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the Outermost Small Islands in the North Sulawesi Province


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the Outermost Small Islands in the North Sulawesi Province

  1. 1. Delimitation of Exclusive Economic Zone in Managing Strategies for the Outermost Small Islands in the North Sulawesi Province (DELIMITASI ZONA EKONOMI EKSKLUSIF SEBAGAI STRATEGI PENGELOLAAN PULAU-PULAU KECIL TERLUAR DI PROVINSI SULAWESI UTARA1 Denny B.A. Karwur2, Dietriech G. Bengen3, Rokhmin Dahuri4, Daniel R. Monintja5, Victor Ph. Nikijuluw6 dan Maria F. Indrati7. ABSTRAKPulau-pulau kecil wilayah perbatasan memiliki potensi sangat besar dalam menunjangpembangunan nasional. Penentuan kebijakan pengelolaan merupakan hal yang sangatpenting, karena keberadaan (eksistensi) sumberdaya kelautan perbatasan sangatstrategis. Pulau-pulau di daerah perbatasan wilayah negara rentan terhadap intervensinegara lain, dan kejahatan transnasional. Konsep kebijakan pembangunan pulau-pulaukecil di Indonesia harus direncanakan dan dilaksanakan secara terpadu untukpembangunan kesejahteraan bangsa dan negara Indonesia. Wilayah Indonesia bagianutara yang berbatasan dengan negara Filipina, Provinsi Sulawesi Utara, penting untukketerpaduan pengelolaan pulau kecil didaerah perbatasan dan penegakan hukumIndonesia. Elemen sasaran, elemen dan strategi menegaskan penetapan batas negara(delimitasi) khususnya Zona Ekonomi Eksklusif, antara negara Indonesia dan Filipinayang tumpang tindih untuk mengoptimalkan pengelolaan sumberdaya alam. RancanganUndang-Undang tentang Pulau-Pulau Kecil Perbatasan Negara serta pemberiankewenangan kepada pemerintah daerah melaksanakan tugas pembantuan pengelolaanwilayah perbatasan. Menyatakan Pulau-Pulau Kecil di wilayah perbatasan sebagai PulauNegara dan diterbitkanSertifikat khusus.Kata Kunci : Hukum Pesisir, Delimitasi ZEEI, Sertifikat Pulau Negara.1 This paper is part of the PhD dissertation submitted to the Graduate School Seminar IPB Doctoral Program Student IPB Management2 Doctoral Program Student IPB Management Studies Program Coastal and Marine Resource3 Supervision Commission Chairman Professor of Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science IPB4 Members of the Commission Supervising Professor Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science IPB5 Members of the Commission Supervising Professor Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science IPB6 Members of the Commission Supervising Director of Business and Investment Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries7 Members of the Commission Supervising Professor, University of Indonesia Faculty of Law and Justice of the Constitutional Court.
  2. 2. I. Introduction Republic of Indonesia as an archipelago (archipelagic state) is characterizedby having sovereignty over the archipelago and the region has sovereign rightsoutside the sovereign territory to be managed and utilized as much as possible for theprosperity of the people of Indonesia. Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia Year1945 Section 25A mandates that the Unitary Republic of Indonesia is an archipelagiccountry located geographically limit the cross position between the Pacific and IndianOcean coast with a length of 95,181 km2 and the sea areas covering 5.8 million km2and consists of about 17,480 islands, and all productive tropical marine ecosystems.Coastal zones and small islands of habitat diversity of Indonesia has a very high, hasthe potential of natural resources and environmental services is very large marine,which can be recovered (renewable resources), and cannot be recovered (non-renewable resources). Coastal ecosystems and marine ecosystems is the location of several uniqueand dynamically interconnected and productive. Major ecosystems that arepermanently or periodically covered with water and formed through natural processessuch as coral reef ecosystems (coral reef), fish (fish), seaweed (seaweed), sea grass(sea grass beds), sandy beaches (sandy beach), rocky shore (rocky beach), mangroveforest (mangrove forest), estuary, lagoons, deltas and small islands. Small islands have a tremendous potential in supporting national developmentso that the determination of policy because of the use (existence) of marine resourcesto be strategic. Therefore, the concept of development policies of small islands inIndonesia are planned, based on the principle of conservation of nature andenvironmental sustainability there; so important to the development of an integrateddevelopment activities on small islands become the factor of the small islands ofIndonesia on an ongoing basis. Stand of the management framework that small islands are strategically sothat the outermost of the border state research and management of small island linkedto policy and law enforcement need to be investigated by analyzing the potential and
