Renee Agatsuma Period 6
Garfield High School
My goal for teaching this lesson is to inform people about prosthetics. I want
them to learn about something that helps people so much and is actually more common
than they think. After the presentation, I want them to know about the types of
prosthetics, who has it and why and how people can obtain them. Since there are no
controversies about prosthetics right now, I am able to send the message that prosthetics
are completely positive. The concept of biotechnology this is addressing is that it uses
technology and science to create ways to benefit people physically. All the information in
the presentation is important for all the students to know because it affects them all as
prosthetics are used all around them. It is an important subject that benefits humanity and
should be seen as a positive outcome, rather than an unusual aspect of life they may feel
to criticize. They will learn the various types of prosthetics that can make them more
common than thought as well as reasons for the patients’ unfortunate experiences.
The Washington State Essential Academic Learning Requirements for Science
that I will demonstrate are: 1.1 Properties: my students will be able identify, describe the
types of prosthetics. They will be able to understand and describe the various types of
prosthetics (1.2 Structures) what the prosthetics do and how they help people in life. They
will also understand how the prosthetics affect the people missing limbs and the changes
that will start in them (1.3: Changes.) During and after this lesson, my students will be
able to form scientific and reasonable theories to any future questions they have about
prosthetics because of new knowledge they can use to justify any hypotheses. (2.1:
Investigating Systems) During the presentation, students will be encouraged to ask
questions wherever needed, developing a scientific mind set on the situation. With given
fact as well as their personal inferences, they will be able to understand and generate
reasons for inquiry. (2.2: Nature of Science). After the presentation, students will have
understood the application of knowledge and skills in scientific technology to design
solutions to human problems. Because prosthetics were invented for the sole purpose of
helping people who have lost limbs or have problems with body parts, this EALR is
given to the students. (3.1: Designing Solutions.) The students will also be able to relate
science, technology and society with the topic. They will understand that prosthetics are
factors in human society that are common and should be acknowledged. The students will
learn that this topic, along with science as a whole, affects the society directly.
My intended audience includes people around my age; high school students. I
believe this is a good age group to teach because a majority of teenagers do not think
about these problems that are very common, and instead of trying to help the problem,
they may either turn a blind eye, or even criticize it. I want to teach a level of maturity to
students of this age because they are the ones who will be leading this world and they
must be aware of a greater knowledge to help the planet. I believe this age group is
preferable to younger students because younger students may not be able to understand
the meaning of benefiting the people. It is also a topic that could be taught to adults and
the older generation as it affects many of them who have lost body parts to disease and
war. I do not expect any of them to have very much previous knowledge of the topic
because this is a topic that doesn’t even make out to the general public very often. It is
also a topic that hasn’t been paid attention to when it is used to benefit people so much.
It is important that understand and retain as much of the presentation and the
information as much as possible. During my presentation, I will constantly ask questions
and ask whether or not they have questions themselves. I will also ask for review
questions at the end of the presentation.
To prepare for my presentation, I will have to get a poster board with various
visual aids and examples of types of prosthetics. I will have to reserve a room to present
and set up for my students. Because I will not have a lab, I do not need anything extra
besides chairs and tables. I am also planning on getting prosthetics from either my mentor
or another source to use as examples for my students. I will encourage my students to
take notes, so I will need them to have pens and paper to take notes. I will have to notify
my students of this beforehand.
Lesson Plan and Content:
Self-Introduction: I will begin my class session with introducing myself and my
topic. I will tell them about what to expect during the session. I will tell then begin to tell
them about the types of prosthetics used by people who have lost limbs to disease, birth
related problems, or war. They include:
Artificial limbs-arms/legs. The most commonly known prosthetic. The four main
types being Transtibial (below the knee), Transfermoral (Above the knee), Transradial
(below elbow) and Transhumeral (above the elbow) May, B, J. (1996).
Breast prosthesis-Breasts. Breast prosthetics can be of use to people after
mastectomy and either silicone or a wearable set of breasts can be used. However there
are those women who just desire to make their breasts bigger and can not afford the
operation so they “stuff” their bras with stockings, pads, RICE, BIRDSEED, and other
Cochlear implants-ear. It is different from hearing aids (external.) It is an
implanted device that stimulates the auditory nerve to receive signals and send them to
the inner ear like a normal ear would do. The second part is an external piece either worn
behind the ear, in a pocket, belt pouch, or harness. It is currently made of magnets that
hold the internal and external piece together Cochlear Implants (2007).
Corrective lenses-Eye. It includes contacts and Glasses. Not really thought of as a
Craniofacial prosthesis-Face (Medical.) They are prosthetics that help patients
who have suffered from cancer, trauma or birth defects. Commonly used for skin cancer,
replacement of ear, nose and eyelids.
