Logos must be right colours and not smudged (if painted) or lumpy (if vinyl) Another example of a poor • Edges must be rounded with a wide radius due to health and safety if the edges on the neck helmet design, causing the User Requirements:• Snap Fasteners- player to be susceptible to • Needs to protect the head from blows from all angles, which would consequent in severe head injury or • Must be able to withstand repeated use sever facial injuries concussion• Chin cup- • Hard, the cushioning must be unused/ indented and fit the right sized hard • To feel comfortable cup, with its edges completely rounded • To be affordable • soft, stitching must be sealed to the synthetic leather and not loose • Needs to fit typical head sizes and player positions• Face cage- • Must have its joins smoothed and rounded and be symmetrical • Parts are easy to replace • User can customise helmet in terms of graphics/vinyl• TPU- stickers • Must be the right shape for the helmet and not be cut roughly • Machine screws/bolts are of an ISO metric screw• Whole helmet- • Must be tested with various impacts at critical angles to deduce the quality thread which conforms to all helmets of absorption • Helmet can be removed easily in case of injury • Open cage with three horizontal bars, no vertical bar above the nose – enables better visibility Manufacture: • The shell is injection moulded using pellets of a The New York specified polycarbonate alloy A cross section of the Ion 4D, Giants No. 27 • TPU is reaction product of a di-isocyanate and long and showing the TPU cushioning, short chain polyether, polyester, or caprolactone Running Back glycols the bladder, the jaw pads, the Brandon Jacobs • Face cage is made my extruded titanium wire, which is bumers and the shell wearing his bent and welded by automated machine and then coated in a cellulose paint and hardened in an oven at Schutt Ion 4D, various stages to make it chip resistant, but without making him stand getting rid of the small flex out in the ﬁeld • Face Cage- the Titanium is extruded into 10mm wire and then MIG Welded to the required design. It is then with the sleek and painted by an electroplating process warrior like design • Snap Fasteners- the male part is always made from a nickel and brass alloy, but on the chin cup straps an alternative ABS female half can be used • All parts are batch or mass produced to keep up with the high demand and different order styles • All components are put together on a production line
Product Specification: 661 2011 Evo Carbon Full Face Downhill/ Off-road Bike Helmet Materials and Components: Form:Materials, The design of a downhill bike helmet stems from the• Carbon fibre mesh positioned “Hairnet.” However, the needs of downhill biking being a thrill seeking high speed sport mean more impactwithin fibreglass shell protection is needed as well as a stylish look. •for lighter weight. • To glance off blows, so that impacts are not direct • The 3K Carbon weave pattern increases the strength, whilst reducing the weight • The shape is very aerodynamic and looks “cool” which • Intake and vent holes are integrated into the shell design to help keep the adds to popularity of sales and effectively the speed of airflow constant the user, which is essentially the purpose of downhill racing • whilst the removable and washable Coolmax liner wicks moisture away and • Customisation is unique for every user. Professionals keeps heat to a minimum tend to have hand painted shells based on their own • Waterproof, therefore it is easy to clean drawings, meaning that ordinary buyers can order a Antonio Leiva takes • Vinyls can be applied easily replica or go for a default company design. However, the stairs stickers made from 1mm vinyl can be purchased fromComponents, the company, or from a mountain biking magazine or shop (or any other sticker) and placed on where ever• FHVS (Full helmet venting system) helps desiredkeep a constant airflow for heat management, without compensating for off road safety • The shell is made from a desired mixture of carbonby having venting holes fibre weave mesh placed within a fibreglass shell• Galvanised steel mesh across vent holes, which gives good corrosion resistance and • All of the components need to be anthropometrically durability suited to a human head• EPS and EPP foam inner liner conforms to users head shape, creating a custom fit, • Shell is lacquered after it has been painted, to protect making it safer as it won’t be loose during use the finish and make the shell more durable. It also adds to the aesthetics• A movable visor is attached Function:• An air filter is positioned in front of the mouth • To protect the user’s entire head from• Aluminium screws and bolts for attachment of visor primarily a single blow to the head• ABS nut/ tightener for adjustment of pitch for the visor followed by smaller more general• Steel buckle system for fixing in place on users head