  3. 3. problems that cover aspects of natural resources, social, economic, cultural, legal andinstitutions including the defense and security. In general, the existing problems in coastal and marine areas, including smallislands can be described as a chronic disease due to resource exploitation andutilization had been going on since the first, and do not pay attention resources andenvironmental sustainability, among other things: marine fisheries, mining,settlements, port, tourism, etc., so that activities that exceed the environmentalcarrying capacity causes of conflict and disease coastal (coastal disease). The border region is a strategic area in maintaining the integrity of territory ofthe State, it also required special arrangements. Setting the boundaries of the Statearea is intended to provide legal certainty regarding the scope of the country, themanagement authority of the State Region, and sovereign rights. Countries concernedto participate regulate the management and use of high seas and international seabedin accordance with international law. Utilization in the open sea and the seabedinclude natural resources management, marine environmental protection and safety ofnavigation. State Area Management approach conducted with the welfare, safety andenvironmental sustainability together. Approach to managing security in the sense ofterritory of the State to guarantee the territorial integrity and sovereignty of the stateand protection of all nations. Government and Local Government to be veryimportant related to the implementation of government functions in accordance withthe principle of regional autonomy in managing development. II. Research Methods2.1 Place of Research Research conducted in the District and Sangihe Talaud Islands in NorthSulawesi province. Location selected for the study is very interesting because itdirectly with the countries bordering the Philippines.
  4. 4. 2.2 Analytical Hierarchy Process method (AHP) Policy analysis using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for decisionmaking developed by Thomas L. Saaty. This method of structuring the problem in theform of hierarchy and include considerations to produce relative priority scale. (Saaty2003). Formulation of the problem of producing information about the conditions thatlead to policy issues.Table 1 Determination of alternative targets and implementation of law design No Sasaran Alternatif 1 Pilihan rancang bangun hukum Perundang-undangan dan pelaksanaannya 1.1 Internasional 1.2 Nasional 1.3 Regional 1.4 Kearifan lokal, adat / tradisional 2 Pilihan pengelolaan pulau-pulau 2.1 Pola konservasi kecil 2.2 Pola adat istiadat 2.3 Pola usaha 3 Pilihan target pengelolaan 3.1 Pasar lokal / nasional sumberdaya 3.2 Swadaya masyarakat 3.3 Investasi 3.4. Swakelola 4 Pilihan kelembagaan 4.1 Pola konservasi 4.2 Pola pemberdayaan 4.3 Pola kemitraan 5 Pilihan hukum 5.1 Kebijakan nasional 5.2 Kebijakan regional 5.3 Kebijakan sektoral 5.4 Adat kebiasaan/tradisional2.3 SWOT Analysis Method SWOT analysis as a tool of strategic formulation, SWOT analysis is toidentify the various factors to formulate a systematic strategy. This analysis is basedon the logic that can maximize the power (Strengths) and opportunities(Opportunities), but at the same time can minimize the weaknesses (Weaknesses) andthreats (Threats). Strategic decision-making process is always associated with thedevelopment of mission, goals, strategies, and government policies in the field of law.Thus, strategic planners (strategic planner) to analyze strategic factors of government(strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) in conditions that exist today. Thisis called the Situation Analysis. The most popular model for the analysis of the
  5. 5. situation is a SWOT analysis (Rangkuti, 1997). Government policy and localgovernments in determining policy strategy of small islands on the outer frontiers ofthe state. Based on a SWOT analysis, can make decisions determining the StateRegional Strategy in the Exclusive Economic Zone, especially between countries ofIndonesia and the Philippines.2.4 Diaknosis and Therapy Analysis of Law Legal approach uses analysis: Diagnosis and Therapy Analysis of Law(DTAL), qualitatively, to the laws and regulations of national, regional andindigenous (traditional) law, including international law ratification. Data obtained inthe study were analyzed with DTAL through approaches, namely: (1) the historicalapproach (historical approach), (2) approach the law (statue approach), (3) Approachthe case (case approach), (4) comparative approach (comparative approach) and (5)conceptual approach ( conceptual approach). III. LITERATURE REVIEW3.1 Law of the Sea Indonesia The position of Indonesia as an archipelago (archipelagic state) has beenrecognized since Indonesia ratified the United Nations on December 31, 1985through Act No.17 of 1985 on the Ratification of the United Nations Convention onthe Law of the Sea in 1982. This Convention has given recognition to the status ofIndonesia as an archipelagic country, by setting the outer limits of the variousmaritime zones, with maximum limits are set as follows:• Territorial Sea as part of the country: 12 miles• Additional zone where the state has special jurisdiction: 24 nautical miles• Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ): 200 nautical miles, and• Landing continent: between 200-350 nautical miles or up to 100 nautical miles from the isobath (depth) 2500 meters.
