Prosthetics
(Prostheses)
   Category: Teaching

       Maxine Cheng
  Renee Agatsuma Period 6
         10th Grade
    Garf...
Topic: Prosthetics

Aim/Goals:
       My goal for teaching this lesson is to inform people about prosthetics. I want

them...
questions wherever needed, developing a scientific mind set on the situation. With given

fact as well as their personal i...
because this is a topic that doesn’t even make out to the general public very often. It is

also a topic that hasn’t been ...
Artificial limbs-arms/legs. The most commonly known prosthetic. The four main

types being Transtibial (below the knee), T...
Neuro prosthetics-Nervous system. It helps improve or replace parts in the

nervous system. It is followed up by neural st...
out of heavy and strong materials that people couldn’t control. These prosthetics were not

really helpful to people of th...
There is also the new prosthetics that allow the user to move the limb with his or

her mind. By just thinking about movin...
alternative to not getting it. For example, medications for a diabetic can cost up to an

extra $100 a month which adds up...
After receiving and getting used to the prosthetic, the patient is now ready to

continue living their daily lives. Someti...
practices, the same thing happened to me. After finishing the lesson, I realized that I had

forgotten one of the major fa...
Hello Tony,

I have already started on my project. I am not sure it was the best of chices though. Do
you think prosthetic...
send you. Say you are patient and check the box that says “you hear about Hanger from
your doctor”.