blows from all angles• Synthetic leather for chin strap • To look aesthetically pleasing in terms of design of shape and• Aluminium rivets effectively sales based on• Nylon tag on buckle system, for ease of finding the buckle an also a safety feature if professional users wearing it user has had an accident and someone else needs to find the buckle to remove the • To be suited to players of all ages helmet (in terms of head size and shape) • Air filter needs to keep the users airway completely clear • Whilst having a long life • Being easy to replace EPP foam helmet mould • Act as a shock absorber by creating flexibility in the front of the helmet, which acts similarly to a crumple zone Me wearing the helmet, showing the different angles of fit
Product Specification: 661 2011 Evo Carbon Full Face Downhill/ Off-road Bike Helmet User Requirements: Scale of Production and• Needs to protect the head from blows from all angles, Cost: which would consequent in severe head injury or The general components of the helmet concussion Performance Requirements: (i.e. the shell) need to be mass• To feel comfortable produced to comply with the high • FHVS (Full helmet venting system) demand. However, this isn’t possible for• To be affordable • Must keep a constant airflow for heat management, without all components• Needs to fit typical head sizes compensating for off road safety by having venting holes • Shell-• Needs o be light and partially flexible, without • Galvanised steel mesh • Carbon fibre mesh, needs to be compensating for strength placed on a mass produced mould • Must prevent foreign objects entering the helmet, with and shaped by hand on a• To feel fully custom with a unique look compensating the airflow production line, to get the perfect Process flow diagram for the • must be able to withstand long term usage shape (no dents e.t.c.) and to keep moulding process of carbon fibre up with demand • EPS and EPP foam inner liner • Fibreglass Exterior, is vacuum • Must conform to most head sizes, without being loose formed over the carbon fibre base • Must be able to be cleaned easily and joined with a thermosetting resin, placed in between • Visor • Aesthetics, Lacquer is sprayed by • Must be able to block Sunlight, dirt and other foreign objects, machines, with which would impair the users vision • Must not break easily on impact with other objects Diagram of formation • Must be able to be adjusted for all user preferences of carbon fibre layersA small selection of different • Air Filterdesign schemes for the helmet • Must purify the air from dust and insects before it reaches the Manufacture: user Ben Byoko goes down hard • The shell/ visor is made by hand • Must be easy to replace after three attempts off a 22 foot drop in Saalbach 2006 • The carbon fibre mesh is coated • Aluminium screws and bolts after winning the qualifier in resin, which is then placed on • Must not shear from blows which could potentially pull the shel a mould of the helmet in several off, exposing the user’s head layers, offset at 60o • ABS nut/ tightener for adjustment of pitch for the visor • It is then layered with more • Must keep visor in a secure position mesh as required • It is the placed in an oven to .... • Must not break from pressure or knocks • It is then coated in a similar • Steel buckle system for fixing in place on users head way, but with fibreglass Why these helmets are • Must secure helmet to user’s head • It is then hand painted or useful... • Synthetic leather robotically painted depending on • Must not scuff easily design and lacquered for added durability and strength • Aluminium rivets • Galvanised steel mesh is made with • Must keep vital safety features in place (e.g. the chin strap, the extruded steel wire, which is then interior padding and the shell itself) galvanised in... • Nylon tag • Aluminium fixings are machined by a • To help user find buckle system and also for emergency help to CNC lathe take hemet off easily • EPS and EPP Foam
Team Helmets and kit A view from all sidesA view from all sides Lining up on the scrimmage Helmet in use A front view with visorTeam helmets in play blocking sun on a sunny day Helmet absorbing impact on ground, therefore protecting my head and neck from serious How the helmet prevented me breaking my neck vertebrae by injury stopping my neck going over itself