  6. 6. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and continental shelf (LK) Indonesia hassovereign rights to exploit the wealth of resources. As an archipelagic state has theright to establish Indonesia archipelagic waters on the inside of the base lines islandsand inland waters in islands waters, and the maritime zones should be measured fromthe base lines or base lines. With the promulgation of Law No. 6 / 1996 on the waters of Indonesia onAugust 8, 1996, it has explicitly set the outer limits (outer limits) of sovereignty andjurisdiction of Indonesia in the sea, including providing the basis in determining theboundary line (boundary) with the neighboring countries that border. The Act hasbeen completed by Government Regulation no. 38 of 2002 on List of GeographicCoordinates The base points of the Indonesian Archipelago The base line.Indonesia as an archipelagic country, in the sense of the sea has a meaning as a wholeregion, has two main aspects of security (security) and prosperity (prosperity), thussetting the outer limits of the jurisdiction of the state territory in the sea with itsneighboring countries need to be implemented . The delimitation of legal certaintythat can support various development activities in the field of national defense andsecurity, fisheries, tourism, shipping, mining such as: exploration and exploitation ofminerals, gas and seabed beneath the ground, including inheritance sinking cargoship, and so forth. Completion of territorial boundaries and jurisdiction of the state ofthe sea must be able to show upholding the authority of the Republic of Indonesia asa free and sovereign, the realization of security, economy and advanced technology toimprove public welfare through the management of coastal and marine areasintegrated.3.2 Islands and small islands Definition of the island in Article 121 UNCLOS, is the land that formednaturally surrounded by water and on the surface of the water at high tide. While thedefinition of the island as stated in Law No. 17 of 1985 (Chapter VIII of Article 121paragraph 1) that: The island is a land mass formed by nature, surrounded by waterand always be / appear above the high tide level. Meanwhile, small islands literally a
  7. 7. collection of small islands that functionally interact with each other in terms ofecological, economic, social and cultural. This interaction causes the small islands areseparate from the parent island (mainland). Characteristics of small islands are veryprominent according to Griffith and Inniss (1992) and Beller, 1990) is:• separate from the main island habitats that are insular• have a fresh water supply is very limited, including ground water or surface water• vulnerable to external disturbances, whether natural or due to human activities• have endemic species that have high ecological functions, and• do not have the hinterland regions. Small islands also has a very important role for humans, such as influencingthe global climate, hydrological cycle, Biogeochemistry, and absorbing wastes(Dahuri 1998). Small islands also provide other benefits to human life such as the useof environmental services for business tourism, aquaculture, which can increaserevenue and foreign exchange, as well as a place that holds plasma nuftah.3.3 Potential of Small Islands Outlying Small islands is the outermost territory of the Republic of Indonesia (NKRI)which borders with neighboring countries, so that the existence of strategicsignificance in the development process. According to Dahuri (1998), the potentialfor border islands can be grouped into three, namely (1) the potential of naturalresources and environmental services, (2) economic potential, and (3) the potentialfor national defense business. Problems occurred in small islands is a condition outer relatively isolated anddistant from the main island, limited facilities and economic infrastructure such asroads, ports, markets, electricity, banking institutions, so that welfare and low-incomecommunities, the quality of human resources low due to lack of educational facilities,information and communications and health facilities (Bengen 2004).Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands in accordance with Article 5 and 6of Act No. 27 of 2007, including planning activities, utilization, supervision and