Tony
http://www.hange...
Maxine – With all the email exchanges and my assistance to help you finding the
resources and additional knowledge on pros...
December 27, 2007 from <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?
    sec=health&res=9C06EFD71F3FF93BA35750C0A9629C8B63&...
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  1. 1. Prosthetics (Prostheses) Category: Teaching Maxine Cheng Renee Agatsuma Period 6 10th Grade Garfield High School -1-
  2. 2. Topic: Prosthetics Aim/Goals: My goal for teaching this lesson is to inform people about prosthetics. I want them to learn about something that helps people so much and is actually more common than they think. After the presentation, I want them to know about the types of prosthetics, who has it and why and how people can obtain them. Since there are no controversies about prosthetics right now, I am able to send the message that prosthetics are completely positive. The concept of biotechnology this is addressing is that it uses technology and science to create ways to benefit people physically. All the information in the presentation is important for all the students to know because it affects them all as prosthetics are used all around them. It is an important subject that benefits humanity and should be seen as a positive outcome, rather than an unusual aspect of life they may feel to criticize. They will learn the various types of prosthetics that can make them more common than thought as well as reasons for the patients’ unfortunate experiences. The Washington State Essential Academic Learning Requirements for Science that I will demonstrate are: 1.1 Properties: my students will be able identify, describe the types of prosthetics. They will be able to understand and describe the various types of prosthetics (1.2 Structures) what the prosthetics do and how they help people in life. They will also understand how the prosthetics affect the people missing limbs and the changes that will start in them (1.3: Changes.) During and after this lesson, my students will be able to form scientific and reasonable theories to any future questions they have about prosthetics because of new knowledge they can use to justify any hypotheses. (2.1: Investigating Systems) During the presentation, students will be encouraged to ask -2-
  3. 3. questions wherever needed, developing a scientific mind set on the situation. With given fact as well as their personal inferences, they will be able to understand and generate reasons for inquiry. (2.2: Nature of Science). After the presentation, students will have understood the application of knowledge and skills in scientific technology to design solutions to human problems. Because prosthetics were invented for the sole purpose of helping people who have lost limbs or have problems with body parts, this EALR is given to the students. (3.1: Designing Solutions.) The students will also be able to relate science, technology and society with the topic. They will understand that prosthetics are factors in human society that are common and should be acknowledged. The students will learn that this topic, along with science as a whole, affects the society directly. Audience: My intended audience includes people around my age; high school students. I believe this is a good age group to teach because a majority of teenagers do not think about these problems that are very common, and instead of trying to help the problem, they may either turn a blind eye, or even criticize it. I want to teach a level of maturity to students of this age because they are the ones who will be leading this world and they must be aware of a greater knowledge to help the planet. I believe this age group is preferable to younger students because younger students may not be able to understand the meaning of benefiting the people. It is also a topic that could be taught to adults and the older generation as it affects many of them who have lost body parts to disease and war. I do not expect any of them to have very much previous knowledge of the topic -3-
  4. 4. because this is a topic that doesn’t even make out to the general public very often. It is also a topic that hasn’t been paid attention to when it is used to benefit people so much. Assessment: It is important that understand and retain as much of the presentation and the information as much as possible. During my presentation, I will constantly ask questions and ask whether or not they have questions themselves. I will also ask for review questions at the end of the presentation. Background Planning To prepare for my presentation, I will have to get a poster board with various visual aids and examples of types of prosthetics. I will have to reserve a room to present and set up for my students. Because I will not have a lab, I do not need anything extra besides chairs and tables. I am also planning on getting prosthetics from either my mentor or another source to use as examples for my students. I will encourage my students to take notes, so I will need them to have pens and paper to take notes. I will have to notify my students of this beforehand. Lesson Plan and Content: Self-Introduction: I will begin my class session with introducing myself and my topic. I will tell them about what to expect during the session. I will tell then begin to tell them about the types of prosthetics used by people who have lost limbs to disease, birth related problems, or war. They include: -4-
  5. 5. Artificial limbs-arms/legs. The most commonly known prosthetic. The four main types being Transtibial (below the knee), Transfermoral (Above the knee), Transradial (below elbow) and Transhumeral (above the elbow) May, B, J. (1996). Breast prosthesis-Breasts. Breast prosthetics can be of use to people after mastectomy and either silicone or a wearable set of breasts can be used. However there are those women who just desire to make their breasts bigger and can not afford the operation so they “stuff” their bras with stockings, pads, RICE, BIRDSEED, and other organic materials. Cochlear implants-ear. It is different from hearing aids (external.) It is an implanted device that stimulates the auditory nerve to receive signals and send them to the inner ear like a normal ear would do. The second part is an external piece either worn behind the ear, in a pocket, belt pouch, or harness. It is currently made of magnets that hold the internal and external piece together Cochlear Implants (2007). Corrective lenses-Eye. It includes contacts and Glasses. Not really thought of as a prosthetic. Craniofacial prosthesis-Face (Medical.) They are prosthetics that help patients who have suffered from cancer, trauma or birth defects. Commonly used for skin cancer, replacement of ear, nose and eyelids. Dental Prosthesis-Teeth. Also known as Prosthodontics, they are implants or reconstructive dentistry tactics. It includes dentures, crowns, and other repairing of tooth decay or oral problems. Hair Prosthesis-Hair. This is basically wigs. Wigs are given to those who have lost hair due to disease or some other medically related problems. -5-
