unit 7-Dentistry


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unit 7-Dentistry

  1. 1. Dentistry <ul><li>Only small part of tooth can be seen by handler. </li></ul><ul><li>Teeth grow out continuously, and so we can tell the age of a horse fairly accurately. </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Horses have deciduous and permanent teeth. By five years of age all permanent teeth are in- full mouth. Molars are not present in deciduous teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Teeth are classified as incisors, molars, premolars, wolf and canine teeth. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Mature males will have up to 42 teeth whereas mature females will usually have 36-38 teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Canines only develop normally in male-but 2-3% mares will have upper and lower, 20-30% lower, 6-7% in upper row only. </li></ul><ul><li>Parrot mouth is a serious defect in the dentition of a horse whereas the upper arcade or row of teeth </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>protrude further out in front of the lower row. </li></ul><ul><li>Undershot jaw is a condition opposite that of parrot mouth. </li></ul><ul><li>Points- the most common problem caused by the two teeth surfaces grinding each other to a sharp point- teeth must be floated to remedy such a situation. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Shear mouth is an especially bad case of points. </li></ul><ul><li>Wave mouth is when the table surface of the teeth is uneven. </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth mouth is when the grinding surface of the teeth is worn smooth in an older horse. </li></ul><ul><li>Alveolar Periostitis is infection of the tooth socket. A root canal must be performed. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Dental Formula <ul><li>I= incisor I 1 = central incisor I 2 = middle incisor I 3 =corner incisor </li></ul><ul><li>Pm = premolar M=molar C= canine </li></ul><ul><li>Deciduous dental formula </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>2 ( Di 3/3 Dc 1/1 Dpm 3/3 )= 28 </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent dental formula </li></ul><ul><li>2 ( I 3/3 C 1/1 Pm 3-4/3 M 3/3) =40 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Aging the horse by his mouth <ul><li>Looking to see what the color, shape, and presence of dental markers present. </li></ul><ul><li>When looking at the tooth we can only see part of the neck-portion covered by gum. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Nor can we see the fang or root- which are imbedded into the bone. </li></ul><ul><li>We do see the crown of the tooth, which is composed of (outside to inside) the cement, dentine, central enamel, and infindibulum. Later we will see the pulp cavity. </li></ul><ul><li>We do see the infindibulum as &quot;the cup&quot; </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li> eruption of the temporary teeth, </li></ul><ul><li> the replacement of the temporary teeth and the </li></ul><ul><li> presence of other markers </li></ul>Primarily we use the :
  11. 11. <ul><li>shape and disappearance of the cups </li></ul><ul><li>the appearance and position of the dental star </li></ul><ul><li>the shape, position and disappearance of the enamel ring </li></ul><ul><li>shape of the table surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>length of the crown, angle of the teeth, </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Galyvayne's Groove </li></ul><ul><li>Presence or absence of the 7 and 11 year hook. </li></ul><ul><li>The determination of age from one to six years of age are based primarily on the appearance of the incisor teeth. Look at above factors, especially the presence </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>of the cup. Cup disappears about 3 years after eruption of tooth. </li></ul><ul><li>Check for permanent incisors. None? Horse is under 2.5 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>Central, middle, and corner incisors break through at 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 years of age. In wear within 6 months. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Central, middle, and corner incisors lose cup at 6,7, and 8 years, respectively. Upper central incisors lose cup at 9,10,11 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Central, middle, and corner incisors gain star at 8, 9, and 10 years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Central, middle incisors become round at 9, 10 years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Teeth become triangular at 16, 17 years. </li></ul>