  8. 8. control of human interaction in the use of Coastal Resources and Small Islands aswell as natural processes in an effort to continually improve the welfare of societyand maintain the integrity of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia. Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands must be done by integratingactivities: (a). between the Government and Local Government; (b). between theRegional Government; (c). between sectors; (d). between Government, Business, andSociety; (e). between terrestrial ecosystem and marine ecosystem, and (f). betweenscience and management principles. IV. Results and Discussion Small islands is the outermost territory of the Republic of Indonesia (NKRI)which borders with neighboring countries, so that the existence of strategicsignificance in the development process. Potential border islands can be grouped intothree, namely (1) the potential of natural resources and environmental services, (2)economic potential, and (3) the potential for national defense.4.1 Results Evaluation Analysis External Factors External factor evaluation is done by giving weight, rank and scores on eachfactor. External factor evaluation matrix can be seen in Table 1 below:Table 1 External Factor Evaluation Matrix Internal Factor Score Rank Score PELUANG 0.107 0.533 0.272 Kebijakan pemerintah dalam pemberian otoritas pengelolaan wilayah 0.115 2.133 0.246 Meningkatnya kebutuhan pasar lokal dan internasional terhadap hasil 0.099 2.267 0.225 sumber daya alam Konvensi Internasional terhadap hukum laut Indonesia 0.105 2.733 0.288 Kerjasama bilateral antara Indonesia dengan negara tetangga 0.113 2.933 0.332 Kebijakan pemerintah untuk membentuk kelembagaan dalam 0.121 3.000 0.363 pengelolaan pulau-pulau kecil terluar. Jumlah 1.726 ANCAMAN Belum ada penetapan batas laut yang disepakati bersama (ZEE) 0.113 1.733 0.197 Masih lemahnya respon pengawasan perbatasan laut antar negara 0.126 1.733 0.218 Adanya konflik kepentingan antar stakeholer dalam pengelolaan pulau- 0.099 2.000 0.199 pulau kecil terluar. Jumlah 0.613 Total 2.339
  9. 9. Based on Table 1, the value of external factor score management of smallislands in the outer provinces of North Sulawesi is 2339. The level of interest most ofthe external factor is the response to the sea border controls between countries thathave weight 0126. Response weak supervision needs to be corrected by the lawenforcement and institutional capacity building in the management of work unitssmall islands of the outer village level, District, County / City, Province, until thenational level. Oversight and enforcement are needed in order to obtain legal certaintyin safeguarding the interests of the state of foreign interference. Meanwhile, theinstitutional capacity in the field of law enforcement management of small islandsneed to be increased so that the outermost materialized enforcement legislation,supervision, monitoring, security, and defense and security of both regions andresources. External factors above are also supported by government policy to establishinstitutions in the management of small islands which are the outermost secondpriority of the external factors that can be used to improve the management of smallislands in the outer provinces of North Sulawesi with 0121 weights. With institutionalestablished under Presidential Decree No. 78 of 2005 is expected every relatedinstitution capable of effective institutional coordination and be able to play a roleaccording to authorities. Other external factors are opportunities in improving the management ofsmall islands such as the outermost of national policies to encourage investment,government policy in the provision of management authority areas, increasingdemand for domestic and international markets for the natural resources, theInternational Convention against the law of Indonesias marine and bilateralcooperation between Indonesia and neighboring countries. These factors can beutilized so the opportunity and support for improving the management of smallislands of the outer, but the role is to direct the legal and institutional aspects.Bilateral cooperation between Indonesia and neighboring countries especially thePhilippines. Besides the threat of increased management of small islands, theoutermost is no sea delimitation agreed (EEZ) with a weight of 0113. This needs to
  10. 10. be resolved and agreed with the political efforts and diplomatic. Stakeholder conflictof interest between the management of small islands with a weight of the outermost0099 can be a threat in the management of small islands, causing the outer because oflack of clarity about the conflict of authority between agencies and between centraland local government. Therefore, the required integration in the management of smallislands outer.4.2 Result Analysis Internal Factor Evaluation Internal factor evaluation is done by giving weight, rank and weighted score.The weight indicates the level of interest. Internal factor evaluation matrix can beseen in Table 2 below:Table 2 Internal Factor Evaluation Matrix FAKTOR INTERNAL BOBOT PERINGKAT SKOR KEKUATAN 1. Adanya program dari pemerintah daerah untuk pembangunan pulau- pulau kecil terluar 0.119 3.133 0.373 2. Posisi geografis yang cukup strategis 0.105 3.200 0.335 3. Sumber daya alam dan jasa lingkungan kelautan yang besar 0.105 2.667 0.279 Jumlah 0.987 KELEMAHAN Keterpencilan pulau-pulau kecil terluar 0.100 2.200 0.220 Terbatasnya sarana dan prasarana perekonomian. 