DYNAREL MARTYRS
VINCENT LAXAMANA
Saint Stephen
• According to the Acts of the Apostles Stephen was tried by the Sanhedrin
(Supreme Court) for blasphemy aga...
Philip the Apostle
• Christian stories about St Philip's life and ministry can be found more often in the extra-canonical
...
Jude the Apostle
• According to the Armenian tradition, Saint Jude suffered martyrdom about AD 65
in Beirut, Lebanon toget...
Paul of Tarsus
• Paul arrived in Jerusalem AD 57 with a collection of money for the congregation there.[6] Acts
reports th...
James the just
• According to a passage in Josephus's Jewish Antiquities, (xx.9) "the
brother of Jesus, who was called Chr...
Mark the Evangelist
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Martyrs

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Martyrs

  1. 1. DYNAREL MARTYRS VINCENT LAXAMANA
  2. 2. Saint Stephen • According to the Acts of the Apostles Stephen was tried by the Sanhedrin (Supreme Court) for blasphemy against Moses and God (Acts 6:11) and speaking against the Temple and the Law (Acts 6:13-14) (see also Antinomianism). He was stoned to death (c. A.D. 34–35) by an infuriated mob encouraged by Saul of Tarsus, the future Saint Paul: "And Saul entirely approved of putting him to death" (8:1).[1] Stephen's final speech was presented as accusing the Jews of persecuting prophets who spoke out against their sins: • '"Which one of the Prophets did your fathers not persecute, and they killed the ones who prophesied the coming of the Just One, of whom now, too, you have become betrayers and murderers." (7:52) Saint Stephen's name is simply derived from the Greek Stephanos, meaning "crown", which translated into Aramaic as Kelil. Traditionally, Saint Stephen is invested with a crown of martyrdom for Christianity; he is often depicted in art with three stones and the martyrs' palm. In Eastern Christian iconography, he is shown as a young beardless man with a tonsure, wearing a deacon's vestments, and often holding a miniature church building or a censer.
  3. 3. Philip the Apostle • Christian stories about St Philip's life and ministry can be found more often in the extra-canonical writings of later Christians than in the New Testament. One of the most reliable fragments of knowledge about Philip comes from the head of the Catechetical School of Alexandria, Clement, who states that Philip was married, had children, and one of his daughters was also married.[4] Other legendary material about Philip can be misleading, as many hagiographers conflated Philip the Apostle with Philip the Evangelist. The most notable and influential example of this is the hagiography of Eusebius, in which Eusebius clearly assumes that both Philips are the same person.[5] As early as 1260, Jacobus de Voragine noted in his Golden Legend that the account of Philip's life given by Eusebius was not to be trusted.[6] • Later stories about Saint Philip's life can be found in the anonymous Acts of Philip, probably written by a contemporary of Eusebius.[7] This non-canonical book recounts the preaching and miracles of Philip. Following the resurrection of Jesus, Philip was sent with his sister Mariamne and Bartolomew to preach in Greece, Phrygia, and Syria.[8] Included in the Acts of Philip is an appendix, entitled "Of the Journeyings of Philip the Apostle: From the Fifteenth Act Until the End, and Among Them the Martyrdom." This appendix gives an account of Philip's martyrdom in the city of Hierapolis.[9] According to this account, through a miraculous healing and his preaching Philip converted the wife of the proconsul of the city. This enraged the proconsul, and he had Philip, Bartholomew, and Mariamne all tortured. Philip and Bartholomew were then crucified upside down, and Philip preached from his cross. As a result of Philip's preaching the crowd released Bartholomew from his cross, but Philip insisted that they not release him, and Philip died on the cross.
  4. 4. Jude the Apostle • According to the Armenian tradition, Saint Jude suffered martyrdom about AD 65 in Beirut, Lebanon together with the apostle Simon the Zealot, with whom he is usually connected. Their acts and martyrdom were recorded in an Acts of Simon and Jude that was among the collection of passions and legends traditionally associated with the legendary Abdias, bishop of Babylon, and said to have been translated into Latin by his disciple Tropaeus Africanus, according to the Golden Legend account of the saints.[11][12] Saints Simon and Jude are venerated together in the Roman Catholic Church on October 28. • Sometime after his death, Saint Jude's body was brought from Beirut, Lebanon to Rome and placed in a crypt in St. Peter's Basilica which is visited by many devotees. According to popular tradition, the remains of St. Jude were preserved in an Armenian monastery on an island in the northern part of Issyk-Kul lake in Kyrgyzstan at least until mid-15th century. Later legend either denounce remains as being preserved there or moved to yet more desolate stronghold in the Pamir mountains. Recent discovery of the ruins of what could be that monastery may put an end to the dispute.[citation needed]
  5. 5. Paul of Tarsus • Paul arrived in Jerusalem AD 57 with a collection of money for the congregation there.[6] Acts reports that the church welcomed Paul gladly, but it was apparently a proposal of James that led to his arrest.[6] Paul caused a stir when he appeared at the Temple, and he escaped being killed by the crowd by being taken into custody.[6] He was held as a prisoner for two years in Caesarea until, in AD 59, a new governor reopened his case.[6] He appealed to Caesar as a Roman citizen and was sent to Rome for trial.[6] Acts reports that he was shipwrecked on Malta[6] where he was met by St Publius[Acts 28:7] and the islanders, who showed him "unusual kindness".[Acts 28:1] He arrived in Rome c AD 60 and spent two years under house arrest.[6] • Irenaeus of Lyons in the 2nd century believed that Peter and Paul had been the founders of the Church in Rome and had appointed Linus as succeeding bishop.[32] Though not considered a bishop of Rome, Paul is considered highly responsible for bringing Christianity to Rome. • The Bible does not tell us how or when Paul died, and history does not provide us with any information. The only thing we have to go on is Christian tradition, which has Paul being beheaded in Rome, around the mid-60s AD, during the reign of Nero at Tre Fontane Abbey (English: Three Fountains Abbey). By comparison, tradition has Peter being crucified upside-down. Paul's Roman citizenship accorded him the more merciful death by beheading.[33] • In June 2009, Pope Benedict XVI announced excavation results concerning the tomb of Saint Paul at the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls. The sarcophagus itself was not opened but examined by means of a probe, which revealed pieces of incense and purple and blue linen as well as small bone fragments. The bone was radiocarbon dated to the 1st to 2nd century. According to the Vatican, this seems to confirm the tradition of the tomb being Saint Paul's.[34]
  6. 6. James the just • According to a passage in Josephus's Jewish Antiquities, (xx.9) "the brother of Jesus, who was called Christ, whose name was James" met his death after the death of the procurator Porcius Festus, yet before Lucceius Albinus took office (Antiquities 20,9) — which has thus been dated to 62. The High Priest Ananus ben Ananus took advantage of this lack of imperial oversight to assemble a Sanhedrin (although the correct translation of the Greek 'synhedion kriton' is 'a council of judges') who condemned James "on the charge of breaking the law," then had him executed by stoning. Josephus reports that Ananus' act was widely viewed as little more than judicial murder, and offended a number of "those who were considered the most fair-minded people in the City, and strict in their observance of the Law," who went as far as meeting Albinus as he entered the province to petition him about the matter. In response, King Agrippa replaced Ananus with Jesus, the son of Damneus
  7. 7. Mark the Evangelist

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