Research Methodology   BY: Jocelyn M. Gallegos
Benefits of research to whom   As a graduate student...       To be able to read and understand the        empirical lit...
Benefits to whom   As a future practitioner…       To be able to intelligently participate in        research projects, ...
What Research Is Not   Research isn’t information gathering:       Gathering information from resources such books or   ...
What Research Is   Research is:     “…the systematic process of collecting and     analyzing information (data) in order ...
What’s the Difference Between “Method” and “Methodology”?Method:                   Methodology: Techniques for          ...
Epistemology, Methodology, and               Method   “a research method is a technique for (or    way of proceeding in) ...
"It is the theory that decides  what can be observed."        Albert Einstein
Research Characteristics1.   Originates with a question or problem.2.   Requires clear articulation of a goal.3.   Follows...
Research Projects   Research begins with a problem.        This problem need not be Earth-shaking.   Identifying this p...
Research Project Pitfalls   The following kinds of projects usually don’t    make for good research:       Self-enlighte...
High-Quality Research                            (1 of 2)   Good research requires:       The scope and limitations of t...
High-Quality Research                            (2 of 2)   Good research requires:       Highly ethical standards be ap...
Sources of Research Problems   Observation.   Literature reviews.   Professional conferences.   Experts.
Stating the Research Problem   Once you’ve identified a research problem:       State that problem clearly and completel...
Research           Acquisition of Knowledge                 Knowledge                     v/s                 Information...
Theory          What exists?          Why exists?   What will happen in future?
How to acquire Knowledge?   Inductive Reasoning    ( works moving from specific       observation to broader       genera...
Deductive ReasoningTheory           Hypothesis                        Observation                            Confirmation
Inductive Reasoning                                 Theory                        Hypothesis              PatternObservation
Positivism Goal of Knowledge is to describe  the phenomena that are  experienced, There is interdependence of  observati...
Scientific        thought    Francis Bacon   Rene Descartes   John Stuart   Karl Popper   Thomas Kuhn   Feyer bend ...
Hypotheses   Hypotheses are tentative, intelligent guesses as    to the solution of the problem.       There is often a ...
Delimitations   All research has limitations and thus certain    work that will not be performed.   The work that will n...
Definitions   Define each technical term as it is used in    relation to your research project.       This helps remove ...
Assumptions   Assumptions are those things that the    researcher is taking for granted.       For example: a given test...
Importance of the Study   Many research problems have a kind of    theoretical feel about them. Such projects often    ne...
Research Proposals   Research proposals are documents that describe    the intended research including:       Problem an...
Literature Review   A literature review is a necessity.       Without this step, you won’t know if your problem        h...
Literature Review Pitfalls                            (1 of 2)   Be very careful to check your sources when    doing your...
Literature Review Pitfalls                        (2 of 2)   The Internet can be a good source of    information. It is a...
Processes & Methodologies   Research Process.   Common Methodologies.   Methodology Comparison.
Research Process   Research is an extremely cyclic process.       Later stages might necessitate a review of earlier    ...
Step 1: A Question Is Raised   A question occurs to or is posed to the    researcher for which that researcher has no    ...
Step 2: Suggest Hypotheses   The researcher generates intermediate    hypotheses to describe a solution to the    problem...
Step 3: Literature Review   The available literature is reviewed to determine    if there is already a solution to the pr...
Step 4: Literature Evaluation   It’s possible that the literature review has    yielded a solution to the proposed proble...
Step 5: Acquire Data   The researcher now begins to gather data    relating to the research problem.       The means of ...
Step 6: Data Analysis   The data that were gathered in the previous    step are analyzed as a first step in ascertaining ...
Step 7: Data Interpretation   The researcher interprets the newly analyzed    data and suggests a conclusion.       This...
Step 8: Hypothesis Support   The data will either support the hypotheses or    they won’t.       This may lead the resea...
Common Methodologies   Methodologies are high-level approaches to    conducting research.       The individual steps wit...