0.115 2.133 0.245 Terbatasnya sarana prasarana sosial 0.113 2.067 0.234 Lemahnya koordinasi antar lembaga 0.116 2.200 0.256 Belum adanya UU yang khusus mengenai pulau-pulau kecil terluar 0.103 2.133 0.219 Kontrol Pendanaan yang lemah 0.125 2.067 0.258 Jumlah 1.431 Total 2.418 Based on Table 2, the total score of internal strategic factors have 2418numbers. This indicates that the internal strategic factors are in a weak position. Thusthe state of the internal factors the management of small islands in the outer provincesof North Sulawesi, weak. Internal power factor is considered to have a major role in the management ofsmall islands is the outermost of the government program for the development ofsmall islands with a weight outer 0119. Government programs that have beenestablished for the development of small islands to motivate and support to relevant
  11. 11. institutions in improving the management of small islands in a sustainable outermost.However, the internal power factors above are related to factors internal weaknessesthat have the first interest rate financing is a weak controls with 0125 weights.Funding becomes an important factor because it is a budget for the activities ofregional management of small islands and outermost infrastructure development.Infrastructure constraints on social and economic factors are quite dominantweakness weighing 0113 and 0115. The existence of facilities and infrastructure thatis done by providing the infrastructure devices are supporting the development ofsmall islands and outermost a great effect on the smooth implementation ofdevelopment programs.4.3 Results Analysis Diagnosis and Therapy of Law Formulation of the National Marine Policy is based on legislation and relatedpolicies in line with the development of Indonesian history in an effort to regulate andorganize national and state life. Legal analysis done by 5 (five) approaches, namely:(1) the historical approach (historical approach), (2) approach the law (statueapproach), (3) Approach the case (case approach), (4) comparative approach(Comparative approach) and (5) the conceptual approach (conceptual approach).History Tabukan Kingdom is the oldest kingdom in the 15th century in the Sangiheand Talaud, the Kingdom of the Sangihe until the early 20th century includes theislands of the Kingdom Tabukan Talaud that is, Manganitu, Kendahe-Tahuna Siauand Tagulandang. Kingdom of the territory to the Kingdom Kendahe Philippines, inMindanao which is the Kingdom of Mindanau Cabbage. Kendahe kingdom separatedfrom Tubis include shoulders, Talawid, Kendahe, Kolongan, Batuwukala and thesurrounding islands, including Kawio, Lipang, Miangas to South Mindanau. Spaincontrolled the Philippines to the south in Zamboanga (1635), to control the sea tradecrossings of the Moluccas in 1635, and has a stronghold on the island of Siau asliaison and channel port of Manila to the Moluccas voyage san vice versa.After the year 1663 Spain has a target to control the indigenous peoples in Mindanaoto the South Islands of the Philippines, while the Netherlands to strengthen its
  12. 12. position in northern Indonesia, especially the Moluccas (1663) and North Sulawesi(1664). Dutch controlled the island since 1677 Miangas until the dissolution of theVOC in 1799, then the Philippines since 1891 to enter into the territory Miangas witha map of La Palmas in the Philippines. Dutch Miangas pose problems to theInternational Arbitration Court with Judge Max Huber at the date of 4 April 1928 andthen decided to belong to legitimate Miangas Netherlands (Dutch Indies). Philippinesthen accept the decision. Border with the Philippines, particularly in the south of theisland of Mindanao Merampit, Mianggas, and Marore that the Philippines isconsidered to be in the waters belonging to the Spanish-American agreement in 1898,returned to the Netherlands. Round Table Conference is a meeting between theGovernment of the Republic of Indonesia and the Netherlands held in The Hague,Netherlands from 23 August to 2 November 1949. One outcome of the Round Table Conference (RTC) is a receipt is thesovereignty of the Dutch colonial government to the Republic of Indonesia UnitedStates, except for West Papua. Indonesian territory in the increase in developmentexperienced a very large area. first time with the Maritime Territoriale Zee enKringen Ordinance (TZMKO) 1939. The next fight for the conception of theGovernment of Indonesia Archipelago from Djuanda Declaration, the negotiationswith neighboring countries, until in the end accepted the concept of State Island in theUnited Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea in 1982 (United NationsConvention on the Law of the Sea / UNCLOS 82). Based on TZMKO conception in 1939, a wide sea area of Indonesian waterscovering only the sea lanes that surround each island or island of Indonesia which isonly 3 miles wide sea. Meanwhile, according to the 1945 Constitution, the territory ofIndonesia is not clearly pointed to his country boundaries. The territory of theproclamation is the territory of the Dutch East Indies ex power, it is in line with theinternational law principle of “uti possidetis juris”. And besides, the 1945Constitution does not regulate the status of territorial sea. Laws regarding territorial sea only been done formally in the year 1958 in theGeneva Convention. In 1957, the Government of Indonesia through the Declaration
