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Burgerschapslezing 2011: Presentatie Phillip Blond

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The “Big Society”<br />Phillip Blond<br />Director of ResPublica<br />

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What is the Big Society?<br /><ul><li>  Participation (civic)

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  Association (social)

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Burgerschapslezing 2011: Presentatie Phillip Blond

  1. 1. The “Big Society”<br />Phillip Blond<br />Director of ResPublica<br />
  2. 2. What is the Big Society?<br /><ul><li> Participation (civic)
  3. 3. Association (social)
  4. 4. Distribution of power (political)
  5. 5. Distribution of assets (economic)</li></li></ul><li>Why the <br />Big Society?<br />
  6. 6. Lack of participation<br />Decrease in civic engagement: <br />In 2009/10, only 34% of people in England engaged in some form of civic participation – in 2001, this figure was 38%<br />Decrease in volunteering: <br />In 2009/10, 25% of people in England volunteered formally at least once a month, compared to 29% in 2005<br />Source: ONS Citizenship Survey 2009/10<br />
  7. 7. Lack of social cohesion<br />Fragmentation of the community: <br />97% of communities in the UK have become more socially fragmented over the past three decades <br />(based on the number of non-married adults, one-person households and people moving in the last year)<br />Source: Changing UK (Dec 2008), BBC Report<br />Loneliness: <br />The number of lone-person households has risen from 3 million to 6 million over the last 35 years and is expected to rise by another 3 million in the next 15 (by 2021)<br /> Source: JRF Report, Social Exclusion (Sept 2006)<br />
  8. 8. Mistrust: <br />Only 68% of people trusted their neighbours in 2005 compared to 81% in 2003<br />Source: You Gov Survey on Public Trust, 2003 & 2005<br /> Our general level of social trust in the UK has almost halved to 30% in 2002/03 from 56% in 1959 and is amongst the lowest in Europe<br /> Source: Civic Culture Study 1959; European and World Values Surveys 1990-2002/03<br />
  9. 9. Concentration of assets<br />The wealthiest half of households hold 91% of the UK’s total wealth, whilst the other half has the remaining 9%<br />Source: ONS, Wealth in Great Britain – Main Results from the Wealth and Assets Survey 2006/08 (2009)<br />By 2008/09, 13m people were in poverty <br />Of these, 5.8m (44% of the total) were in ‘deep poverty’ (household income at least one third below the poverty line) - the highest proportion on record<br /> Source: JRF Report, Monitoring Poverty and Social Exclusion 2010<br />
  10. 10. Amongst other developed countries, the UK has the worst social mobility record<br />The chances of a child enjoying higher earnings and better education than their parents is lower in Britain than any other western countries<br />The strength of link between individual and parental earnings varies across OECD countries<br />Source: OECD, Going for Growth (2010)<br />
  11. 11. Concentration of power<br />Low levels of influence: <br />In 2009/10, only 37% of people felt they could influence decisions in their local area – this figure was 44% in 2001<br />Source: ONS Citizenship Survey 2009/10<br />
  12. 12. However, perceptions are shifting...<br />Almost 6 in 10 people express a belief in community as opposed to individualism<br />Source: The Futures Company research 2010<br />In 2009/10, 85% of people thought that their community was cohesive (agreeing that their local area was a place where people from different background got on well together) – this represents an increase from 2003 and 2005 (both 80%)<br /> Source: ONS Citizenship Survey 2009/10<br />
  13. 13. How does the <br />Big Society work?<br />
  14. 14. Civil Society and Association<br />Building social capital and strengthening community confidence...<br /><ul><li>support environments that offer the ‘space’ for bonding, bridging and linking to take place
  15. 15. encourage interaction between different generations, cultures, religions</li></li></ul><li>The Good Gym (social enterprise):<br /> Instead of going to the gym, jog around the local area, pick up a newspaper and deliver to an older person whose mobility is restricted<br />Encourage social enterprises:<br /><ul><li>there are 238,000 social entrepreneurs in the UK</li></ul> Source: Global Enterprise Monitor<br /><ul><li>only 1% of them will get the advice and money they need to grow</li></ul>Source: UnLtd<br /><ul><li>A support infrastructure is needed
  16. 16. Bureaucracy reduction</li></li></ul><li>Encourage a greater sense of shared responsibility<br />Time banking:<br /> e.g. Spice credits: Community time credits – empowers people as active participants in public services<br />Grow Sheffield:<br /> Encourages people in the area to harvest excess fruit that would otherwise rot and distribute it amongst community groups, schools and those in need<br />
  17. 17. Distribution of Assets & Power<br />Develop a participative, pluralist economy...<br /><ul><li>re-capitalise the poor
  18. 18. allow access to ownership and trade
  19. 19. asset-building approach to welfare</li></ul>Community right to buy:<br /> Requires local authorities to maintain a list of assets of community value in order to give the community time to develop a bid if such assets come up for sale <br />e.g. Port of Dover<br />
  20. 20. Community right to build:<br />Gives groups of people the ability to bring forward small developments – the benefits of the developments (e.g. profits made from letting homes) will stay within the community<br />Public service co-operatives:<br />Gives people more involvement and control of the services they use and the places where they live by putting council resources into their hands<br />e.g. Lambeth Council<br />
  21. 21. Give more power to communities...<br />Your Square Mile:<br />A central nervous system for civic society that enables the interchange of ideas, advice, support and benefits to citizens throughout the UK<br />- Mutual: owned by members and run for their benefit<br />Neighbourhood planning:<br />Give people more of a say on where houses, shops. Hospitals, etc should be built and what they should look like<br />
