Class Time Reconsidered
Derek Bruff
Vanderbilt University
@derekbruff / derekbruff.org
Warm-Up
Considering that a tiny acorn can grow into a
mighty oak tree, which of the following
contributes the majority of ...
Times for
Telling
(Schwartz & Bransford, 1998)
The Flipped Classroom
Before Class

Class Time

After Class

Transfer

Assimilate

Traditional Approach
Class Time

After Class

Transfer

Before Class

Assimilate

Traditional Approach

Transfer

Assimilate

Flipped Approach
Before Class

Class Time

After Class

(Asynchronous)

(Synchronous)

(Asynchronous)

Transfer

Assimilate

Traditional Ap...
Before Class

Class Time

After Class

(Asynchronous)

(Synchronous)

(Asynchronous)

Transfer

Assimilate

Traditional Ap...
Before Class

Class Time

After Class

(Asynchronous)

(Synchronous)

(Asynchronous)

Transfer

Assimilate

Traditional Ap...
AN EXAMPLE
First Exposure – Pre-Class Reading
Practice & Feedback – Clicker
Questions
Three cards are placed in a hat—one card is blue on both
sides, one is red on both...
Further Exploration – Problem Sets
The historical probabilities that a birth event results in
identical or fraternal twins...
First Exposure
(Walvoord & Anderson, 2009)
Screencasts

Grand Valley State University Math Department
Textbooks
Connections

Points

Scaffolding
Pre-Class Reading Quizzes
Reading Response Essays
Practice &
Feedback
(aka Sense-Making)
Instructor Poses
Question (<1 Min)

Students Answer
Independently
(1-3 Min)

Peer
Instruction

Instructor Views
Results (<...
Misconception Questions
Your sister calls to say she’s having twins.
Which of the following is more likely? (Assume
she’s ...
Application Questions

Adam Lucas, Mills College
Synthesis Questions
True or False: If A is an m x n matrix, then the dimension of
the row space of A plus the dimension of...
Doodles + Camera Phones
Rubrics + Google Docs
All-Skate
Further
Exploration
Q&A via Piazza
Social Bookmarking via Diigo
Application Projects
Application Projects
Social Pedagogies
(Bass & Elmendorf, 2009)
The unFlipped Classroom
Derek Bruff
@derekbruff / derekbruff.org
derek.bruff@vanderbilt.edu
Flickr (CC) Photo Credits
• "Oak Tree," MunstiSue
• “m...
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Class Time Reconsidered

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Presentation given at the University of Denver Mathematics Department, October 25, 2013. Be sure to check the notes for links about the examples seen in the slides.

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  • See also “The Flipped Classroom FAQ,” http://www.cirtl.net/node/7788.
  • The traditional approach to structuring learning in and out of class, using Eric Mazur’s terminology. Class time is spend transferring information from professor to student, typically via lecture. After class, students assimilate that information by working through problem sets. Note that this framework has the most resonance with math, science, and engineering courses, although it’s often used in lecture-based courses in other disciplines, too.
  • As Mazur argues, the assimilation step is the harder of the two, so why not shift that to class time, when everyone (instructors and students) is around to help? This requires shifting the transfer step before class, typically by having students read textbooks or watch lecture videos. Note that lecture videos might be created by the instructor, but they might also be ones created by other instructors. This approach has come to be called the “flipped” or “inverted” classroom. (See http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/teaching-guides/teaching-activities/flipping-the-classroom/ for some of the history of these terms.)
  • The flipped classroom usually refers to an actual classroom, but the ideas translate just as well to online education, as long as you think of the “classroom” as synchronous activities that involve all the students.
  • Recently, there’s been some useful critique of the notion that the learning process should start with “transfer” activities, like reading textbooks and watching lecture videos. See http://news.stanford.edu/news/2013/july/flipped-learning-model-071613.html for some initial research on this issue. Instead of “transfer,” perhaps it’s better to think of the before class activities in the flipped approach as “first exposure” to the content of the day. Barbara Walvoord and Virginia Johnson Anderson use this term in the book Effective Grading. Instead of “assimilate,” let’s be slightly more concrete and say “practice and feedback,” since we know that’s critical to student learning.
  • Finally, we should acknowledge that rarely does the learning process end when the bell rings. Students usually need time for further exploration with a topic after class is over. This can include tackling harder problems, studying for exams, and applying knowledge through papers and projects, among other options.There you have it: the flipped classroom framework for structuring student learning.
  • This example taken from the statistics course I taught in 2012. See http://derekbruff.org/blogs/math216/ for more information.
  • Also from http://derekbruff.org/blogs/math216/.
  • Screenshot from my first-year writing seminar blog: http://derekbruff.org/blogs/fywscrypto/
  • More info: http://derekbruff.org/?p=1894
  • More info: http://derekbruff.org/?p=2081
  • “Spiral out, keep going,” Tawcan, Flickr (CC)
  • Derek’s Diigo group: https://groups.diigo.com/group/math-216
  • More info: http://chronicle.com/blogPost/Motivating-Students-with/24780/
  • More info: http://derekbruff.org/?p=2118
  • More info: http://derekbruff.org/?p=1599
  • I haven’t blogged about this, but I hope to do so soon!
  • Class Time Reconsidered