  13. 13. Djuanda, unilaterally announced / unilaterally that the wide sea area of Indonesia is12 miles. By Law No.4/Prp in 1960 on Indonesian Waters Area established provisionsof Indonesian territory-wide sea 12 nautical miles from the baseline straight. Islandswaters are surrounded by a line connecting the base of the outermost points of theOutlying Islands of Indonesia. Since the Declaration Djuanda, the Government ofIndonesia continued to fight for conception Archipelagos in every negotiationbilateral, trilateral, and multilateral cooperation with countries in the world or in anyinternational forums. Peak of diplomacy is conducted by the State receives Islands inthe 1982 UNCLOS. Through the Law No.17 year 1985, the Government of Indonesiaratified / ratified UNCLOS in 1982 and officially became the state party.As a follow-up of the ratification of UNCLOS in 1982, the Government of Indonesiahas issued Law No. 6 of 1996 on Indonesian Waters and the Government Regulationno. 38 year 2002 about Code Geographic Coordinate Point The base line of theIndonesian archipelago. Two of these legal basis, especially PP No.38 of 2002, haslined the territorial waters of Indonesia since the lifting of Law No. 4 Prp in 1960 byAct No.6 of 1996. Next to the promulgation of Law No. 43 Year 2008 on Indonesianterritory of the State has no boundaries clear waters. For Indonesia, the 1982UNCLOS is a milestone of great importance, namely as a form of internationalrecognition of the concept of Archipelagos have initiated since 1957.Conditionterritory outer islands in Indonesia is very complex in terms of resource managementaspects and that there is primarily associated with development activities in thedevelopment of small islands. Potential possessed by the outer islands are very good,unique, because if not protected very well the potential conflicts between citizens andbetween districts / cities, provinces and even between countries. Organized for the preparation of a draft law pattern of small islands in outerIndonesia became the focus areas where geographical borders directly betweenIndonesia and the State of the State Philippines, in North Sulawesi Province.Maritime boundary Indonesia - The Philippines so far has not been determined, thebilateral meetings involving the two countries within the framework of maritime
  14. 14. boundaries are still being implemented, with agendas for mecapai formal agreement.Geographical position of Indonesia and the Philippines are still having problems, sothat the border agreement to be made is the addition zone, exclusive economic zoneand continental shelf. This is due to the outer islands distance between the two countries more than24 nautical miles. Long lines and continental shelf boundaries Indonesian ExclusiveEconomic Zone - the Philippines in the Sulawesi Sea approximately 510 nauticalmiles, and the Exclusive Economic Zone area of about 81,980 square nautical miles.Widest distance between the opposite shore about 315 nautical miles and the shortestdistance of 39 nautical miles between the islands of Indonesia and Marore SarangganiIsland in the Philippines. The Indonesian government continued to show a territorialjurisdiction in the border area on the island Miangas Talaud Islands, and islands in thearchipelago Marore Sangihe regency, North Sulawesi, mainly conducted througheconomic development (prosperity approach). Serious attention is devoted by thecentral government so that is not a crucial issue in the future. Law Number 43 Year 2008 on the territory of the State. In Article 1 point 9stated that the Indonesian continental shelf is the seabed and cover the ground froman area below sea outside the territorial sea, as long as the natural continuation of theland area to the outside edge of the continental shelf edge, or up to a distance of 200nautical miles from the line base where the width of the territorial sea is measured, interms of outer periphery edge of the continental shelf does not reach the distance,until at least 350 nautical miles away to a distance of 100 nautical miles from the linedepth of 2500 meters. Addressing the provisions of Article 1 point 9 is the provisionof the continental shelf boundary is still not be implemented or fully referenced. Thismeans that the conflict is still possible on the recognition of Indonesia and itsneighboring countries. Based on the expected results in the concept Delimitation IndonesianExclusive Economic Zone as Management Strategies for Small Islands in the borderareas and the concept of legislation that specifically regulates the small islands of theouter border of the state.