Methodology Comparison          Quantitative                    Qualitative   Explanation, prediction       Explanation,...
An Overview of Empirical         Research MethodsDescriptive (Qualitative) Ethnography                              Exper...
Assessing Methods   Research Question(s) is/are key   Methods must answer the research    question(s)   Methodology gui...
Ethnographies+   Observational field work done in the actual    context being studied+   Focus on how individuals interrel...
Case Studies+   Focus is on individual or small group+   Able to conduct a comprehensive analysis    from a comparison of ...
Survey Research+   An efficient means of gathering large    amounts of data+   Can be anonymous and inexpensive-   Feedbac...
Focus Groups+   Aid in understanding audience, group, users+   Small group interaction more than individual    response+  ...
Discourse/Text Analysis+   Examines actual discourse produced for a    particular purpose (job, school)+   Helps in unders...
Quantitative Descriptive Studies+   Isolates systematically the most important    variables (often from case studies) and ...
Discourse/Text Analysis+   Examines actual discourse produced for a    particular purpose (job, school)+   Helps in unders...
Quantitative Descriptive Studies+   Isolates systematically the most important    variables (often from case studies) and ...
Prediction and Classification                StudiesGoal is to predict behaviors:   Prediction forecasts and interval var...
Positive Aspects of Descriptive/      Qualitative Research   Naturalistic; allows for subjects to interact    with enviro...
Problems with        Descriptive/Qualitative              Research   Impossible to overlay structure   Impossible to imp...
Experimental Research: True             Experiment+   Random sampling, or selection, of subjects    (which are also strati...
Experimental Research: Quasi-             Experiment+   Similar to Experiment, except that the subjects    are not randomi...
Meta-Analysis+   Takes the results of true and quasi-experiments    and identifies interrelationships of conclusions+   Sy...
Positive Aspects of        Experimental Research   Tests the validity of generalizations   Seen as rigorous   Identifie...
Problems with Experimental             Research   Generalizations need to be qualified    according to limitation of rese...
Testing the Waters   How do you come up with a good    research question?   How do you determine if the method you    pl...
Quantitative Methods   Samplingst   Testing of Hypothesis   Chi Square Test   ANOVA   Multivariate Analysis
   Thanks
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Introductionresearchmethodology 1

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Introduction research methodology 1

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Introductionresearchmethodology 1

  1. 1. Research Methodology BY: Jocelyn M. Gallegos
  2. 2. Benefits of research to whom As a graduate student...  To be able to read and understand the empirical literature in your field; to become a critical consumer of information. As a graduate student preparing for a thesis or dissertation…  To be able to both design and implement your thesis or dissertation as well as future studies that interest you.
  3. 3. Benefits to whom As a future practitioner…  To be able to intelligently participate in research projects, evaluations, and studies undertaken by your institution. As an educated citizen ...  To understand the difference between scientifically acquired knowledge and other kinds of information.
  4. 4. What Research Is Not Research isn’t information gathering:  Gathering information from resources such books or magazines isn’t research.  No contribution to new knowledge. Research isn’t the transportation of facts:  Merely transporting facts from one resource to another doesn’t constitute research.  No contribution to new knowledge although this might make existing knowledge more accessible.
  5. 5. What Research Is Research is: “…the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon about which we are concerned or interested.”1
  6. 6. What’s the Difference Between “Method” and “Methodology”?Method: Methodology: Techniques for  The underlying theory gathering evidence and analysis of how The various ways of research does or proceeding in should proceed, often gathering information influenced by discipline
  7. 7. Epistemology, Methodology, and Method “a research method is a technique for (or way of proceeding in) gathering evidence" while "methodology is a theory and analysis of how research does or should proceed" and "an epistemology is a theory of knowledge"
  8. 8. "It is the theory that decides what can be observed."  Albert Einstein
  9. 9. Research Characteristics1. Originates with a question or problem.2. Requires clear articulation of a goal.3. Follows a specific plan or procedure.4. Often divides main problem into subproblems.5. Guided by specific problem, question, or hypothesis.6. Accepts certain critical assumptions.7. Requires collection and interpretation of data.8. Cyclical (helical) in nature.