Dental Prosthesis-Teeth. Also known as Prosthodontics, they are implants or
reconstructive dentistry tactics. It includes dentures, crowns, and other repairing of tooth
decay or oral problems.
Hair Prosthesis-Hair. This is basically wigs. Wigs are given to those who have
lost hair due to disease or some other medically related problems.
Neuro prosthetics-Nervous system. It helps improve or replace parts in the
nervous system. It is followed up by neural stimulators that help with therapy to get used
Ocular Prosthetics-Artificial eye. It replaces an absent eye after enucleation
(removal of the eye without damaging the muscles and innards.) Eyes need replacement
because of serious trauma to the eyes, blindness or pain. There are also possibilities of
people doing this to themselves because of some mental disease like Schizophrenia.
Penile Prostheses- Replacement Penises for men with Erectile Dysfunction. It is
attached in surgery and has a pump to make an erection and help initiate sexual
intercourse. It does not affect ejaculation but a man may not be able to have normal
Facial Prosthesis-Face (Entertainment or recreational.) These are not medical at
all. They are used for television or theater to make a person look different by changing
the shape and appearance for their face by silicone, latex, and other make-up products.
Replacement joints-joint and bone replacements. It replaces painful, arthritic,
worn out, or cancerous parts of a joint to allow the same joint movement as before.
However it is possible that people will never achieve the flexibility of natural joints. In
fact it is possible that the bond between the bone and the prosthetic will break down and
will wear off causing inflammation (osteolysis) (May, B, J. 1996.)
I will also tell them about what prosthetics are made from. Prosthetics are made
from various materials depending on what kind of prosthetic. There has been evidence of
makeshift prosthetics dating since 300 B.C. in Italy. They also made uncontrollable limbs
out of heavy and strong materials that people couldn’t control. These prosthetics were not
really helpful to people of that time.
In the earlier times, since the 18th century, prosthetics were made from heavy
wood and iron and steel only for the sake of having the artificial limb there. These were
for very functional and were difficult to maneuver. Prosthetic arms were made of heavy
steel, leather and a mechanical hand or hook.(May 1996) Compared to today’s prosthetic
appearance is usually made to look like the original body part by making artificial skin.
There have been prosthetics that have been so closely similar to the original limb that the
skin tones, skin spots and other various skin features were modeled onto the prosthetic.
Because the prosthetic has to lightweight or the same weight as before, it is made from
light materials. Now prosthetics are made from the lightweight titanium and aluminum,
polyethylene, polypropylene, acrylics, polyurethane and other various plastics. (May, B,
Prosthetic limbs are put on in various ways. Some people wear the prosthetic via a
strap that it wound around other parts of the body to keep it in place or suction. There are
also cases of direct attachment where the prosthetic is attached to the bone and tissue in
the remaining part of the body such as the ingrown method of inserting a rod into the end
of the remaining bone and the bone will eventually start to grow over the rod and provide
a strong basis for a prosthetic to be attached into (Sayre 2007.)
There is also the new prosthetics that allow the user to move the limb with his or
her mind. By just thinking about moving the limb, they are ale to move it at will. The
only negative to this new invention is that the user must look at the prosthetic while
attempting to move it. For example you are able to grab that water bottle without looking
at it because your limbs move accordingly to the estimation of the distance of the object.
This new robotic limb is incapable of moving like this and requires the user to constantly
“tell” the robotic part how to move and how much to move.
Prosthetics are not only used in humans; animal prostheses are quite common.
Artificial tails, beaks and limbs have been made for animals. There have been cases
where surgeons had to give an elephant a new leg and used a used something similar to a
22 pound bag of sawdust that was held in place by a sling.
In addition to all the medical positives of prosthetics, there are also many cases of
increased medical condition. Many of those who were plagued by thoughts of suicide and
depression were stopped because of the “new” ability to move again like a “normal”
person. Prosthetics have greatly helped with the people of the world. Nearly two million
people in the United Sates live without all of their body parts. Many of these people
decide to rebuild their lives starting with regaining their lost body part. The number is
estimated to jump to over 2.7 million by 2010. Many people are concerned with the
pricing and financial difficulties they would have for obtaining the prosthetics. However,
unlike common belief, prosthetics are not as expensive as many believe. Studies show
that the cost of providing prosthetics is less than two dollars per year. In fact it is a better
alternative to not getting it. For example, medications for a diabetic can cost up to an
extra $100 a month which adds up to $264,000 that could be saved if they became an
amputee at 55 until age 77. Insurance pays for a majority of the price of an amputation
and prosthetic if it is for a medical reason. One of the common problems for people who
need prosthetics is ulcers. There are extreme ulcers that can appear on the foot that eat
through the flesh and cause a void in the skin that can not be repaired. This causes
immense pain in the user if it they try to stand of maneuver on their feet. So since they
are unable to move, they just decide to amputate it and replace it with a prosthetic foot.
