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  1. 1. PowerPoint ® Presentation for Dental Radiology with Labs Module: Dental Radiology
  2. 2. Module: Dental Radiology Dental Radiography Part A: Radiation and Safety Part B: Radiographs Part C: Processing and Mounting Part D: Extraoral Radiographs and Landmarks
  3. 3. Module: Dental Radiology <ul><li>Learning Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>1. Define the Key Terms. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Name the different sizes and types of dental </li></ul><ul><li>x-ray film. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Identify safety precautions needed when using </li></ul><ul><li>radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>4. List the types of extraoral dental radiographs. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Describe the biological effect of radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Discuss the difference between bisecting and </li></ul><ul><li>paralleling techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Describe the most common radiographic errors. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Module: Dental Radiology <ul><li>Learning Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>8. Describe proper automatic and manual </li></ul><ul><li>processing techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Define the difference between normal and </li></ul><ul><li>abnormal radiographic landmarks. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Demonstrate infection control during </li></ul><ul><li>radiography procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>11. Demonstrate x-ray exposure using paralleling and bisecting angle techniques. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Module: Dental Radiology <ul><li>Learning Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>12. Demonstrate occlusal x-ray exposure. </li></ul><ul><li>13. Demonstrate manual and automatic </li></ul><ul><li>processing of radiographs. </li></ul><ul><li>14. Demonstrate duplication of radiographs. </li></ul><ul><li>15. Demonstrate proper mounting of full </li></ul><ul><li>mouth radiographs. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Key Terms <ul><li>ALARA </li></ul><ul><li>Anode </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic processing </li></ul><ul><li>Basal cells </li></ul><ul><li>Bisecting technique </li></ul><ul><li>Bite-wing </li></ul><ul><li>Blurred images </li></ul><ul><li>Cassette </li></ul><ul><li>Cathode </li></ul><ul><li>Central beam </li></ul><ul><li>Cephalometric radiographs </li></ul><ul><li>Collimator </li></ul><ul><li>Computed tomography </li></ul><ul><li>Cone cutting </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-section technique </li></ul>
  7. 7. Key Terms <ul><li>Density </li></ul><ul><li>Developer solution </li></ul><ul><li>Digital imaging technology </li></ul><ul><li>Double exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Duplication technique </li></ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic energy </li></ul><ul><li>Elongation </li></ul><ul><li>Extraoral film </li></ul><ul><li>Fixer solution </li></ul><ul><li>Focal spot </li></ul><ul><li>Focusing cup </li></ul><ul><li>Foreshortening </li></ul><ul><li>Frankfort plane </li></ul><ul><li>Gray (GY) </li></ul><ul><li>Herringbone pattern </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal angulation </li></ul>
  8. 8. Key Terms <ul><li>Intensifying screens </li></ul><ul><li>Interproximal </li></ul><ul><li>Intraoral </li></ul><ul><li>kV </li></ul><ul><li>Latent period </li></ul><ul><li>Leakage radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Long wavelengths </li></ul><ul><li>MRI </li></ul><ul><li>Manual processing </li></ul><ul><li>MPD </li></ul><ul><li>mA </li></ul><ul><li>mr </li></ul><ul><li>Mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>Occlusal radiographs </li></ul><ul><li>Overlapping </li></ul><ul><li>Panoramic technique </li></ul><ul><li>Paralleling technique </li></ul>
  9. 9. Key Terms <ul><li>Periapical </li></ul><ul><li>Primary radiation </li></ul><ul><li>rad </li></ul><ul><li>Radiolucent </li></ul><ul><li>Radiopaque </li></ul><ul><li>Radiosensitive </li></ul><ul><li>“ Rare earth” phosphors </li></ul><ul><li>rbe </li></ul><ul><li>Reticulation </li></ul><ul><li>rem </li></ul><ul><li>Roentgens </li></ul><ul><li>Scatter radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Short wavelengths </li></ul>
  10. 10. Key Terms <ul><li>Sv </li></ul><ul><li>Thermionic emission </li></ul><ul><li>Topographic technique </li></ul><ul><li>Tragus of the ear </li></ul><ul><li>Transcranial radiograph </li></ul><ul><li>Tubehead </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical angulation </li></ul><ul><li>x-rays </li></ul><ul><li>x-ray tube </li></ul>