  10. 10. Research Projects Research begins with a problem.  This problem need not be Earth-shaking. Identifying this problem can actually be the hardest part of research. In general, good research projects should:  Address an important question.  Advance knowledge.
  11. 11. Research Project Pitfalls The following kinds of projects usually don’t make for good research:  Self-enlightenment.  Comparing data sets.  Correlating data sets.  Problems with yes / no answers.
  12. 12. High-Quality Research (1 of 2) Good research requires:  The scope and limitations of the work to be clearly defined.  The process to be clearly explained so that it can be reproduced and verified by other researchers.  A thoroughly planned design that is as objective as possible.
  13. 13. High-Quality Research (2 of 2) Good research requires:  Highly ethical standards be applied.  All limitations be documented.  Data be adequately analyzed and explained.  All findings be presented unambiguously and all conclusions be justified by sufficient evidence.
  14. 14. Sources of Research Problems Observation. Literature reviews. Professional conferences. Experts.
  15. 15. Stating the Research Problem Once you’ve identified a research problem:  State that problem clearly and completely.  Determine the feasibility of the research. Identify subproblems:  Completely researchable units.  Small in number.  Add up to the total problem.  Must be clearly tied to the interpretation of the data.
  16. 16. Research  Acquisition of Knowledge Knowledge v/s Information(Theoretically, concerned with developing, exploring, or testing theories)
  17. 17. Theory  What exists?  Why exists? What will happen in future?
  18. 18. How to acquire Knowledge? Inductive Reasoning ( works moving from specific observation to broader generalisation, bottom approach) Deductive Reasoning ( more general to more specific or top down approach)
  19. 19. Deductive ReasoningTheory Hypothesis Observation Confirmation
  20. 20. Inductive Reasoning Theory Hypothesis PatternObservation
  21. 21. Positivism Goal of Knowledge is to describe the phenomena that are experienced, There is interdependence of observation and theory, our observations are theory laden
  22. 22. Scientific thought Francis Bacon Rene Descartes John Stuart Karl Popper Thomas Kuhn Feyer bend Steven Hagen
  23. 23. Hypotheses Hypotheses are tentative, intelligent guesses as to the solution of the problem.  There is often a 1-1 correspondence between a subproblem and a hypothesis.  Hypotheses can direct later research activities since they can help determine the nature of the research and methods applied.
  24. 24. Delimitations All research has limitations and thus certain work that will not be performed. The work that will not be undertaken is described as the delimitations of the research.
  25. 25. Definitions Define each technical term as it is used in relation to your research project.  This helps remove significant ambiguity from the research itself by ensuring that reviewers, while they may not agree with your definitions, at least know what you’re talking about.
  26. 26. Assumptions Assumptions are those things that the researcher is taking for granted.  For example: a given test instrument accurately and consistently measures the phenomenon in question. As a general rule you’re better off documenting an assumption than ignoring it.  Overlooked assumptions provide a prime source of debate about a research project’s results.
  27. 27. Importance of the Study Many research problems have a kind of theoretical feel about them. Such projects often need to be justified:  What is the research project’s practical value? Without this justification, it will prove difficult to convince others that the problem in question is worth study.
  28. 28. Research Proposals Research proposals are documents that describe the intended research including:  Problem and subproblems.  Hypotheses.  Delimitations.  Definitions.  Assumptions.  Importance.  Literature review.
  29. 29. Literature Review A literature review is a necessity.  Without this step, you won’t know if your problem has been solved or what related research is already underway. When performing the review:  Start searching professional journals.  Begin with the most recent articles you can find.  Keep track of relevant articles in a bibliography.  Don’t be discouraged if work on the topic is already underway.
