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Kanban 101


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Introduction to Kanban for Knowledge Work: Kanban is emerging in Software Development and IT Operations as a method of improving transparency, predictability, and value. Learn how to get started with Kanban. See how Kanban can help you achieve the benefits of Pull, Value-Focus, and Capability-Improvement. Find out if Kanban is right for you.

Published in: Business, Technology, Education
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Kanban 101

  1. 1. Kanban 101<br />Improving Economic Outcomes<br />Through Evolutionary Change<br />
  2. 2. What is Kanban?<br />Kanban is a method to:<br />enable evolutionary change …<br />help implement and scale Agile …<br />establish a culture of ongoing improvement.<br />
  3. 3. Roots of Kanban: Lean<br />Muda, Muri, Mura<br />Waste, Unreasonableness, Unevenness<br />Goals of Lean<br />Improve Quality, Eliminate Waste, Reduce Time, Reduce Total Costs<br />
  4. 4. System of Profound Knowledge<br />How to achieve evolutionary change, implement and scale Agile, establish a culture of ongoing improvement?<br />Understand the system<br />Operate with variability<br />Understand how to act on the system<br />Understand human psychology<br />PDSA<br />Plan, Do, Study, Adjust<br />But the cycles have to be very fast<br />
  5. 5. Roots of Kanban: Opposite of Push<br />Push Systems: Plan-Driven<br />Gantt Chart<br />Start as soon as possible<br />Committed Finish Dates<br />Drives delaying and value destroying behavior<br />
  6. 6. How Push Creates Value Destroying Behavior<br />Start date is planned up front<br />Finish date is planned up front<br />But we don’t know exactly what we need to build and how long it will take to build it<br />(how long will it take to test and fix the problems you find on a piece of code we haven’t clearly defined?)<br />So we estimate at the 99% likelihood for each task – which is typically double the likely duration.<br />Because we are focused on the Finish Date we operate with the 50% duration in mind and deliver late 50% of the time anyway.<br />So we add more pad to our estimates.<br />Ensures late delivery or excessive padding in estimates (usually both)<br />
  7. 7. Roots of Kanban: Pull<br />Kanban: a card that represents a unit of work<br />Flow work in single units or small batches<br />Pace the work by limiting WIP<br />Use signaling to trigger pull<br />The number of kanban equals capacity<br />New work can start only when a space is available<br />A space becomes available when previous work is complete<br />Level of mix and quantity to spread risk and optimize portfolio<br />
  8. 8. Types of Pull<br />Maintaining the system at the pace of the bottleneck (Herbie) – breaks down when a failure occurs before the bottleneck<br />DBR<br />CapWIP<br />ConWIP<br />Kanban<br />DBR with protective WIP limit before the bottleneck – for when a failure occurs before the bottleneck<br />In a stochastic process, the bottleneck moves – ConWIP provides protective WIP limit across the system – doesn’t highlight current bottleneck<br />Supports a stochastic process - highlights current bottleneck<br />
  9. 9. Kanban Board<br />Analyze(3)<br />Develop(5)<br />Ready(5)<br />Accept(3)<br />Ready for Release<br />Ready for Accept<br />Ready for Dev<br />Dev<br />Analyze<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Columns for each Work Type<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Urgent<br /><ul><li>Acceptance Tests Green
  10. 10. Manual Testing Okay
  11. 11. PO Acceptance
  12. 12. Doco Complete
  13. 13. Design Complete
  14. 14. Test Case Examples Done
  15. 15. UIX Input Ready
  16. 16. Code Complete
  17. 17. Source Checked In
  18. 18. Unit Tests Green
  19. 19. Build Succeeds</li></ul>Criteria<br />
  20. 20. Kanban Board<br />Analyze(3)<br />Develop(5)<br />Ready(5)<br />Accept(3)<br />Ready for Release<br />Ready for Accept<br />Ready for Dev<br />Dev<br />Analyze<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />WIP Limits –Maximum number of kanban in each column<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Urgent<br /><ul><li>Acceptance Tests Green
  21. 21. Manual Testing Okay
  22. 22. PO Acceptance
  23. 23. Doco Complete
  24. 24. Design Complete
  25. 25. Test Case Examples Done
  26. 26. UIX Input Ready
  27. 27. Code Complete
  28. 28. Source Checked In
  29. 29. Unit Tests Green
  30. 30. Build Succeeds</li></ul>Criteria<br />