There are also the diseases that cause the user to be unable to move their body parts and
are completely paralyzed. This will lead to the desire to move again with the use of
prosthetic arms, legs, hands, etc.
As useful as prosthetics are, they still require a lot of physical therapy for the
patient to get used to the prosthetic and learn how to use it. For artificial limbs, they need
to watch the movement of the limb to see how much pressure and effort is required to
move the limbs. There are also those patients who are still a bit traumatized by the fact
that they no longer have a real arm or leg and have to learn how to mentally cope and
adjust to this new part of their life. It doesn’t matter if the patient lost his leg in a war or
by disease, he will still have to learn to live differently. Patients with artificial legs will
have to learn the multiple possibilities of danger and how to avoid and fix the problem.
For example the patient will have to learn how to fall without pressuring the artificial
limb and learn how to balance out the weight of the body.
After receiving and getting used to the prosthetic, the patient is now ready to
continue living their daily lives. Sometimes the patients will not be completely mobile
and stable with their new prosthetic. Patients with a new artificial leg will have to take
alternatives to maneuver around. For example, they are not encouraged to use stairs if
they are not comfortable or are a senior. There is also the fact that they should not use the
artificial leg to step on a gas pedal or break, and instead use the opposite leg due to the
possibility of malfunction. Public transportations are also hazardous and are not always
encouraged. Sports may or may not be allowed depending on the prosthetic and the
mobility of the patient. Prosthetics may be avoided from water depending on the type of
Prosthesis are an innovation that definitely benefits people. It has been invented
only for the benefit of people and does not cause many negative effects. It is not really
controversial, except for pricing and type, but requires a lot of diligence and desire to
learn how to use it. It helps all amputees who need body parts. From artificial limbs, to
neural prosthetics, it is only benefiting people.
I will then end with questions, comments, and a questionnaire. I will expect them
to report to me what they learned and whether or not they believe this new information
will benefit them in the future or not.
Like most people think that after a presentation, you can always think of ways
you could have improved as well as mistakes you thought you ironed out during
- 10 -
practices, the same thing happened to me. After finishing the lesson, I realized that I had
forgotten one of the major factors of my lesson, my worksheets. I also realized that
despite my practices, I still had trouble presenting and my stage fright returned. After
watching my video, I noticed the time I spent stuttering and repeating myself. The
process of developing my lesson was definitely a lot simpler than it was to carry out.
While I know that the information I provided for my students was useful and important
information, I still realize that if I wanted to do this for my career, I would have a long
way to go to ever thinking of being a teacher.
However, despite my many unfortunate circumstances, I am still grateful to both
my mentor and my teacher. My mentor helped me with my project the whole way and
tried to encourage me to do various things to help make my project more successful.
While my teacher also lent me some of her old lesson plans to help me with creating my
own. This project has definitely become one of my most memorable ones.
Good morning Maxine,
Based on the info you provided, I have no doubt that you will do well in the Expo. I
work in the Product Quality department, responsible for product stability. In other word,
it is about setting expiration dating. We can arrange to meet and talk about business
process and career or what you would like to do. I dealt with contract and clinical
manufacturing. R&D will be fine too but that may not be my strength. Hopefully you’ll
make Ms. Agatsuma proud as the winner in one of the Expo categories.
I am available in the afternoon on Mon, Tue and Fri in the next two weeks. Please pick a
date so I can arrange other meetings accordingly. I work in Bothell. Amgen Bothell’s
21507 – 23rd Drive SE
Bothell , WA 98021
- 11 -
I have already started on my project. I am not sure it was the best of chices though. Do
you think prosthetics would be a difficult subject to research? Also, what is R&D? And
should I come to Amgen, because I am not quite sure what days I would be able to make
That is an interesting subject. I’m sure we can find info. It’s good that we meet and talk
about what you have in mind with the prosthetics. General or specific and how you plan
to display with photos or material of construction…let me know the date that you come
Sorry I haven't been in touch, I've been busy with massive studying for AP European
History. Recently getting a lot of take home essays and studying for the AP exam.
Anyways, I'm starting to make my teaching plan. I'm thinking about making a
PowerPoint or a poster board for my presentation. I already have the people to teach and
am planning to film it the end of this month. My teacher gave me examples for teaching
plans and has offered to help me with making plans.
Do you have any suggestions?
It sounds like you’ve been working with your teacher and make good progress. I worry
because I have not heard from you for a while. My other suggestion would be obtaining
some prosthetic materials for display or demo. Visual effect is always helpful.
That's exactly what I have been thinking about. However I do not know anyone who has
a prosthetic and do not know where I would be able to borrow an artificial limb.