  11. 11. Part A: Radiation and Safety 1895 Roentgen discovers x-rays 1895 First dental radiograph taken 1896 First intraoral radiograph taken 1913 Hot cathode x-ray tube invented 1923 GE develops dental x-ray machine
  12. 12. Development of Dental Techniques 1905 Bisecting technique developed 1920 Paralleling technique developed 1959 Panoramic technique developed 1980 Panorex II developed
  13. 13. Electromagnetic Energy
  14. 14. Atoms <ul><li>Subatomic particles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hadrons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leptons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quarks </li></ul></ul>Nucleus Electrons
  15. 15. Types of Radiation
  16. 16. Effects of Radiation on Cells <ul><li>Division of cells: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Somatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cell types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiosensitive cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radioresistant </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Radiation Measurement Terms Sievert (Sv) 1 Sv Radiation equivalent man (REM) 100 rems = Dose equivalent Gray (GY) 1 Gy Radiation absorbed dose (RAD) 100 rads = Dose Couloumb per kilogram 1 c/kg Roentgen (R) 3.88 x 10 R = Exposure (C/kg) Metric Equivalent or Système Internationale (SI) Standard System (Traditional)
  18. 18. Radiation Exposure Standards MPD
  19. 19. Radiation Exposure Detection Badge
  20. 20. Control Panel on a Dental X-Ray Unit
  21. 21. Dental Arm Assembly and Tubehead
  22. 22. Radiographic Safety and Quality Assurance Manufacturer’s responsibility Dentist’s responsibility DA’s responsibility Patient’s responsibility
  23. 23. Part B: Radiographs Dental x-ray film
  24. 24. X-Ray Exposure
  25. 25. Types of Film Exposures
  26. 26. Film Exposure Techniques Bisecting technique Paralleling technique
  27. 27. Full Mouth Series <ul><li>Bite-wing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal positioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical positioning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maxillary arch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incisors, cuspids, premolars, molars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mandibular arch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incisors, cuspids, premolars, molars, premolar bite-wing, molar bite-wing </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Special Types of Radiographs Occlusal radiographs Pediatric radiographs Edentulous radiographs Endodontic radiographs Radiographs for patients with special needs
  29. 29. Producing a Quality Radiograph
  30. 30. Film Exposing Errors Blurred image Cone cutting Foreshortening Overlapping Distortion Elongation Radiopaque film images Backward film Underexposed film Overexposed film Double exposure Clear film
  31. 31. Film Processing Errors Film artifacts Torn/scratched film Partial image Dark film image Light film image Fogged film Reticulation Air bubbles on film Streaks
  32. 32. Part C: Processing and Mounting
  33. 33. Processing Solutions Developer solution Fixer solution
  34. 34. Automatic Processor
  35. 35. Duplicating X-Rays
  36. 36. Mounting Dental Radiographs <ul><li>Labial mounting </li></ul><ul><li>Lingual mounting </li></ul>
  37. 37. Patient Radiographs Stored in the patient treatment record Legal records never destroyed Property of the dentist
  38. 38. Part D: Extraoral Radiographs and Landmarks
  39. 39. Cephalometric Radiographs
  40. 40. Radiographic Interpretation Terminology <ul><li>Anatomical landmarks </li></ul><ul><li>Radiopaque </li></ul><ul><li>Radiolucent </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Superimposition </li></ul>
  41. 41. Landmarks
  42. 42. Landmarks Mandibular landmarks Maxillary landmarks
  43. 43. Advanced Technology in Dental Radiology CT scanning MRI Digital imaging
  44. 44. Summary of Module <ul><li>Key Terms </li></ul><ul><li>History of radiography </li></ul><ul><li>Dental techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Components of a dental x-ray unit </li></ul><ul><li>Radiographic safety and quality assurance </li></ul><ul><li>Film exposure techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Special types of radiographs </li></ul><ul><li>Errors to avoid in film exposing and processing </li></ul><ul><li>Processing and mounting </li></ul><ul><li>Extraoral radiographs and landmarks </li></ul>

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