  30. 30. Literature Review Pitfalls (1 of 2) Be very careful to check your sources when doing your literature review. Many trade magazines are not peer reviewed.  Professional conferences and journals often have each article reviewed by multiple people before it is even recommended for publication.  The IEEE and ACM digital libraries are good places to start looking for legitimate research.
  31. 31. Literature Review Pitfalls (2 of 2) The Internet can be a good source of information. It is also full of pseudo-science and poor research. Make sure you verify the claims of any documentation that has not been peer reviewed by other professionals in the computing industry.
  32. 32. Processes & Methodologies Research Process. Common Methodologies. Methodology Comparison.
  33. 33. Research Process Research is an extremely cyclic process.  Later stages might necessitate a review of earlier work. This isn’t a weakness of the process but is part of the built-in error correction machinery. Because of the cyclic nature of research, it can be difficult to determine where to start and when to stop.
  34. 34. Step 1: A Question Is Raised A question occurs to or is posed to the researcher for which that researcher has no answer.  This doesn’t mean that someone else doesn’t already have an answer. The question needs to be converted to an appropriate problem statement like that documented in a research proposal.
  35. 35. Step 2: Suggest Hypotheses The researcher generates intermediate hypotheses to describe a solution to the problem.  This is at best a temporary solution since there is as yet no evidence to support either the acceptance or rejection of these hypotheses.
  36. 36. Step 3: Literature Review The available literature is reviewed to determine if there is already a solution to the problem.  Existing solutions do not always explain new observations.  The existing solution might require some revision or even be discarded.
  37. 37. Step 4: Literature Evaluation It’s possible that the literature review has yielded a solution to the proposed problem.  This means that you haven’t really done research. On the other hand, if the literature review turns up nothing, then additional research activities are justified.
  38. 38. Step 5: Acquire Data The researcher now begins to gather data relating to the research problem.  The means of data acquisition will often change based on the type of the research problem.  This might entail only data gathering, but it could also require the creation of new measurement instruments.
  39. 39. Step 6: Data Analysis The data that were gathered in the previous step are analyzed as a first step in ascertaining their meaning. As before, the analysis of the data does not constitute research.  This is basic number crunching.
  40. 40. Step 7: Data Interpretation The researcher interprets the newly analyzed data and suggests a conclusion.  This can be difficult.  Keep in mind that data analysis that suggests a correlation between two variables can’t automatically be interpreted as suggesting causality between those variables.
  41. 41. Step 8: Hypothesis Support The data will either support the hypotheses or they won’t.  This may lead the researcher to cycle back to an earlier step in the process and begin again with a new hypothesis.  This is one of the self-correcting mechanisms associated with the scientific method.
  42. 42. Common Methodologies Methodologies are high-level approaches to conducting research.  The individual steps within the methodology might vary based on the research being performed. Two commonly used research methodologies:  Quantitative.  Qualitative.