Let me get them for you. I asked my podiatrist who gets stuffs from the distributors. Did
you narrow your topic to a particular type of prosthetics
Well I think I'm going to talk about many of them, but focus on artficial limbs like legs
I am still working on obtaining the stuff for you. In the meantime, you can get more
display material for the presentation by requesting the info to your home from the link I
- 12 -
send you. Say you are patient and check the box that says “you hear about Hanger from
The best way will be getting the parts directly to you. My podiatrist Andrew Soo called
the guy named Justin who is the head of Hanger sale dept in Tacoma . He will let you
borrow the upper and lower limp parts for the presentation. They are expensive so you
need to return them after that. In early May, please call Justin at 253-383-4447 and
mention about Dr. Soo’s arrangement for you to p/u the parts. He’ll be happy to
ship/drop them off to the nearest location for you.
Hope it works. Please don’t forget to request CD, brochures from the link I send you.
They are great for the booth.
Well it's fine. I made it with Word. I did the presentation today. Other than the fact that I
was really embarrassed, it went fine.
FYI – I am the team captain of “Amgen MAb-Finders” team at the Relay for Life to
support American Cancer Society in Green Lake on May 31 weekend. I’ve been giving a
fundraising speech to different groups/departments so I get used to it. The more you
practice speaking in front of strangers, the better you become a leader. See me in action
on that weekend if you like.
Believe in yourself. Use “10 second” eye rotation rule and hand motion. It means you
look/focus on each position for only 10 second or less while talking and at the same time
describe it with your hands to make the speech more effective. Easy said than done…
Alright, thanks. Anyways. the only thing I have left to do is my final draft paper for my
prosthetics project as well as watching and editing my video if necessary. I think that's
all...hopefully I'm not forgetting anything.
- 13 -
Maxine – With all the email exchanges and my assistance to help you finding the
resources and additional knowledge on prosthetics, I hope the final draft turns out
successful and you’ll be ready for the upcoming Expo in May. Please let me know if you
need anything else.
• Sayre, Carolyn (2007) The Wild World of Animal Prostheses [electronic version]
Time Accessed December 27, 2007 from
It talks about the problems people have with prosthetics right now. She
also talks about the defects in prosthetics right now but how scientists are
trying to fix it.
• Lento, Paul H. MD (2007) Upper Limb Amputees Disaboom Accessed February
20, 2007 from <http://www.disaboom.com/Health/amputationsadult/adult-
It gives information to people who are interested in obtaining prosthetics.
It is a good resource to see what people can do.
• Brom, Alan S. (2007) Machines For Life [Electronic Version] Memagazine
Accessed on February 20, 2007 from
It’s just a site that gives general and specific details.
• Prosthetic Coverage: Saving Money and Saving Lives [Electronic Version]
Amputee Coalition of America Accessed on December 27, 2007 from
This website talks about how prosthetics aren’t as expensive and are more
easily obtained than thought. It also talks about how people deal with their
lives without a limb.
• Greenemeier, Larry (2007) The Future of Exoskeletons: Lighter Loads, Limbs
and More [electronic version] Scientific American Accessed on December 27,
2007 from <http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=the-future-of-exoskeleton>
This article is just about exoskeletons and how they are being researched.
• O’Connell, Frank (2006) SCIENCE ILLUSTRATED; An Artificial Foot That
Does Everything but Itch [electronic version] New York Times Accessed on
December 27, 2007 from <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?
This article is about scientists developing a new and expensive prosthetic
• Riordan, Teresa (2004) TECHNOLOGY; When Necessity Meets Ingenuity: Art
of Restoring What's Missing [electronic version] New York Times Accessed on
- 14 -
December 27, 2007 from <http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?
This article is about new innovations that are being invented for
• Greenemeier, Larry (2007) Mini-Telescope Implants May Save Vision Damaged
by Eye Disease [electronic version] Scientific American Accessed on December
27, 2007 from <http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=mini-telescope-implants>
This article is about helping people who suffer from vision problems gain
an implant in the eye that will halt or fix vision problems.
• Cochlear Implants (2007) National Institute on Deafness and Other
Communication Disorders Accessed on March 27, 2007 from
About ear implants
• Imagining A Bionic Future (2007) MSNBC Accessed on December 27, 2007
This article is about bionic upper body limbs. It talks about how the
government is starting to invest more money into researching ways to
• May, B, J. (1996) Amputations and Prosthetics Philadelphia: F.A. Davis
This is about prosthetics feet and legs. It talks about diseases that lead to
amputations such as ulcers on the feet.
• Wilson, A, B. (1998) A Primer on Limb Prosthetics. Illinois: Charles C. Thomas
Just about prosthetics in general in the 90s.
• Murdoch, G. and A. B. Wilson. (1998) A Primer on Amputations and Artificial
Limbs. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas
Also just about everything in general.
- 15 -