Quality Control: Injection Moulding of the Shell Start NO? Yes? Finish Start Form Mould Initial Designs NO? NO? Check for Evaluate the Check that the measurements correct in structural defects, which will impact on suitability of each design and choose the relation to the final design quality of product, in terms of shape final design and finish e.t.c. Injection Moulding NO? Yes? Yes? Yes? Draw final design Coat inside of mould with Check the quality of theMould Design NO? water based lubricant mould Check all relevant detail NO? is present and that it will work with the moulding process Check that an Check the quality of the even layer has been applied to the entire product (i.e. the shape, the finish, structural mould and that it has not been used to Yes? defects, e.t.c.) an excess Input the design into CAD NO? Yes? Yes? NO? Close the two halves of the Eject the Product Check dimensions are mould together correct and then create a contour line for tolerance when milled NO? Yes? Check the pressure is Check whether it has reached a sufficient enough to keep a tight seal and have no reasonable temperature to eject from the mould Export to CNC Milling Machine leaks NO? NO? Yes? Yes? When cut, check dimensions with a computerised probe Feed pellets of the specified sensor polycarbonate alloy into the hopper Allow the product to cool Yes? NO? Finish the mould with various tools (i.e. Emery cloth, water jets) Check that all of the pellets have been melted into a NO? consistent liquid and that the temperature Check that the die is full is correct Check that there are no defective cracks NO? with an ultrasound machine Yes? Allow the hydraulic ram to push the molten polycarbonate into the mould cavity via the sprue Start
Quality Control: Main Quality Standards Identification and description on main quality standards:Injection Moulding of the Shell BS EN 201:2009 Injection moulding, Moulding (process), Moulding equipment, Plastics and rubber technology, Plastics, Plastics-working machinery, Rubber, Occupational safety, Equipment safety,Raw Material: Hazards, Electrical safety, Accident prevention, NoiseDocumentation of the following should be provided with the granules of the (environmental), Gases, Dust, Machine guards, Interlocks,Polycarbonate to be used: Safety devices, Safety measures, Temperature-rise limit,• Quantity Clamps (mechanical), Anthropometric characteristics,• Size Instructions for use, Verification, Test equipment.• Properties (i.e malleability or flammability)• Testing results (i.e thermal expansion value, the shrinkage value and the impact BS EN ISO 10724-1:2001 strength) Plastics, Injection moulding, Particulate materials,• Information to show that the product adheres to national standards such as the Thermosetting polymers, Test specimens, Moulding (process), CE mark or the Kite mark. Plastics and rubber technology, Specimen preparation, Sampling methods, Moulding equipment, Testing conditions,Tooling: Equations, Volume, Area, Dimensions, Shape, Melting point,CMM and computerised optical equipment is used to make sure that the injection Stages of the Temperature measurement, Marking, Moulding compounds.moulding machine mould is 100% dimensionally correct. This is to-• Make sure that the shell is the right size and shape for the other components to mould itself BS EN ISO 10724-2:2001 fit together with Plastics, Injection moulding, Particulate materials,• The structure of the shell itself is will not be impaired and made defective, Thermosetting polymers, Test specimens, Moulding (process), therefore endangering the user when used Moulding compounds, Plastics and rubber technology, Size,• To make sure it is durable enough to withstand constant use for mass production Shape, Thickness, Preferred sizes, Dimensions, Test• To make sure it allows the product to be ejected quickly and easily without equipment, Volume, Specimen preparation, Welded joints, distortion (in terms of heat dissipation and intake) Tensile testing, Mechanical testing, Marking.• To produce a perfectly smooth finish, so that minimal manual input is needed to finish each helmet before assembly The influence of quality standards during the productionHeated Polycarbonate Alloy: BS EN 201:2009The polycarbonate alloy needs to be consistently monitored. This is in order to The injection moulding press, equipment and plastics usedprimarily control the fluidity of the molten material. However, it is also for the must adhere to this BSI standard. Also, the method in whichfollowing- the product is manufactured is affected in the sense that• To make sure that it is heated up only for the needed time. This stops the manufactures carrying out the work must wear dust masks as fossil fuels used to heat it up to be wasted well as being protected against loud noises.