  22. 22. ...and deliver better public services<br /><ul><li>through the creation of employee and citizen-owned companies
  23. 23. by allowing community groups, individuals and social enterprises to provide public services</li></ul>Community right to challenge:<br /> Encourages more innovation in public service delivery – voluntary and community groups to be given the right to express an interest in taking over public services<br /> e.g. social enterprises and public procurement<br />
  24. 24. The Netherlands and the <br />Big Society?<br />
  25. 25. The Statistics...<br />The Netherlands seems to trump Britain on most statistics!<br />Child well-being:<br />Amongst all OECD countries, the UK is ranked the lowest with regard to child well-being, whilst the Netherlands is right at the top!<br />Source: UNICEF Report Card based on OECD data (2007)<br />
  26. 26. Participation and trust levels have increased over the past decade...<br />Contacts with friends has increased from 77% in 1997 to 80% in 2009<br />Contacts with neighbours has stabilised at around 66%<br />Trust in other people has increased from 58% in 2002 to 64% in 2008<br />42% of people in the Netherlands volunteered at least once a year for one or more organisations – and this figure has steadied<br />Source: Hans Schmeets & SaskiteRiele, “A decline in social cohesion in the Netherlands? Participation and trust, 1997-2010” (Jan 2010)<br />
  27. 27. Civil society and participatory democracy is to be admired...<br />‘Opzoomeren’ programme:<br />Challenges residents in the streets of Rotterdam to take responsibility for their own environment<br />Social enterprises:<br />The Netherlands’ engagement in social entrepreneurship as a percentage of all employment is almost twice that of the UK (16.64% and 8.42% respectively)<br /> Source: EMES, “Social Enterprise in Western Europe,” Roger Spear<br />Direct democracy:<br />The ‘citizens’ initiative’ – Dutch voters can gather signatories to raise a local concern and propose that the issue is raised and debated in parliament<br />
  28. 28. However, the Netherlands is not without its own geographic, social and ethnic divides...<br />At the municipal level, there are clear regional divides:<br />- Volunteer activities range from 12% in Kerkrade to 43% in Nijefurd<br />- in Den Bosch, the contact rate with neighbours is 58%, whereas in Boxmeer and Pijnacker-Nootdorp the rate is 85%<br /><ul><li>High concentrations of low incomes, rented houses and those on social benefits negatively correlates with volunteering, voter turnout and contacts with relatives</li></ul>Source:Hans Schmeets & SaskiteRiele, “A decline in social cohesion in the Netherlands? Participation and trust, 1997-2010” (Jan 2010)<br />
  29. 29. Based on Putnam’s hypothesis that diversity (in its immediate ‘short-term’ impact) poses challenges for social capital, a recent study sought to determine whether this was also the case for the Netherlands...<br />Both for immigrants and native residents: <br /><ul><li>neighbourhoods’ ethnic diversity reduces individual trust in neighbourhoods
  30. 30. those with neighbours of a different ethnicity have less trust in neighbourhoods and neighbours</li></ul>Source: Bram Lancee & JaapDronkers, “Ethnic diversity in the neighbourhood and social trust of immigrants and natives: a replication of the Putnam (2007) study in a West-European country”<br />
  31. 31. Out of the EU countries, the Netherlands ranks second, after France, as the country where the largest group of citizens feels discriminated against (p.45)<br /> Source: Statistics Netherlands, Statistical Yearbook 2010, p.45.<br />‘Minorities’ were reported to be the highest perceived concern by Dutch citizens in 2006<br /> Source: CBS, the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (2006)<br />
  32. 32. The Future Shape of Society<br />The benefits of association…<br />
  33. 33. 1. Enhanced community quality of life:<br />Increased trust: <br /> 61.3% of civil society organisation (CSO) members in the Netherlands think that most people can be trusted, compared to only 41.4% of those who do not belong to a CSO<br /> Source: World Values Survey<br /><ul><li>Crime prevention:</li></ul> Communities/cities in the Netherlands with higher levels of social capital have lower crime rates<br />Source: SemithAkçomak & Bas terWeel, “The Impact of Social Capital on Crime: Evidence from the Netherlands” (July 2008)<br />
  34. 34. <ul><li>Increase in health and well-being:</li></ul>Compared with men who had the highest level of social networks, socially isolated men (not married, fewer than six friends or relatives, no membership in church or community groups) have been shown to be at increased risk for cardiovascular disease mortality and deaths from accidents and suicides.<br />Source: Kawachi, Colditz, Ascherio, Rimm, Giovannucci, Stampfer, Willett, “A prospective study of social networks in relation to total mortality and cardiovascular disease in men in the USA” (1996)<br />
  35. 35. 2. Encourages a participative democracy<br />“Political activity is embedded in the non-political institutions of civil society… Undertaking activities that themselves have nothing to do with politics – for example, running the PTA fund drive or managing the church soup kitchen – can develop organisational and communications skills that are transferable to politics.” -- Verba, Scholzman & Brady<br />
  36. 36. London Citizens:<br />Different faiths, communities and individuals come together to act on a common cause for concern<br />e.g. challenging interest rates (usury)<br />
  37. 37. Robert Putnam, Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy<br />Social capital is a necessary ingredient for government functioning<br />Successful governments were located in areas where there was a high degree of “civic tradition” – north/south divide in Italy<br />
  38. 38. 3. Allows access to property and markets<br />Collaborative consumption: <br /><ul><li>Peer-to-peer lending: e.g. Zopa
  39. 39. Lending and sharing: land share, car share, tool share, couch share
  40. 40. Purchasing and owning property: The Place Station</li></ul>Community asset ownership: <br /><ul><li>To buy, to bid, to build</li>

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