  6. 6. Neuro prosthetics-Nervous system. It helps improve or replace parts in the nervous system. It is followed up by neural stimulators that help with therapy to get used to them. Ocular Prosthetics-Artificial eye. It replaces an absent eye after enucleation (removal of the eye without damaging the muscles and innards.) Eyes need replacement because of serious trauma to the eyes, blindness or pain. There are also possibilities of people doing this to themselves because of some mental disease like Schizophrenia. Penile Prostheses- Replacement Penises for men with Erectile Dysfunction. It is attached in surgery and has a pump to make an erection and help initiate sexual intercourse. It does not affect ejaculation but a man may not be able to have normal erections. Facial Prosthesis-Face (Entertainment or recreational.) These are not medical at all. They are used for television or theater to make a person look different by changing the shape and appearance for their face by silicone, latex, and other make-up products. Replacement joints-joint and bone replacements. It replaces painful, arthritic, worn out, or cancerous parts of a joint to allow the same joint movement as before. However it is possible that people will never achieve the flexibility of natural joints. In fact it is possible that the bond between the bone and the prosthetic will break down and will wear off causing inflammation (osteolysis) (May, B, J. 1996.) I will also tell them about what prosthetics are made from. Prosthetics are made from various materials depending on what kind of prosthetic. There has been evidence of makeshift prosthetics dating since 300 B.C. in Italy. They also made uncontrollable limbs -6-
  7. 7. out of heavy and strong materials that people couldn’t control. These prosthetics were not really helpful to people of that time. In the earlier times, since the 18th century, prosthetics were made from heavy wood and iron and steel only for the sake of having the artificial limb there. These were for very functional and were difficult to maneuver. Prosthetic arms were made of heavy steel, leather and a mechanical hand or hook.(May 1996) Compared to today’s prosthetic appearance is usually made to look like the original body part by making artificial skin. There have been prosthetics that have been so closely similar to the original limb that the skin tones, skin spots and other various skin features were modeled onto the prosthetic. Because the prosthetic has to lightweight or the same weight as before, it is made from light materials. Now prosthetics are made from the lightweight titanium and aluminum, polyethylene, polypropylene, acrylics, polyurethane and other various plastics. (May, B, J. 1996) Prosthetic limbs are put on in various ways. Some people wear the prosthetic via a strap that it wound around other parts of the body to keep it in place or suction. There are also cases of direct attachment where the prosthetic is attached to the bone and tissue in the remaining part of the body such as the ingrown method of inserting a rod into the end of the remaining bone and the bone will eventually start to grow over the rod and provide a strong basis for a prosthetic to be attached into (Sayre 2007.) -7-
  8. 8. There is also the new prosthetics that allow the user to move the limb with his or her mind. By just thinking about moving the limb, they are ale to move it at will. The only negative to this new invention is that the user must look at the prosthetic while attempting to move it. For example you are able to grab that water bottle without looking at it because your limbs move accordingly to the estimation of the distance of the object. This new robotic limb is incapable of moving like this and requires the user to constantly “tell” the robotic part how to move and how much to move. Prosthetics are not only used in humans; animal prostheses are quite common. Artificial tails, beaks and limbs have been made for animals. There have been cases where surgeons had to give an elephant a new leg and used a used something similar to a 22 pound bag of sawdust that was held in place by a sling. In addition to all the medical positives of prosthetics, there are also many cases of increased medical condition. Many of those who were plagued by thoughts of suicide and depression were stopped because of the “new” ability to move again like a “normal” person. Prosthetics have greatly helped with the people of the world. Nearly two million people in the United Sates live without all of their body parts. Many of these people decide to rebuild their lives starting with regaining their lost body part. The number is estimated to jump to over 2.7 million by 2010. Many people are concerned with the pricing and financial difficulties they would have for obtaining the prosthetics. However, unlike common belief, prosthetics are not as expensive as many believe. Studies show that the cost of providing prosthetics is less than two dollars per year. In fact it is a better -8-
