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What is leisure


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What is leisure

  2. 2. The Nature of Leisure Leisure is difficult to define because it means something different to each person, yet scholars have always been interested in the study of leisure. The first attempt to understand leisure probably took place about 300 B.C. The ancient Greeks were intrigued by leisure, and the philosopher Aristotle suggested a paradigm, or model, by which leisure could be categorized. Aristotle proposed that leisure occurs at three levels: 1. Amusement 2. recreation 3. contemplation (more on that later).
  3. 3. The Nature of Leisure 1. Khaldun  was a historian who is also considered to be the father of sociology.  Khaldun ranked these five desires in ascending order, with leisure at the pinnacle of the pyramid. 2. Maslow - American psychologist  emphasized the importance of certain activities in human life which is similar to Khaldun’s. Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs begins with basic physiological needs, which appear at the bottom of the figure, and culminates with self-actualization, which makes up its highest level.  Maslow suggested that the human need for aesthetics 1. (appreciation of beauty and order) and cognition 2. (knowledge and understanding) precedes the need for 3. self-actualization.
  4. 4. The Nature of Leisure Aristotle’s three level of leisure Contemplation Recreation Amusement
  5. 5. A Comparison of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs with Khaldun’s Hierarchy of Desires
  6. 6. WHAT IS LEISURE? The word leisure is derived from the Latin word licer, which means “to permit or allow.” Licer is also the Latin root of the word permission. This is an important clue, and in this text leisure is defined as permission to do as one pleases at one’s own pace, to participate in an activity of one’s choice, and to abandon the activity at will. The leisure experience has three essential elements: 1. Perceived freedom. One embarks on the experience at will and is also able to leave it at will. For example : You have the freedom to drive to the beach on a Sunday, stay as long as you like, and leave when you’re tired. If you’re employed, realistically you don’t have the freedom to make these choices during the workweek. 2. Autotelic activity - means having a purpose in and not apart from itself. An autotelic activity, therefore, is one that is done through self-motivation and not because of some external factor. For example: A dedicated amateur plays soccer out of love of the game, not for monetary gain. 3. Beneficial outcome. One undertakes the activity on the assumption that doing so will yield some benefit. For example, you may work out at the gym to lose weight, increase strength, or improve endurance.
  7. 7. WHAT IS LEISURE?  According to Geoffrey Godbey, “leisure is… freedom from the environment to act from compelling love in ways which are personally pleasing, intuitively worthwhile and provide a basis for faith.” (Godbey, 1985).  Leisure is often defined by time and activity: 1. Time: free time for enjoyment 2. Activity: recreation activities. (DeGraff, D., Debra, J., and DeGraaf, K., 1999)
  8. 8. WHAT IS LEISURE? Leisure is often viewed as freely choosing to do activities after responsibilities are completed. These activities are enjoyable, pleasing, and relaxing that are done during time that is not meant for other jobs. (McGuire, F., Boyd, R., and Raymond, T., 1996).
  9. 9. Three distinct approaches to defining the leisure experience are outlined in the next sections. Leisure as Residual Time British sociologist Parker defined leisure as residual time, to be calculated in the following way. Beginning with a 24-hour day, subtract the hours that are not devoted to leisure: working, sleeping, eating, attending to physical needs, and so forth Residual time means, quite simply, time left over—in the case of leisure, time left over after one has performed the tasks necessary to exist (continue to be) and to subsist (have or acquire the necessities of life, such as food and clothing).
