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  1. 1. BIOLOGY<br />Second Year<br />After undergoing the Second Year Science Program, the learner shall have developed the following competencies:<br />I. Nature of Biology<br /> 1. Understand the nature of biology as a science of life<br />1.1 Identify the unifying ideas in biology<br />1.2 Explain the different life processes<br /> 2. Understand biological concepts as applied in technology.<br />2.1 Explain biological concepts in a given technology<br /> 3. Know the tools used in the development of biology and biotechnology.<br />3.1 Identify the parts and function of the microscope<br />3.2 Name the special tools used in research and technology<br />3.3 Describe the contributions of Filipino and foreign scientists in the field of <br />biology and technology<br />II. Cell Structure and Function<br /> 1. Appreciate the cell as a highly organized structure<br />1.1 Identify the different parts of the cell<br />1.2 Differentiate plant cells from animal cells<br />1.3 Differentiate unicellular organisms from multicellular organisms<br />1.4 Differentiate prokaryotic from eukaryotic cells<br /> 2. Understand how discoveries on cellular structures and functions have led to useful <br />technologies<br />2.1 Explain that the activities of certain cell organelles are used to promote food <br />production and health<br /> 3. Appreciate cellular exchange of materials with the environment.<br />3.1 Explain osmosis as a type of diffusion<br />3.2 Distinguish between active and passive transport<br />III. Life Energy<br /> 1. Understand how organisms obtain energy<br />1.1 Describe the location and function of chlorophyll pigments<br />1.2 Explain the requirements of photosynthesis<br />1.3 Explain light and dark reactions of photosynthesis<br />1.4 Give scientific explanations behind farming practices<br /> 2. Understand how organisms produce energy<br />2.1 Describe the cell part involved in producing energy<br />2.2 Explain the stages of cellular respiration<br />2.3 Evaluate the importance of the interdependency of living things for imp[ortant <br />gases through oxygen-carbon dioxide cycles<br />IV. Organ Systems<br /> 1. Understand the interaction among cells, tissues, organs and systems in maintaining <br />the life of an organism.<br />1.1 Illustrate the coordinated functions of cells, tissues, and organ systems in <br />maintaining the life of plant, animals and human beings<br />1.2 Recognize the necessity of an organized system for proper growth <br />development and survival of organisms.<br /> 2. Understand the anatomy and physiology of plants.<br />2.1 Describe the parts and functions of the different organ systems in plants<br />2.2 Explain the requirements of plants for growth.<br /> 3. Understand the anatomy and physiology of humans<br />3.1 Describe the parts and functions of the different organ systems<br /> 4. Appreciate the technologies that help the specific defective organ function properly<br />V. Reproduction<br /> 1. Understand and appreciate the importance of cell division<br />1.1 Describe the cell cycle<br />1.2 Differentiate mitosis from meiosis<br /> 2. Understand patterns of reproduction among organisms<br />2.1 Differentiate sexual and asexual reproduction of organisms<br /> 3. Understand the process of human reproduction<br />3.1 Describe the stages of development of the fertilized embryo and fetus<br /> 4. Understand the problems and issues related to fertility and population growth<br />4.1 Analyze some problems on fertility<br />4.2 Give some implications of rapid population growth<br /> 5. Demonstrate understanding of the ill effects of human sexually transmitted diseases <br />specially AIDS<br />VI. Genetics<br /> 1. Understand the chromosomal basis of inheritance and the role of DNA as a blue <br />print of life<br />1.1 Explain the chromosomal basis of inheritance<br />1.2 Analyze the role of DNA in the transmission of traits<br /> 2. Understand the fundamental role of chromosomes and genes in hereditary <br />variations<br />2.1 Discuss the relationship of chromosomes and genes<br />2.2 Explain the different chromosomal aberrations<br /> 3. Demonstrate understanding of the Mendelian principles of heredity<br />3.1 Analyze Mendel’s experiment on garden peas illustrating Mendelian <br />principles of inheritance<br />3.2 Identify traits that follow Mendelian patterns of heredity<br />3.3 Solve monohybrid crosses given the phenotypes and genotypes of parents<br /> 4. Understand the Non-Mendelian patterns of heredity<br />4.1 Infer that certain traits do not always follow the Mendelian principles of <br />heredity<br /> <br /> 5. Understand some issues concerning advanced technologies in genetics<br />5.1 Explain what Genetically Modified Organisms of Food are <br />5.2 Analyze the effects of genetic engineering<br />VII. Evolution<br /> 1. Understand the theories of evolution<br />1.1 Explain Darwin’s theory of evolution<br />1.2 Differentiate Lamarck’s theory of evolution from Darwin’s theory<br /> 2. Discuss the direct and indirect evidences for evolution<br />2.1 Distinguish between direct and indirect evidence for evolution<br />VIII. Biodiversity<br /> 1. Appreciate the existence of diverse forms of living things<br />1.1 Describe the distinguishing characteristics of the different groups of <br />organisms<br />1.2 Evaluate the economic importance of organisms<br />IX. Ecosystem<br /> 1. Understand the similarities and differences of ecosystems<br />1.1 Differentiate natural from human-made ecosystems<br /> 2. Understand man’s role in maintaining balance in nature<br />2.1 Analyze the different environmental issues relevant to the community<br />2.2 Suggest ways of minimizing or preventing ecological problems<br /> <br />