PowerPoint Chapter 15


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PowerPoint Chapter 15

  1. 1. Chapter 15 Disorders of Aging and Cognition Slides & Handouts by Karen Clay Rhines, Ph.D. Seton Hall University
  2. 2. Aging and Psychological Disorders <ul><li>The psychological problems of elderly people may be divided into two groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorders that are found in people of all ages but are connected to the process of aging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depressive, anxiety, and substance-related disorders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorders of cognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delirium, dementia </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Depression <ul><li>Risk increases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially women </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less likely to seek </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less likely to get accurate diagnosis and treatment </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Anxiety Disorders <ul><li>Increased Risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of vulnerability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Withdrawal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of support systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Likely underreported </li></ul>
  5. 5. Substance Abuse <ul><li>Poses significant problems for many older people, but prevalence actually declines after age 60 </li></ul><ul><li>A leading kind of substance abuse in the elderly is the misuse of prescription drugs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most often it is unintentional </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Psychotic Disorders <ul><li>Elderly people have a higher rate of psychotic symptoms than younger people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily related to delirium and dementia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, some elderly people suffer from schizophrenia or delusional disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms of schizophrenia lessen in later life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New cases of schizophrenia uncommon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms of delusions may increase </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Disorders of Cognition <ul><li>The leading cognitive disorders among elderly people are delirium and dementia </li></ul><ul><li>Delirium is a clouding of consciousness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>awareness of the environment becomes less clear, difficulty concentrating, focusing attention, and thinking sequentially </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fever, metabolic disorders, infections, poor nutrition, head injuries, certain brain diseases, stress (including the trauma of surgery), and certain substances may all cause delirium </li></ul>
  8. 8. Dementia <ul><li>Significant memory loss along with losses in other cognitive functions such as abstract thinking or language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>may also experience changes in personality and behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Like delirium, some forms of dementia result from nutritional, metabolic, or other problems that can be corrected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most forms, however, are caused by brain diseases or injuries, such as Alzheimer’s disease or stroke, which are currently difficult or impossible to correct </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Alzheimer’s Disease <ul><li>Most common form of dementia (50% or more) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic Brain Dysfunction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neurofibrillary tangles in hippocampus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Senile plaques in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and certain other brain regions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic/Biological </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Other Forms of Dementia <ul><li>Vascular dementia (multi-infarct dementia) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May follow a cerebrovascular accident, or stroke, during which blood flow to specific areas of the brain was cut off, with resultant damage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pick’s disease – a rare disorder that affects the frontal and temporal lobes and is clinically similar to Alzheimer’s disease </li></ul><ul><li>Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease – caused by a slow-acting virus, this disease has symptoms that include sporadic movements </li></ul>
  11. 11. Other Forms of Dementia <ul><ul><li>Huntington’s disease – an inherited progressive disease in which memory problems worsen over time, along with personality changes and mood difficulties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parkinson’s disease – a slowly progressive neurological disorder marked by tremors, rigidity, and unsteadiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viral and bacterial infectious disorders such as HIV and AIDS, meningitis, and advanced syphilis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain seizure disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxins such as mercury, lead, or carbon monoxide </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Issues Affecting the Mental Health of the Elderly <ul><li>Medical scientists suggest that the current generation of young adults should take a health-maintenance, or wellness, approach to their own aging process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a growing belief that older adults will adapt more readily to changes and negative events if their physical and psychological health is good </li></ul></ul>