  10. 10. In 1953, Nash, one of the pioneers of recreation and leisure studies in America, supplied a paradigm explaining the levels of participation in experiences in which one takes part during free time. Nash indicated that the abuse of free time is possible. Free time should be differentiated from existence time the time to fulfil one’s physical and psychological needs and from subsistence time the time to do work and conduct work related activities
  11. 11. Three Sets of Time Time for existence Free time Time for the subsistence
  12. 12. According to Nash’s lists of Free Time 1. Creativity 2. Active Participation 3. Emotional Participation 4. Killing Time 5. Injury to Self 6. Injury to Society
  13. 13. Leisure as Activities Activity is commonly defined as the performance of a specific deed or act. Although there is an almost endless variety of human acts, they all have certain characteristics in common. For example, many human acts begin with a condition of disequilibrium. Shibutani - a Japanese American social psychologist in the 1960s, suggested that one can analyze a human act by breaking it down into functional units, or phases, as outlined below:
  14. 14. Leisure as Activities  I. The impulsive phase the condition of disequilibrium sets an organism into motion. The act normally continues until equilibrium is restored. The simplest impulses are physiological: hunger, fatigue, adverse environmental conditions, and assault by a predator or an enemy. Disequilibrium also can be of a social or psychological nature, such as the feeling that you are not dressed appropriately. Boredom may also ignite a feeling of disequilibrium
  15. 15. Leisure as Activities II. The perception phase Once set in motion by a condition of disequilibrium, the organism seeks to perceive in its environment some means of achieving equilibrium. In the case of boredom, you may perceive reaching equilibrium by engaging in drawing. III. The manipulation phase. After perceiving a means of achieving equilibrium, you next must manipulate yourself, others, or objects in the environment. For example, in the case of boredom, you think of what, where, and when to draw.
  16. 16. Leisure as Activities IV. The consummation phase. In this final stage of the act, equilibrium is restored—in the case of hunger, by eating. Except in cases of physiological disequilibrium (hunger, fatigue, adverse environmental conditions, assault), it is not always easy to determine when consummation of an act has occurred. The key is that striving has ceased and that the organism is once more in balance. V. Expressive and instrumental acts. For purposes of this discussion, two types of acts are identified: expressive and instrumental. An expressive act begins with an impulsive phase and emphasizes the processes of perception and manipulation rather than consummation. An instrumental act also begins with an impulsive phase but focuses on consummation rather than perception and manipulation. In the drawing example, is the emphasis on drawing itself (expressive act) or on producing a portrait to be sold (instrumental act)?
  17. 17. What are the different types of leisure activities? 1. Social: Activities done with other people 2. Creative: Activities, where a person makes or creates something 3. Physical: Activities that require body movement 4. Cognitive: Activities that require a person to think 5. Relaxation: Activities, where a person does to feel calm 6. Spiritual: Activities, where a person submits to a higher power
  18. 18. What can leisure do for a person? Leisure offers many benefits to participants. The primary benefits include: Improved health Improved social relationships  Improved physical fitness Improved mental health  Increased life satisfaction and enjoyment (and) Personal development and growth.
  19. 19. What can leisure do for a person? 1. Reduce the risks of premature death. 2. Reduce the risk of developing heart disease. 3. Reduce the risk high blood pressure. 4. Reduce the risk high cholesterol. 5. Reduce the risk of developing breast cancer. 6. Reduce the risk developing diabetes. 7. Reduce or maintain healthy muscles and joints. 8. Build and maintain body weight. 9. Reduce depression and anxiety. 10. Improve psychological well being. 11. Enhance work, reaction, and sports performance.