  9. 9. alternative to not getting it. For example, medications for a diabetic can cost up to an extra $100 a month which adds up to $264,000 that could be saved if they became an amputee at 55 until age 77. Insurance pays for a majority of the price of an amputation and prosthetic if it is for a medical reason. One of the common problems for people who need prosthetics is ulcers. There are extreme ulcers that can appear on the foot that eat through the flesh and cause a void in the skin that can not be repaired. This causes immense pain in the user if it they try to stand of maneuver on their feet. So since they are unable to move, they just decide to amputate it and replace it with a prosthetic foot. There are also the diseases that cause the user to be unable to move their body parts and are completely paralyzed. This will lead to the desire to move again with the use of prosthetic arms, legs, hands, etc. As useful as prosthetics are, they still require a lot of physical therapy for the patient to get used to the prosthetic and learn how to use it. For artificial limbs, they need to watch the movement of the limb to see how much pressure and effort is required to move the limbs. There are also those patients who are still a bit traumatized by the fact that they no longer have a real arm or leg and have to learn how to mentally cope and adjust to this new part of their life. It doesn’t matter if the patient lost his leg in a war or by disease, he will still have to learn to live differently. Patients with artificial legs will have to learn the multiple possibilities of danger and how to avoid and fix the problem. For example the patient will have to learn how to fall without pressuring the artificial limb and learn how to balance out the weight of the body. -9-
  10. 10. After receiving and getting used to the prosthetic, the patient is now ready to continue living their daily lives. Sometimes the patients will not be completely mobile and stable with their new prosthetic. Patients with a new artificial leg will have to take alternatives to maneuver around. For example, they are not encouraged to use stairs if they are not comfortable or are a senior. There is also the fact that they should not use the artificial leg to step on a gas pedal or break, and instead use the opposite leg due to the possibility of malfunction. Public transportations are also hazardous and are not always encouraged. Sports may or may not be allowed depending on the prosthetic and the mobility of the patient. Prosthetics may be avoided from water depending on the type of prosthetic. Prosthesis are an innovation that definitely benefits people. It has been invented only for the benefit of people and does not cause many negative effects. It is not really controversial, except for pricing and type, but requires a lot of diligence and desire to learn how to use it. It helps all amputees who need body parts. From artificial limbs, to neural prosthetics, it is only benefiting people. I will then end with questions, comments, and a questionnaire. I will expect them to report to me what they learned and whether or not they believe this new information will benefit them in the future or not. Reflection Like most people think that after a presentation, you can always think of ways you could have improved as well as mistakes you thought you ironed out during - 10 -
  11. 11. practices, the same thing happened to me. After finishing the lesson, I realized that I had forgotten one of the major factors of my lesson, my worksheets. I also realized that despite my practices, I still had trouble presenting and my stage fright returned. After watching my video, I noticed the time I spent stuttering and repeating myself. The process of developing my lesson was definitely a lot simpler than it was to carry out. While I know that the information I provided for my students was useful and important information, I still realize that if I wanted to do this for my career, I would have a long way to go to ever thinking of being a teacher. However, despite my many unfortunate circumstances, I am still grateful to both my mentor and my teacher. My mentor helped me with my project the whole way and tried to encourage me to do various things to help make my project more successful. While my teacher also lent me some of her old lesson plans to help me with creating my own. This project has definitely become one of my most memorable ones. Mentor Activity Good morning Maxine, Based on the info you provided, I have no doubt that you will do well in the Expo. I work in the Product Quality department, responsible for product stability. In other word, it is about setting expiration dating. We can arrange to meet and talk about business process and career or what you would like to do. I dealt with contract and clinical manufacturing. R&D will be fine too but that may not be my strength. Hopefully you’ll make Ms. Agatsuma proud as the winner in one of the Expo categories. I am available in the afternoon on Mon, Tue and Fri in the next two weeks. Please pick a date so I can arrange other meetings accordingly. I work in Bothell. Amgen Bothell’s address: 21507 – 23rd Drive SE Bothell , WA 98021 Thanks, Tony - 11 -
  12. 12. Hello Tony, I have already started on my project. I am not sure it was the best of chices though. Do you think prosthetics would be a difficult subject to research? Also, what is R&D? And should I come to Amgen, because I am not quite sure what days I would be able to make it there. ~Thanks, Maxine Hi Maxine, That is an interesting subject. I’m sure we can find info. It’s good that we meet and talk about what you have in mind with the prosthetics. General or specific and how you plan to display with photos or material of construction…let me know the date that you come after school. Tony Hi, Sorry I haven't been in touch, I've been busy with massive studying for AP European History. Recently getting a lot of take home essays and studying for the AP exam. Anyways, I'm starting to make my teaching plan. I'm thinking about making a PowerPoint or a poster board for my presentation. I already have the people to teach and am planning to film it the end of this month. My teacher gave me examples for teaching plans and has offered to help me with making plans. Do you have any suggestions? Maxine HI Maxine, It sounds like you’ve been working with your teacher and make good progress. I worry because I have not heard from you for a while. My other suggestion would be obtaining some prosthetic materials for display or demo. Visual effect is always helpful. Tony That's exactly what I have been thinking about. However I do not know anyone who has a prosthetic and do not know where I would be able to borrow an artificial limb. ~Maxine Let me get them for you. I asked my podiatrist who gets stuffs from the distributors. Did you narrow your topic to a particular type of prosthetics Tony Well I think I'm going to talk about many of them, but focus on artficial limbs like legs and arms. Thanks Maxine Maxine, I am still working on obtaining the stuff for you. In the meantime, you can get more display material for the presentation by requesting the info to your home from the link I - 12 -