  15. 15. V. Conclusion and Suggestions5.1 Conclusion Law design border islands is an important part of state security. Basic law ofthe country has been regulated in Law Number 43 Year 2008 on the territory of theState who became known to the legal basis for the international community,particularly countries bordering Indonesia, that the territory of the Unitary Republicof Indonesia. Based on the above description, the researcher can bring a number ofconclusions, as follows: 1 Indonesian marine development is an integral part of national development, and also the development of national sovereignty and jurisdiction in the sea, to be utilized and exploited for the welfare of the Indonesian nation. 2 EEZ as a concept developed by the Latin countries, is an area as far as 200 miles beyond the territorial sea of each country where the right to exercise the right and jurisdiction. 3 In the EEZ area is located between Indonesia and the Philippines a number of violations / crimes, both illegal fishing, smuggling and other violations. 4 State practice regarding the determination of boundaries, EEZ area between Indonesia and the Philippines can be done with the approval and based on the principle of equal distance (equitable principles). 5 Setting constraints EEZ boundary between Indonesia and the Philippines, is a juridical technical problems, the rights of traditional fisheries, navigation routes, factors and socio-cultural simultaneously setting the EEZ and continental shelf.5.2. Advice Based on a number of conclusions are, it can be put forward some suggestionsas follows: 1 Government of Indonesia and the Philippines to tighten security area of violation acts / crimes that occurred.
  16. 16. 2 Initiating done immediately EEZ delimitation agreement by the government of Indonesia and the Philippines. 3 Rule legislation existing regulations set forth in the form of PP implementation, the Presidential Decree, decrees, etc., as applicable legal umbrella vertically or horizontally 4 Law of the Sea Convention 1982 applicable in Indonesia must have a blueprint of development of marine 5 Issuance of Certificate of State Island to the islands of the border region. LiteratureAgoes, E.R. 2002. Status Perbatasan Wilayah Negara Republik Indonesia dengan Negara Tetangga, Makalah Dialog Kebijakan Kelautan dan Perikanan Internasional : Masa depan Perbatasan Indonesia – Singapura. Direktorat Kelembangaan Internasional DKP.Beller, W.1990. How to Sustain Small Island. In Beller, d’Ayala and P. Hein (Eds). Sustainable Development and Environmental Management of Small Island. Unesco, Paris.Bengen, D.G. 2004. Ekosistem dan Sumberdaya Alam Pesisir dan Laut serta Prinsip Pengelolaannya. Pusat Kajian Sumberdaya Pesisir dan Lautan. IPB Bogor.Cicin-Sain, Billiana, Knecht, Robert W. 1998. Integrated Coastal and Ocean Management : Concepts and Practices. Island Press, Washington DC.Dahuri, R 1998. Pengelolaan Wilayah Pesisir dan Lautan Secara Terpadu, IPB BogorDahuri, R 2003. Keanekaragaman hayati laut, Aset pembangunan berkelanjutan Indonesia, PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta.Griffith and Innis. 1992. Small Island Charateristics and their constrain is Sustainable Development.
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