  20. 20. Leisure Skills Checklist Directions: Place a checkmark in the column to identify your answer. Please be honest. Statement about Leisure Always Some Never 1. Leisure helps me to stay well 2. Leisure helps me to cope with stress 3. Leisure helps me to cope with anger 4. Leisure helps me to feel positive 5. Leisure helps me cope with anxiety 6. Leisure makes me feel confident 7. Leisure makes me feel in control of my life. 8. Leisure improves my thinking skills 9. Leisure requires me to be responsible 10. Leisure helps me to appreciate nature 11. Leisure helps me to be a leader
  21. 21. Leisure Skills Checklist Statement about Leisure Always Some Never 12. Leisure helps me to be creative 13. Leisure helps me to have adventure 14. Leisure helps me to be spiritual 15. Leisure makes me feel free 16. Leisure probably prevents diseases 17. Leisure probably improves my health 18. Leisure improves my physical strength 19. Leisure probably could prevent a stroke 20. Leisure probably improves my breathing 21. Leisure helps me cope with pain 22. Leisure helps me to lose weight
  22. 22. Leisure Skills Checklist Statement about Leisure Always Some Never 23. Leisure improves my relationships 24. Leisure helps me to bond with my family. 25. Leisure helps me to have friendships 26. Leisure helps me to get along with others 27. Leisure helps me to appreciate life 28. Leisure helps me to feel important 29. Leisure helps me to have fun 30. Leisure helps me to stay occupied 31. Leisure keeps me off streets/ out of gangs 32. Leisure helps me to feel peace 33. Leisure provides entertainment for me 34. Leisure increases my time spent outdoors 35. Leisure is beneficial to my overall life
  23. 23. Interpretation: Leisure Skills Checklist TOTAL SCORE:  Under 13 You strongly do not believe that leisure is helping you or you do not participate in many leisure activities.  14 – 27 You think leisure is not helping you or you are not actively participating in many leisure activities.  28 – 41 You are undecided about leisure in your life.  42 – 55 You believe you receive benefits from your leisure  56 – 70 You strongly believe that you receive many benefits from your leisure.  If you checked “Always” on statements 23, 24, 25, 26, and 27 then you view leisure as being social. You probably participate in activities with other people.  If you checked “Always” on statements 2, 3, and 5 then you view leisure as relaxation. You probably participate in activities that help you to relax.  If you checked “Always” on statements 1, 16, 17, 19, and 20 then you view your leisure to be a way to keep you healthy. You probably participate in activities that help to keep you fit and well.  If you checked “Always” on statements 4, 6, 28, and 29 then you view your leisure as being a positive experience. You probably participate in activities that make you feel good about life and living.  If you checked “Always” on statement 13 then your leisure helps you to be free and adventurous. You probably participate in activities that require an element of risk.  If you checked “Always” on statement 8 then you view your leisure as being intellectual. You probably participate in activities that require concentration.  If you checked “Always” on statements 10 and 34 then you view leisure as a way to appreciate nature and the outdoors.
  24. 24. Leisure Skills: JUMBLE Word  Directions: Find all the jumble or scrabble words listed below. 1. SEISTIIVCTA 2. TNEMYOJNE 3. IESOBBH 4. MATLEN 5. TERS 6. FITSENEB 7. TIME FEER 8. ANCETOPRIM 9. RAKPS 10. WRADINGRE
  25. 25. Leisure Skills: JUMBLE Word Directions: Find all the jumble or scrabble words listed below. 1. TING COECTL 2. DOM EERF 3. TERESTIN 4. PYHISCAL 5. KILLSS 6. IESULER 7. UNF 8. LAXATIREON 9. RECTIONREA 10. HELATH
  26. 26. RECREATION  is a term for which there is no universally agreed-on definition.  defined as voluntary participation in leisure activities that are meaningful and enjoyable to the person involved. The term embraces both indoor and outdoor activities and refers to sports and exercise as well as to less physically active pursuits.  one aspect of the broader term leisure, which encompasses not only vigorous activities such as softball and hiking but also sedentary hobbies such as coin and stamp collecting as well as more passive pastimes such as dozing in a hammock or getting a relaxing facial.
  27. 27. RECREATION The link between leisure and recreation was probed by Aristotle. He suggested that leisure can be classified into three overlapping categories: contemplation, recreation, and amusement 1. Contemplation - is the act of considering something with attention. 2. Recreation is the active, participatory aspect of leisure. 3. Amusement is passive reception on the part of an audience or spectators.
  28. 28. the term recreation is used to describe activities in a variety of structured settings. 1. Public Recreation - Programs may be conducted indoors or outdoors and may involve sports and fitness activities as well as nature study and crafts. 2. Commercial Recreation - describes programs and activities that are offered for profit on a fee basis. 3. Corporate Recreation - refers to activities sponsored by companies and organizations for the benefit of their employees. 4. Therapeutic Recreation - consists of programs offered by both public and private agencies for the benefit of specific populations. 5. Other Recreational Settings - Other recreational settings are provided on an individual basis, as in playing golf at a private club or participating in military recreation.