• To make sure the production time is efficient to gain the maximum possible turnover (i.e. if the alloy is overheated it will take longer to cool down, BS EN ISO 10724-1:2001 therefore increasing the production time) This quality standard means that when testing the• To prevent the alloy becoming deformed and losing its required properties to thermosetting polymers used in injection moulding the withstand high impacts and absorb them manufacturer should adhere to specific test equipment,• To measure the before and after temperatures to prevent the product being including the equipment used for testing, volume of product removed prematurely being tested, thickness of product and other sizingthat it is not removed prematurely. specifications.Finished Mould: BS EN ISO 10724-2:2001When the shell has cooled, it has to be inspected- This is where manufactures must adhere to using specific• Visual, The finished product of materials whilst testing, as well as only being allowed to • For quality of finish, excess flash/ roughness use certain volumes, sizes and tensile values whilst • Structural defects, cracks the injection moulding testing. Also, the equipment used for testing must have • Shape defects, dimples/sink marks particular welded joints. process• Computerised and other electronic methods, • Ultrasound, to for any microscopic cracks, which would impair the performance of the shell • Dimensions of the helmet are measured by a machine Granules of a • The weight is measure to the nearest 100th of a gram within 0.05mm of the specified weight, so that the players neck is not harmed polycarbonate alloy A typical injection Injection moulding moulding machine machine components
Batch Production: A single production line can be used to produce a range of components which will be manually assembled at the end of production, to form the helmet. Batch production will offer versatility in making a certain number of helmets to a particular specification for example: the vinyl/graphics, face cage and colour. It allows for the customisation of an order of helmets to make them exactly the same, without the adjustmentScale of Production of machines in between. Advantages of Batch Production: Batch production can reduce the initial capital outlay because a single production line can be used to produce nearly every single product as the only variations on the product are colour (as face cages are a separate order) and size, meaning the interior and attachment systems (bolts and chin strap e.t.c.) are exactly the same so the labourers on the production line just have to fit their assigned component to every helmet that passes them. If a retailer buys a batch of the product and they don’t sell, then Schutt can adjust their production levels accordingly. Batch production is also useful for the factory as the helmets can sell more seasonally. This makes it harder for the manufacturer to forecast the demand as peoples habits can change easily, for example a different sport may become more popular so no less helmets are needed or the NFL may brand Schutt as the official helmet manufacturer for the league instead of Riddell. However, the general theme is that more helmets sell during the winter as it is most players pre season or actual season and also the NFL season is occurring. Batch production is also useful for trial runs of new designs (usually to a very small number of people initially for safety reasons) and for products that have a high profit margin and therefore the number of products needed to be produced adjusted. Disadvantages of Batch Production: Batch production also has disadvantages. There are inefficiencies associated with batch production as equipment must be stopped, re-configured, and its output tested before the next batch can be produced. This idle time between batches is known as downtime. This has to occur because of the high
Quality Assessments- Safety Standards Schutt Ion 4D 661 2011 Evo Carbon NOCSAE: The National Operating Committee on Standards for CPSC- The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission is Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) is the absolute necessity for an charged with protecting the public from unreasonable risks of american football helmet to be allowed to be sold and used. injury or death from thousands of types of consumer products Helmets selected to be tested (about 3 from a batch of 50) are under the agencys jurisdiction. The CPSC is committed to mounted on an instrumented head model (similar to that of a protecting consumers and families from products that pose a crash dummy) and tested with various drop and impact tests ﬁre, electrical, chemical, or mechanical hazard or can injure (reproducing real life situations) before and after reconditioning children. The CPSCs work to ensure the safety of consumer in accordance with the NOCSAE Standard and NAERA By- products - such as toys, power tools, cigarette lighters, and Laws. The testing includes various impact energies, standard and household chemicals. It has contributed signiﬁcantly to the 30 random locations under controlled environmental conditions. percent decline in the rate of deaths and injuries associated with Acceleration measurements are taken to determine if the helmet consumer products over the past 30 years. meets an established Severity Index (SI) requirement. SI is a CE: 1078- The letters "CE" are the abbreviation of French phrase scientiﬁcally accepted measurement of human injury tolerance. "Conformité Européene" which means "European Conformity." CE Some required impacts are equivalent to running in excess of 12 Marking is now used in