  31. 31. Kanban Board<br />Analyze(3)<br />Develop(5)<br />Ready(5)<br />Accept(3)<br />Ready for Release<br />Ready for Accept<br />Ready for Dev<br />Dev<br />Analyze<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Split Work Types between doing and done<br />Feature<br />Urgent<br /><ul><li>Acceptance Tests Green
  32. 32. Manual Testing Okay
  33. 33. PO Acceptance
  34. 34. Doco Complete
  35. 35. Design Complete
  36. 36. Test Case Examples Done
  37. 37. UIX Input Ready
  38. 38. Code Complete
  39. 39. Source Checked In
  40. 40. Unit Tests Green
  41. 41. Build Succeeds</li></ul>Criteria<br />
  42. 42. Kanban Board<br />Analyze(3)<br />Develop(5)<br />Ready(5)<br />Accept(3)<br />Ready for Release<br />Ready for Accept<br />Ready for Dev<br />Criteria for Done defined at the for each column<br />Dev<br />Analyze<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Urgent<br /><ul><li>Acceptance Tests Green
  43. 43. Manual Testing Okay
  44. 44. PO Acceptance
  45. 45. Doco Complete
  46. 46. Design Complete
  47. 47. Test Case Examples Done
  48. 48. UIX Input Ready
  49. 49. Code Complete
  50. 50. Source Checked In
  51. 51. Unit Tests Green
  52. 52. Build Succeeds</li></ul>Criteria<br />
  53. 53. Kanban Board<br />Analyze(3)<br />Develop(5)<br />Ready(5)<br />Accept(3)<br />Ready for Release<br />Ready for Accept<br />Ready for Dev<br />Dev<br />Analyze<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Urgent<br /><ul><li>Acceptance Tests Green
  54. 54. Manual Testing Okay
  55. 55. PO Acceptance
  56. 56. Doco Complete
  57. 57. Design Complete
  58. 58. Test Case Examples Done
  59. 59. UIX Input Ready
  60. 60. Code Complete
  61. 61. Source Checked In
  62. 62. Unit Tests Green
  63. 63. Build Succeeds</li></ul>In this case, all the queues are full. No more work can be added to the Kanban.<br />Criteria<br />
  64. 64. Kanban Board<br />Analyze(3)<br />Develop(5)<br />Ready(5)<br />Accept(3)<br />Ready for Release<br />Ready for Accept<br />Ready for Dev<br />Dev<br />Analyze<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Urgent<br /><ul><li>Acceptance Tests Green
  65. 65. Manual Testing Okay
  66. 66. PO Acceptance
  67. 67. Doco Complete
  68. 68. Design Complete
  69. 69. Test Case Examples Done
  70. 70. UIX Input Ready
  71. 71. Code Complete
  72. 72. Source Checked In
  73. 73. Unit Tests Green
  74. 74. Build Succeeds</li></ul>Criteria<br />
  75. 75. Kanban Board<br />Analyze(3)<br />Develop(5)<br />Ready(5)<br />Accept(3)<br />Ready for Release<br />Ready for Accept<br />Ready for Dev<br />Dev<br />Analyze<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Urgent<br /><ul><li>Acceptance Tests Green
  76. 76. Manual Testing Okay
  77. 77. PO Acceptance
  78. 78. Doco Complete
  79. 79. Design Complete
  80. 80. Test Case Examples Done
  81. 81. UIX Input Ready
  82. 82. Code Complete
  83. 83. Source Checked In
  84. 84. Unit Tests Green
  85. 85. Build Succeeds</li></ul>Criteria<br />
  86. 86. Kanban Board<br />Analyze(3)<br />Develop(5)<br />Ready(5)<br />Accept(3)<br />Ready for Release<br />Ready for Accept<br />Ready for Dev<br />Dev<br />Analyze<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Urgent<br /><ul><li>Acceptance Tests Green
  87. 87. Manual Testing Okay
  88. 88. PO Acceptance
  89. 89. Doco Complete
  90. 90. Design Complete
  91. 91. Test Case Examples Done
  92. 92. UIX Input Ready
  93. 93. Code Complete
  94. 94. Source Checked In
  95. 95. Unit Tests Green
  96. 96. Build Succeeds</li></ul>Criteria<br />
  97. 97. Kanban Board<br />Analyze(3)<br />Develop(5)<br />Ready(5)<br />Accept(3)<br />Ready for Release<br />Doing<br />Doing<br />Done<br />Done<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Urgent<br /><ul><li>Acceptance Tests Green
  98. 98. Manual Testing Okay
  99. 99. PO Acceptance
  100. 100. Doco Complete
  101. 101. Design Complete
  102. 102. Test Case Examples Done
  103. 103. UIX Input Ready
  104. 104. Code Complete
  105. 105. Source Checked In
  106. 106. Unit Tests Green
  107. 107. Build Succeeds</li></ul>Criteria<br />
  108. 108. Getting Started with Kanban<br />Agree on Goals<br />Visualize the Work<br />Limit WIP<br />Measure and Manage Flow<br />Make Process Policy Explicit<br />Use Models to Identify Improvement Opportunities<br />
  109. 109. Agree on Goals<br />Business Goals<br />Improve Lead Time Predictability<br />Optimize Existing Processes<br />Improve Time to Market<br />Control Costs<br />Management Goals<br />Provide Transparency<br />Enable Emergence of High Maturity<br />Deliver Higher Quality<br />Simplify Prioritization<br />Organizational Goals<br />Improve Employee Satisfaction<br />Provide Slack to Enable Improvement<br />