  13. 13. send you. Say you are patient and check the box that says “you hear about Hanger from your doctor”. Tony http://www.hanger.com/sections/patient/pe_guide_video.html Maxine, The best way will be getting the parts directly to you. My podiatrist Andrew Soo called the guy named Justin who is the head of Hanger sale dept in Tacoma . He will let you borrow the upper and lower limp parts for the presentation. They are expensive so you need to return them after that. In early May, please call Justin at 253-383-4447 and mention about Dr. Soo’s arrangement for you to p/u the parts. He’ll be happy to ship/drop them off to the nearest location for you. Hope it works. Please don’t forget to request CD, brochures from the link I send you. They are great for the booth. Tony Well it's fine. I made it with Word. I did the presentation today. Other than the fact that I was really embarrassed, it went fine. ~Maxine FYI – I am the team captain of “Amgen MAb-Finders” team at the Relay for Life to support American Cancer Society in Green Lake on May 31 weekend. I’ve been giving a fundraising speech to different groups/departments so I get used to it. The more you practice speaking in front of strangers, the better you become a leader. See me in action on that weekend if you like. Tony Believe in yourself. Use “10 second” eye rotation rule and hand motion. It means you look/focus on each position for only 10 second or less while talking and at the same time describe it with your hands to make the speech more effective. Easy said than done… Tony Alright, thanks. Anyways. the only thing I have left to do is my final draft paper for my prosthetics project as well as watching and editing my video if necessary. I think that's all...hopefully I'm not forgetting anything. ~Maxine - 13 -
  14. 14. Maxine – With all the email exchanges and my assistance to help you finding the resources and additional knowledge on prosthetics, I hope the final draft turns out successful and you’ll be ready for the upcoming Expo in May. Please let me know if you need anything else. Tony Bibliography • Sayre, Carolyn (2007) The Wild World of Animal Prostheses [electronic version] Time Accessed December 27, 2007 from < http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1655711,00.html> It talks about the problems people have with prosthetics right now. She also talks about the defects in prosthetics right now but how scientists are trying to fix it. • Lento, Paul H. MD (2007) Upper Limb Amputees Disaboom Accessed February 20, 2007 from <http://www.disaboom.com/Health/amputationsadult/adult- amputee-upper-limb-amputation.aspx> It gives information to people who are interested in obtaining prosthetics. It is a good resource to see what people can do. • Brom, Alan S. (2007) Machines For Life [Electronic Version] Memagazine Accessed on February 20, 2007 from <http://www.memagazine.org/contents/current/features/machfor/machfor.html> It’s just a site that gives general and specific details. • Prosthetic Coverage: Saving Money and Saving Lives [Electronic Version] Amputee Coalition of America Accessed on December 27, 2007 from <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1655711,00.html> This website talks about how prosthetics aren’t as expensive and are more easily obtained than thought. It also talks about how people deal with their lives without a limb. • Greenemeier, Larry (2007) The Future of Exoskeletons: Lighter Loads, Limbs and More [electronic version] Scientific American Accessed on December 27, 2007 from <http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=the-future-of-exoskeleton> This article is just about exoskeletons and how they are being researched. • O’Connell, Frank (2006) SCIENCE ILLUSTRATED; An Artificial Foot That Does Everything but Itch [electronic version] New York Times Accessed on December 27, 2007 from <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html? res=9B0DE7DC1430F930A35753C1A9609C8B63> This article is about scientists developing a new and expensive prosthetic foot. • Riordan, Teresa (2004) TECHNOLOGY; When Necessity Meets Ingenuity: Art of Restoring What's Missing [electronic version] New York Times Accessed on - 14 -
  15. 15. December 27, 2007 from <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html? sec=health&res=9C06EFD71F3FF93BA35750C0A9629C8B63&partner=rssnyt& emc=rss> This article is about new innovations that are being invented for prosthetics. • Greenemeier, Larry (2007) Mini-Telescope Implants May Save Vision Damaged by Eye Disease [electronic version] Scientific American Accessed on December 27, 2007 from <http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=mini-telescope-implants> This article is about helping people who suffer from vision problems gain an implant in the eye that will halt or fix vision problems. • Cochlear Implants (2007) National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Accessed on March 27, 2007 from http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/hearing/coch.asp About ear implants • Imagining A Bionic Future (2007) MSNBC Accessed on December 27, 2007 from <http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/21901445/> This article is about bionic upper body limbs. It talks about how the government is starting to invest more money into researching ways to improve it. • May, B, J. (1996) Amputations and Prosthetics Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company This is about prosthetics feet and legs. It talks about diseases that lead to amputations such as ulcers on the feet. • Wilson, A, B. (1998) A Primer on Limb Prosthetics. Illinois: Charles C. Thomas Just about prosthetics in general in the 90s. • Murdoch, G. and A. B. Wilson. (1998) A Primer on Amputations and Artificial Limbs. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Also just about everything in general. - 15 -

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