ARTS AND CULTURE IN THE 20TH
AND THE 21ST CENTURIES
Art is a product of a highly creative mind.
It includes the creation of images or
objects in fields including painting,
sculpture, printmaking, photography, and
other visual arts.
Culture is the
totality of socially
institutions, and all
other products of
human work and
Culture refers to
all the things
make up people’s
way of life.
ART AND LIFE Art is one of the
Art is manifested in
every aspect of
always shown a
about life around
Many of them
have recorded in
about their usual
their usual tasks.
Vicente Manansala has painted candle
Among these are representations of rice
threshers, cockfighters, candle vendors, street
musicians, and children at play.
These are called genre paintings.
Amorsolo’s Planting Rice, Laundry Women,
Anita Magsaysay-Ho painted women doing their
Carlos V. Francisco’s favorite subjects were the
fisherfolk and farmers of his hometown, Angono,
Rizal, whom he portrayed at work, at play, and in
Honore Daumier also loved to observe the life of his
times. He poked fun at the well-to-do in his paintings
and drawings, but he portrayed working men and
women with compassion.
Jean Francois Millet tried to capture in all his paintings the
toil and suffering of his fellow peasants.
Pieter Brueghel celebrated the peasants, too. Hunters in
the Snow and A Country Wedding are two of his famous
ART AND RELIGION
The relationship between
religion and art is not a
relationship, nor an
identical one. There
exists between them a
kinship and a peculiar
mutual aid. Both religion
and art raise us up and
awaken in us a striving
towards an ideal world.
Common between religion and art is that they
both strive to express an idea not in an abstract
form (such as in, for example, philosophy and
science), but in a concrete visual expression.
Art has always been a handmaiden of religion. Most of the
world’s religions have used the arts to aid in worship, to
instruct, to inspire feelings of devotion, and to impress
and convert non-believers.
The Christian Church
to tell the stories about
Christ and the saints in
pictures, usually in
mosaics, murals, and
stained-glass windows in
churches. It also resorted
to the presentation of
tableaux and plays to
preach and teach.
expressly forbid the
divinity as human
beings or animal
forms, although they
allow the use of
some signs or
symbols in their
An interesting work which includes scenes and figures
from both Christianity and classical mythology is
Michaelangelo’s fresco which covers the whole ceiling
of the Sistine Chapel.
Spanish friars introduced the first art
form which is religious in nature.
They introduced sculpture in the
form of religious images or santos
to help spread Christianity.
The major religions of the world
have their scriptures or holy
Art is found in the architecture of religious
Religious beliefs influenced traditional art
forms that have been part of the lives of
TRADITIONAL FOLK ART
Folk arts are traditional arts
made by common people
who have had no formal art
training, and instead, have
practiced art styles and
craftsmanship that have
been handed through
AMULETS OR ANTING-ANTING-
believed to have
supernatural powers and
bring religious blessing.
ART AND BELIEF
History consists of
verifiable facts and
legends of unverifiable
History and legend are
popular subjects of art.
Felix Resurrection Hidalgo, painted the controversial
Assassination of Governor-General Fernando
Carlos Francisco executed the mural that now graces the
second-floor lobby of the Manila City Hall. The mural
depicts figures and events in the history of the city. He
was also responsible for the huge mural, which was a
pageant of Philippine history, for the International Fair
held in Manila in 1953.
Juan Luna’s Blood Compact, now at Malacañang,
commemorates the agreement between Sikatuna and Legazpi
which they supposedly sealed by drinking wine in which drops
of each other’s blood had been mixed.
Spolarium, Luna’s prize-winning painting depicts a scene during
the days of the early ROMAN Empire when gladiatorial fights
were a popular form of entertainment for the upper class.
Some Filipino artists have attempted to render in art not
only traditional religious themes but folk beliefs in
creatures of lower mythology as well. Solomon Saprid
has done statues of the tikbalang, and some painters
have rendered their own ideas about the matanda sa
punso, asuwang, tianak, and mangkukulam.
Malakas and Maganda and Mariang Makiling are among the
legendary subjects which have been rendered in painting
and sculpture by not a few Filipino artists. The Mariang
Makiling theme has been particularly exploited by
Francisco and his pupil, Jose V. Blanco, in their paintings.
ART AND ECONOMICS
Artists have live amidst socio-economic
changes that affects their art and life.
These changes challenged artists who reacted
in different ways. Some used art to vent out
their emotions while disregarded the
conventions of art and came up with artworks
that made statements about the human
Economic crisis has resulted to budget cuts in
Illustrados commissioned painters to do portraits of
Inocencia Francia (1876)
by Antonio Malantic
Portrait of the Quiason
Family by Simon Flores
Some folk art forms prove to be good sources of income.
Artists enjoy financial stability
because of their talents.
ART AND POLITICS
Artists can influence the
thoughts and actions of
people through their art.
Visual artists who express
their aspiration for a free,
just, and sovereign society
are called social realist.
They create images of
protest against injustices
and suppression of human
There are two basic schools of thought about art's
relationship with politics. One--"art for art's sake"--sees
art purely as an abstract, hermetic expression of the
human imagination, with no connection to political or
social reality, and to ask art to reflect society is to
The other school advocates political engagement on the
part of the artist. This party of engagés, as they are known
by the French, believes that art, like all human culture, is
an unconscious expression of a society's unspoken values
and that the artists have a responsibility to use their
talents to reform society.
World War I and World War II are great examples of using
art for political reasons. It was propaganda, but politics
were involved. Another great example are the posters from
the Soviet Union in the 1930s. They used political
propaganda to show how Communism was better than
Capitalism. Basically the idea was to demonize the enemy.
Every politician is an artist. (Its not easy to fool a
nation without art.)
Every artist is not a politician
ART AND TECHNOLOGY
rapidly in the 20th
Digital artists use
painting to create art.
The relationship between technology and art, has
moved from just using technology (for example,
Photoshop-like software) to produce art to
technology as a component of an art piece.
Photography took a long time to be accepted as
an art form. And this fact may seem strange to a
lot of us now.
Artists have been producing art using technology since
Jean Tinguely is one sculptor, who focused on making
metallic, mechanical sculptures, that could move,
designed to destroy itself (Homage to New York, 1960).
Robert Rauschenberg was another artist, filled an
aluminium tank with mud, put an apparatus underneath it,
to make bubbles on the mud, synchronised with sounds,
played on the site (Mud Muse, 1971).
Special effects is a
advancement in film
making can make
without losing lives.
ART AND GEOGRAPHY
Geographical location and
climate affected the
development of art and
There are similarities in te art
forms found in the Bicol
region, Palawan, Panay,
Negros, Western Mindanao,
and in the coastal areas of
Indigenous people living in the
remote areas were able to
preserve their indigenous
A work of art is man-made,
and although it may
closely resemble nature, it
can never duplicate
nature. The closest that
we can get to doing this is
with a camera. But even
then, a photograph is only
a record of the subject or
Modernization and globalization have brought
changes to the art world.
Migration has allowed artists to interact across the
Determine what aspect in life is
being shown in the following masterpieces.
1. a painting of children at play
2. stories of Christ and the saints in
3. sculpture of Malakas and Maganda
4. mural of rallies’
5. wedding pictures
Determine the following:
a. functions of art
b. modern and contemporary art styles