Review of the implementation of Bologna process in Italia

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Review of the implementation of Bologna process in Italia

  1. 1. Università degli Studi di Udine THE ITALIAN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM Franca Battigelli
  2. 2. Italy has played an important role in European higher education: it is one of the four countries that first engaged to create the "European Area of Higher Education" ( Sorbonne Declaration, May 1998), thus starting that type of higher education reform which, known as " Bologna Process " ( Bologna Declaration , June 1999) is being implemented all over Europe.
  3. 3. <ul><li>Legal framework </li></ul><ul><li>of the Reform of the University system </li></ul><ul><li>At the European level </li></ul><ul><li>Intergovernmental agreement for the creation of a European Higher Education Area , formalised in the Sorbonne (1998) and the Bologna (1999) Declarations. </li></ul><ul><li>This is seen as a tool for harmonising European degree structures as well as promoting international student mobility, free circulation of labour and international academic recognition; such goals are to be achieved in 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>At the Italian level </li></ul><ul><li>There had already been a reform (started in 1990): from a highly centralised system to a financial, organisational and curricular authonomy of universities . </li></ul><ul><li>Ministerial Decree no. 509 / 1999: full implementation of the Sorbonne and Bologna Declarations. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>A FIRST STEP </li></ul><ul><li>A significant reform process started in 1989 , marking the first step towards the decentralisation of the university sector. It asserted the principle of university autonomy in: </li></ul><ul><li>management, financial and budgetary issues , </li></ul><ul><li>teaching (organisation of degree courses along with all related teaching / learning services), </li></ul><ul><li>research . </li></ul><ul><li>A complex decentralisation process thus took place in the period 1990-1998, which resulted not only in the implementation of full institutional autonomy for universities, but also in a significant number of transformations and innovations leading to the creation of new types of faculties and degree courses , re-organisation of student services (orientation, tutoring, student welfare) and the introduction of a quality assurance system . It redefined the rules and procedures for the recruitment of academics and reorganised doctoral studies . </li></ul>
  5. 5. THE UNIVERSITY REFORM A more substantial reform was approved in 1999 ( Ministerial Decree No. 509 / 1999 ) and implemented in the academic year 2001/02. The reform has taken into account the principles of the Sorbonne Declaration and the Bologna Declaration.
  6. 6. <ul><li>Objectives of the reform </li></ul><ul><li>The Ministerial Decree no. 509 / 1999 established the new framework and identified the general criteria for universities to autonomously design their new degree courses. </li></ul><ul><li>The first objective of the reform is the implementation of teaching autonomy . This means that universities lay down the regulations for their degree courses, establishing the learning outcomes, the general framework for different teaching/learning activities, the credits allocated to each subject course and the type of final exam to obtain the qualification. </li></ul><ul><li>The second objective of the reform is to bring the Italian Higher Education System in line with the European two-tier university model as established in the Sorbonne and Bologna Declarations. </li></ul><ul><li>To meet these aims, Italy has reformed its higher education in two distinct sectors – the university and the non-university sector , the latter comprising mainly arts, music and language mediation as well as post secondary technical education and training. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The third objective of the reform is to make the Italian university system more student centred . It has introduced a system of credits (Crediti Formativi Universitari) based on the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS). One of the objectives of this new credit system is to reduce the gap between legal and real duration of university courses and curb the dropout rate. </li></ul><ul><li>The fourth objective of the reform is to increase flexibility and quality within the system. This means simplified procedures that enable universities to adapt their courses according to demands for education and to changes in the labour market along with effective quality assessment systems . </li></ul>
  8. 8. THE NEW UNIVERSITY SYSTEM I. First Cycle ( undergraduate studies): Degree courses (Corsi di Laurea or CL)
  9. 9. 1st-level Master courses
  10. 10. II. Second Cycle ( graduate studies): II. Level Degree courses (Laurea Specialistica)
  11. 11. III. Third Cycle (post- graduate studies): II. Level Master courses Doctoral courses (Dottorato di ricerca)
  12. 12. <ul><li>III. Third Cycle (post- graduate studies): </li></ul><ul><li>II. Level Master courses </li></ul><ul><li>Doctoral courses (Dottorato di ricerca) </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Special courses </li></ul><ul><li>Dentistry </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Veterinary medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacy </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Course length: </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine: 6 years </li></ul><ul><li>Other courses: 5 years </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Once all the different stages of the 1999 Reform have been introduced, </li></ul><ul><li>the following outcomes are expected: </li></ul><ul><li>Fall in drop out rate </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in time to degree </li></ul><ul><li>Lowering of average age of graduates </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in number of people with university qualification </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement in conditions of employability </li></ul><ul><li>Equal opportunities in Europe </li></ul>
  15. 15. University Educational Credits Degree courses are structured in university Credits ( Crediti formativi universitari / C.F.U. ) = ECTS. A university Credit corresponds to 25 hours of student workload , time for personal study included. The average annual workload of a full-time student is conventionally fixed at 60 credits .

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