    1. 1. Class Time Reconsidered Derek Bruff Vanderbilt University @derekbruff / derekbruff.org
    2. 2. Warm-Up Considering that a tiny acorn can grow into a mighty oak tree, which of the following contributes the majority of the mass of the tree? A. Soil B. Air C. Water D. Sunlight
    3. 3. Times for Telling (Schwartz & Bransford, 1998)
    4. 4. The Flipped Classroom
    5. 5. Before Class Class Time After Class Transfer Assimilate Traditional Approach
    6. 6. Class Time After Class Transfer Before Class Assimilate Traditional Approach Transfer Assimilate Flipped Approach
    7. 7. Before Class Class Time After Class (Asynchronous) (Synchronous) (Asynchronous) Transfer Assimilate Traditional Approach Transfer Assimilate Flipped Approach
    8. 8. Before Class Class Time After Class (Asynchronous) (Synchronous) (Asynchronous) Transfer Assimilate Traditional Approach First Exposure Practice & Feedback Flipped Approach
    9. 9. Before Class Class Time After Class (Asynchronous) (Synchronous) (Asynchronous) Transfer Assimilate Traditional Approach First Exposure Practice & Feedback Flipped Approach Further Exploration
    10. 10. AN EXAMPLE
    11. 11. First Exposure – Pre-Class Reading
    12. 12. Practice & Feedback – Clicker Questions Three cards are placed in a hat—one card is blue on both sides, one is red on both sides, and one has a blue side and a red side. A card is drawn at random from the hat and you see that one side is blue. What’s the probability that the other side is blue? A. B. C. D. 1/3 1/2 2/3 3/4
    13. 13. Further Exploration – Problem Sets The historical probabilities that a birth event results in identical or fraternal twins are about 1/300 and 1/125, respectively. Given that Elvis Presley had a twin brother who died at birth, what is the probability that Elvis was an identical twin? Assume that boys are as likely to be born, in general, as girls. (Hint: This is the same probability that a birth event results in identical twin boys given that we know it results in twin boys.)
    14. 14. First Exposure (Walvoord & Anderson, 2009)
    15. 15. Screencasts Grand Valley State University Math Department
    16. 16. Textbooks
    17. 17. Connections Points Scaffolding
    18. 18. Pre-Class Reading Quizzes
    19. 19. Reading Response Essays
    20. 20. Practice & Feedback (aka Sense-Making)
    21. 21. Instructor Poses Question (<1 Min) Students Answer Independently (1-3 Min) Peer Instruction Instructor Views Results (<1 Min) If Most Answer Correctly, Briefly Discuss Question (1-3 Min) If Most Answer Incorrectly, Backtrack (5+ Min) If Students Are Split, Have Students Discuss in Pairs and Revote (1-5 Min) Instructor Leads Classwide Discussion (2-15 Min)
    22. 22. Misconception Questions Your sister calls to say she’s having twins. Which of the following is more likely? (Assume she’s not having identical twins.) A. Twin boys B. Twin girls C. One girl and one boy D. All are equally likely.
    23. 23. Application Questions Adam Lucas, Mills College
    24. 24. Synthesis Questions True or False: If A is an m x n matrix, then the dimension of the row space of A plus the dimension of the nullspace of A equals n. 27% 32% 18% 23% A. B. C. D. True – High Confidence True – Low Confidence False – Low Confidence False – High Confidence Actual response data from last week!
    25. 25. Doodles + Camera Phones
    26. 26. Rubrics + Google Docs
    27. 27. All-Skate
    28. 28. Further Exploration
    29. 29. Q&A via Piazza
    30. 30. Social Bookmarking via Diigo
    31. 31. Application Projects
    32. 32. Application Projects
    33. 33. Social Pedagogies (Bass & Elmendorf, 2009)
    34. 34. The unFlipped Classroom
    35. 35. Derek Bruff @derekbruff / derekbruff.org derek.bruff@vanderbilt.edu Flickr (CC) Photo Credits • "Oak Tree," MunstiSue • “mentos + diet coke,” the Cobras • “final exam” (flipped), dcJohn • “Super 8,” Eric Hart • “Stats,” Derek Bruff • “Numbers,” Luis Argerich • “Chain of Addiction,” Evan Leeson • • • • • • “College Halls,” Derek Bruff “Little Shredder,” clappstar “IMG_9936e2,” Abby Bischoff “Skates,” marythom “Spiral out, keep going,” Tawcan “The Calm After the Show,” Thomas Hawk

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