all EU Products that are legally sold. 1. CE Marking on a product is a manufacturers declaration that the MPH into a ﬂat surface, which stops a player’s head suddenly. product complies with the essential requirements of the relevant Some players run faster than this (the fastest being Tennessee European health, safety and environmental protection legislation. Titans Wide Receiver Chris Johnson at over 26 mph) but seldom 2. *Product Directives contains the "essential requirements" and/or if ever experience an impact as violent as the NOCSAE test. The "performance levels" and "Harmonized Standards" to which the test covers a variety of tests, which have to be passed in order to products must conform. Harmonized Standards are the technical be awarded the ofﬁcial seal. The NOCSAE covers all of the speciﬁcations (European Standards or Harmonization Documents) which are established by several European standards safety tests and requirements that would have to be individually agencies (CEN, CENELEC, etc). CEN stands for European certiﬁed in the EU. Committee for Standardization. CENELEC stands for European ASTM- The American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM) Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization. is the American equivalent of the British Standards Institute 3. CE Marking on a product indicates to governmental ofﬁcials that the product may be legally placed on the market in their country. (BSI). It has since become an international standards agency 4. CE Marking on a product ensures the free movement of the that is used as an alternative to the BSI. Originally a voluntary product within the EFTA & European Union (EU) single market standard, an ASTM certiﬁcation now has been endorsed by the (total 28 countries), and CE Marking on a product permits the American government and the National Football League (NFL) as withdrawal of the non-conforming products by customs and a recognisable certiﬁcation, required nationally for products enforcement/vigilance authorities. designed to be used as safety equipment. the ASTM does not The number (1078) indicates the type of test used. In this case it is one of the toughest in the world, where various high impact and durability tests always carry the test out itself, but instead acts as a moderator are used on each component of the helmet. to make sure that the product actually deserves the certiﬁcation of being “safe.” AS/NZS 2063- AS/NZS stands for the Australian/New zealand standard. Again this is basically the health and safety standard required for a product to be sold in these countries. The number also relates to the test used to certify the product for sale.
Preparation: Processing:The polycarbonate alloy will be checked QC inspectors take random samples offor correct expansion and shrinkage helmet shells pieces at certain timevalue as well as looking for the intervals (about 3-5 per batch) andcorrect impact strength and tensile check to ensure that they meet setstrength values. Batches for non- specifications for size, shape, andprofessional teams in particular will consistency (using veneer callipershave their colour checked, as they will and other gauges) The colour can benot be manually painted and detailed, checked for consistency, shade, styletherefore the colour must be accurate and also that it does not run or rubfor the given order. off the shell by touch. Assembly: During assembly (done by hand on a production line) each part is reinspected visually for flash or other visual and safety impeding deformities on the helmet shell. Also, for each batch every single custom part is visually inspected for design, colour, decals/ vinyl logos and finish according to an order to make sure that a batch all look the same and that they are what the client has customised their order to.Finishing:After shells have been manually fitted withinterior components and attachment systems,they are packed in bubble wrap and paper thinfoam and placed in boxes only just biggerthan the helmet. A small helmet pump andnozzle lubricant for the inflatable bladders,a warranty pamphlet and Manual for fitting toa users head and how to get the helmetreconditioned over time and both the hard and After-sales:soft chin cup options are also placed in the The product is given a guarantee of at leastbox. Batch orders are then placed into larger one full season or either a replacement orboxes and moved to a separate part of the money back offer is given to the client.factory to be shipped via a logistics company This is due to the high safety requirementto the individual user or the teams club. Theother basic one colour helmets are then and the importance of the players safety.shipped in a similar way, but in larger, For team orders a discount is offered andmixed batches to be resold by a company/ team customisation is available.business who specialise in sport. In orderfor the helmets to reach the correctdestination,