  43. 43. Methodology Comparison Quantitative Qualitative Explanation, prediction  Explanation, description Test theories  Build theories Known variables  Unknown variables Large sample  Small sample Standardized instruments  Observations, interviews Deductive  Inductive
  44. 44. An Overview of Empirical Research MethodsDescriptive (Qualitative) Ethnography Experimental Case Study (Quantitative) Suvey/Sampling  True Experiment Focus Groups Discourse/Text Analysis  Quasi-Experiment Quantitative Description  Meta-Analysis Prediction/Classification
  45. 45. Assessing Methods Research Question(s) is/are key Methods must answer the research question(s) Methodology guides application Epistemology guides analysis
  46. 46. Ethnographies+ Observational field work done in the actual context being studied+ Focus on how individuals interrelate in their own environment (and the influence of this environment)- Difficult to interpret/analyze- Time consuming/expensive- Can influence subject behavior
  47. 47. Case Studies+ Focus is on individual or small group+ Able to conduct a comprehensive analysis from a comparison of cases+ Allows for identification of variables or phenomenon to be studied- Time consuming- Depth rather than breadth- Not necessarily representative
  48. 48. Survey Research+ An efficient means of gathering large amounts of data+ Can be anonymous and inexpensive- Feedback often incomplete- Wording of instrument can bias feedback- Details often left out
  49. 49. Focus Groups+ Aid in understanding audience, group, users+ Small group interaction more than individual response+ Helps identify and fill gaps in current knowledge re: perceptions, attitudes, feelings, etc.- Does not give statistics- Marketing tools seen as “suspect”- Analysis subjective
  50. 50. Discourse/Text Analysis+ Examines actual discourse produced for a particular purpose (job, school)+ Helps in understanding of context, production, audience, and text+ Schedule for analysis not demanding- Labor intensive- Categories often fluid, making analysis difficult
  51. 51. Quantitative Descriptive Studies+ Isolates systematically the most important variables (often from case studies) and to quantify and interrelate them (often via survey or questionnaire)+ Possible to collect large amounts of data+ Not as disruptive+ Biases not as likely- Data restricted to information available
  52. 52. Discourse/Text Analysis+ Examines actual discourse produced for a particular purpose (job, school)+ Helps in understanding of context, production, audience, and text+ Schedule for analysis not demanding- Labor intensive- Categories often fluid, making analysis difficult
  53. 53. Quantitative Descriptive Studies+ Isolates systematically the most important variables (often from case studies) and to quantify and interrelate them (often via survey or questionnaire)+ Possible to collect large amounts of data+ Not as disruptive+ Biases not as likely- Data restricted to information available
  54. 54. Prediction and Classification StudiesGoal is to predict behaviors: Prediction forecasts and interval variable (Diagnostic/TAAS scores) Classification forecasts a nominal variable (Major selection after taking 2311)+ Important in industry, education to predict behaviors- Need substantial population- Restricted range of variables can cause misinterpretation- Variables cannot be added together; must be weighted and looked at in context of other variables
  55. 55. Positive Aspects of Descriptive/ Qualitative Research Naturalistic; allows for subjects to interact with environment Can use statistical analysis Seeks to further develop theory (not to influence action); Prescientific Coding schemes often arise from interplay between data and researcher’s knowledge of theory
  56. 56. Problems with Descriptive/Qualitative Research Impossible to overlay structure Impossible to impose control Subject pool often limited, not representative Seen as more “subjective,” less rigorous Beneficial only in terms of initial investigation to form hypothesis
  57. 57. Experimental Research: True Experiment+ Random sampling, or selection, of subjects (which are also stratified)+ Introduction of a treatment+ Use of a control group for comparing subjects who don’t receive treatment with those who do- Adherence to scientific method (seen as positive, too)- Must have both internal and external validity- Treatment and control might seem artificial
  58. 58. Experimental Research: Quasi- Experiment+ Similar to Experiment, except that the subjects are not randomized. Intact groups are often used (for example, students in a classroom).+ To draw more fully on the power of the experimental method, a pretest may be employed.+ Employ treatment, control, and scientific method- Act of control and treatment makes situation artificial- Small subject pools
  59. 59. Meta-Analysis+ Takes the results of true and quasi-experiments and identifies interrelationships of conclusions+ Systematic+ Replicable+ Summarizes overall results- C/C apples and oranges?- Quality of studies used?
  60. 60. Positive Aspects of Experimental Research Tests the validity of generalizations Seen as rigorous Identifies a cause-and-effect relationship Seen as more objective, less subjective Can be predictive
  61. 61. Problems with Experimental Research Generalizations need to be qualified according to limitation of research methods employed Controlled settings don’t mirror actual conditions; unnatural Difficult to isolate a single variable Doesn’t allow for self-reflection (built-in)
  62. 62. Testing the Waters How do you come up with a good research question? How do you determine if the method you plan to use will answer your question? What epistemology should you use to analyze data?
  63. 63. Quantitative Methods Samplingst Testing of Hypothesis Chi Square Test ANOVA Multivariate Analysis
  64. 64.  Thanks

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