Pierre D. Mourad, PhD <ul><li>Research Associate Professor of Neurosurgery, and of Pediatric Dentistry (adjunct) </li></ul><ul><li>Principle Physicist at the Applied Physics Laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>PhD in Applied Mathematics/Atmospheric Sciences </li></ul>
how Jack and I got started <ul><li>I wanted some of his money for research on brain monitoring. </li></ul><ul><li>He suggested we form a dental company instead </li></ul><ul><li>the value of serendipity! connections matter! - then act fast! </li></ul>
old news: ‘ordinary’ power brushes <ul><li>power brushes move their bristles several hundred times per second and clean primarily at the point of bristle contact, in a manner vastly more efficient than manual brushes. </li></ul>I felt we could do better
what is special about the Ultreo note the transducer & waveguide note the ultrasound coming out we figured out how to put that ultrasound to good use
bubbles can clean <ul><li>bubbles in the presence of ultrasound get bigger and smaller and bigger and smaller... </li></ul>
bubbles can clean <ul><li>bubbles near an surface - such as teeth - can get bigger and smaller in a highly asymmetric way, applying mechanical and therefore cleansing stress to that surface </li></ul>
bubbles can clean <ul><li>a bubble, in ultrasound, can generate significant mechanical stress on things that come near it, whether or not that bubble collapses violently. </li></ul>
what is special about the Ultreo <ul><li>the Ultreo’s bristles scrub on time scales similar to that of other power toothbrushes - hundreds of times a second. </li></ul>Thanks to the ultrasound-activated bubbles, the Ultreo also scrubs teeth several hundred thousand times a second, wherever the ultrasound and foamy dental slurry intersect, including where the bristles don’t reach. ultrasound emitted from brush head into dental foam
some of our earliest prototypes a value of working within UW at the early stages: you don’t have to create an entire laboratory and gather the experts - they already exist on campus!
we’ve come a long way <ul><li>a testimony to the initial vision, the initially applied resources and alacrity of SAP/APL/Neurosurgery/Pediatric Dentistry/Periodontology/Public Health, and the subsequent and considerable effort and expertise utilized at what is now Ultreo, along with continuing efforts of UW among other institutions. </li></ul>‘ first brushing story’ vs
ultrasound from a stationary brush rapidly removes a ‘line’ of plaque. <ul><li>Artificial teeth with plaque dyed pink before (left) and after (right) application of ultrasound from beyond the reach of the bristles. Discrete plaque colonies along a band stretching from lower left to upper right were removed by the ultrasound, in a shape corresponding to the shape of ultrasound emitted from the face of the stationary brush head. </li></ul>no bristle contact!
plaque removal via combined sonic & ultrasound processes <ul><li>A rtificial teeth with plaque dyed pink before (left) and after (right) treatment with a sonically vibrating brush head that emitted ultrasound in the presence of sonically produced bubbles, from 2-3 mm beyond the reach of the bristles. Discrete plaque colonies were reduced or removed across the entire tooth surface after only 5 seconds of application of the prototype. </li></ul>no bristle contact!
Research Models & Capabilities Laboratory Clinical & Subjective once one has raised enough money, one can match the business & business-science needs with unique, non-UW resources
Dental Plaque Biofilm Removal <ul><li>Hydroxyapatite disks (5mm dia., white) coated with Streptococcus mutans biofilm stained with disclosing solution (pink) </li></ul><ul><li>Disk placed 2-4 mm from active cleaning surface (bristles / ultrasound waveguide) in dental slurry and exposed for 5 sec. </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of biofilm after exposure compared to non-treatment control disks </li></ul>Exposure without bristle contact: Research Conducted by: Frank Roberts, DDS, PhD Pierre D. Mourad, PhD University of Washington, Seattle WA Oral-B Triumph Sonicare Ultreo
Dental Plaque Biofilm Removal Ultrasound activated bubbles clean into areas bristles do not reach 1 mm Ultreo 1 mm Ultreo Sonicare Oral-B
Longer Lasting Clean (in-vivo) 2 hrs after brushing it appears that Ultreo resulted in less plaque formation than brushing with sonic alone. (2 treatments, n=5) Research Conducted by: Baltuck C et al. Ultreo Inc, Redmond, WA
Hypothesis Typical Brushing Ultreo Ultreo’s ultrasound – activated bubbles extend cleaning deeper than typical brushing Ultreo results in a more thorough clean Use of Ultreo leaves a long-lasting feeling of clean Immediately after brushing Several hours later bristle plaque tooth bristle ultrasound activated bubbles plaque tooth
Evolution of my relationship to Ultreo Pierre as critical player -> Pierre as an important pet. time of appropriate rapid growth time of inappropriately rapid growth 2004-2006 Optimize Parameters: what are the optimal technology conditions? 2006-2007 External Testing: independent confirmation of safety & effectiveness Internal Testing: what are the primary benefits? 2005-2006 Concept Testing: does the concept deliver a benefit? 2003-2004 University of Washington WTC Grants Univ. of Wash. & Ultreo NIH SBIR Phase I Grant Ultreo, Inc. NIH SBIR Phase II Grant Ultreo, Inc. & Universities NIH SBIR Phase II Grant
how is ultreo doing now? <ul><li>first year, generated revenue at an annual rate of $10M! </li></ul><ul><li>but, it cost more than that to sell the brushes!! oh no! </li></ul><ul><li>strong CEO, with complicity of a weak Board, led the company to market too fast, too optimistically. (there are lessons here!) </li></ul><ul><li>Board fired the CEO in Winter of 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Board - now alone - did additional damage to the company (alienating the dental professionals - the key to the long-term growth of any dental company). </li></ul><ul><li>VCs took over the company (cramming down extant investors) </li></ul><ul><li>VCs reconstituted the company, for possible sale of technology or re-invigoration of the company - who knows. </li></ul>
cautionary tale <ul><li>you have to get everything right to succeed in business, especially a start up, where there is no room for failure. </li></ul><ul><li>your biggest asset, your weakest link, is people, sometimes even the same people. </li></ul><ul><li>balance of power is critical to success (technical vs business; CEO vs Board) </li></ul><ul><li>enormous work at first -> your baby grows up and leaves the home, while still needing to grow up more: learn to let go! </li></ul>thank you.