  110. 110. Capture and Identify All WIP<br />Analyze<br />Develop<br />Accept<br />Prod<br />Ready<br />Doing<br />Done<br />Doing<br />Done<br />Doing<br />Done<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Maint<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Task<br />Urgent<br />Criteria<br />Change<br />Feature<br />Task<br />Days in work-On board<br />Blocked<br />Days in queue<br />Defect<br />Maint<br />Days Blocked<br />
  111. 111. Visualize the Work<br />Tracking<br />Description:<br />TR: 1245Size: M<br />Business Value:<br />As a … I want to … so that …<br />Entry Date:<br />Due Date:<br />Start:Finish:<br />Days in queue<br />Days Blocked<br />
  112. 112. Change Management Benefits of Visualizing Work<br />Transparency<br />Alignment<br />Shared Goals<br />Expand the Tribe<br />
  113. 113. WIP and Multi-tasking<br />A reduction in WIP also reduces bad multi-tasking which will help with the stability of the system<br />
  114. 114. Determine & Visualize WIP Limits<br />Work Queue WIP Limits<br /> as small as possible <br />One or two stories per resource in each queue<br />Use a limited item done buffers to keep work flowing – enough to keep the team busy but still avoid premature work and excess inventory<br />WIP Limit Doing and Done Together<br />Strive for lowest possible WIP Limits<br />
  115. 115. Kanban BoardPull and Swarming<br />Analyze(3)<br />Develop(5)<br />Ready(5)<br />Accept(3)<br />Ready for Release<br />Ready for Accept<br />Ready for Dev<br />Dev<br />Analyze<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Feature<br />Urgent<br />Business Analysts or Developers can work to exploit the constraint or relieve the bottleneck.<br /><ul><li>Acceptance Tests Green
  116. 116. Manual Testing Okay
  117. 117. PO Acceptance
  118. 118. Doco Complete
  119. 119. Design Complete
  120. 120. Test Case Examples Done
  121. 121. UIX Input Ready
  122. 122. Code Complete
  123. 123. Source Checked In
  124. 124. Unit Tests Green
  125. 125. Build Succeeds</li></ul>Criteria<br />
  126. 126. Limit WIPPull and Swarming<br />Limiting WIP highlights where the inherent variability of the system and work type has shifted the bottleneck<br />WIP limits will block the line – responding to these blocks leads to swarming behavior<br />Remember - flow trumps waste<br />If the bottleneck is consistently in a specific location this points to a system level bottleneck that should be addressed<br />
  127. 127. Measure and Manage Flow<br />Lead Time / Cycle Time<br />Waiting Time<br />Blocks<br />Issues – Work Not Ready<br />Defects<br />
  128. 128. Measure and Manage FlowOn the Card<br />ED: Entry Date<br />SPD: Start Processing Date<br />FD: Finish Date<br />Days in Queue: Count the blue dots<br />Days Blocked: Count the red dots<br />Calculate<br />Total Waiting: SPD – ED + Blue Dots<br />Total Lead Time: FD – ED<br />Lead Time (Cycle Time): FD - SPD<br />
  129. 129. Change Management Benefits of Managing and Measuring Flow<br />Understand the system<br />Create targets to organize around<br />Promote data supported decisions<br />Show costs and benefits<br />Sustain improvements<br />Promote higher maturity behavior<br />
  130. 130. Make Process Policies Explicit<br />Involve upstream and downstream stakeholders as collaborators to agree on the rules of the game. This will enable collaborative behavior later, when the system is put under stress.<br />Use data to define and verify process policies.<br />
  131. 131. Make Process Policies ExplicitService Level Agreements<br />WIP Limits<br />Lead-Time Targets<br />Classes of Service<br />Prioritization<br />Negotiating Policy<br />Due Date Performance<br />Release Planning<br />It is all about making commitments you can keep(most of the time)<br />
  132. 132. Classes of Service<br />Silver Bullet<br />Expedite <br />Fixed Delivery Date<br />Standard<br />Intangible<br />
  133. 133. Change Management Benefits ofMake Process Policies Explicit<br />Make promises you can keep<br />Identify targets for upstream and in-team planning<br />Enable collaborative behavior later, when the system is put under stress<br />Build interest in the system<br />Build trust in the team<br />Delay commitment to the last responsible moment<br />
  134. 134. Use Models to Identify Improvement Opportunities<br />Deming: Reduce Variability<br />Goldratt: Theory of Constraints<br /><ul><li>Lean: Waste, Overburden, Unevenness
  135. 135. Communication: About the work and about the system</li></li></ul><li>Question?<br />Advanced Topics<br />Estimating<br />Prioritization<br />Handling Defects<br />Scaling Across Complex Projects<br />