Special Education Secondary Undergraduate Program 2 nd  term, ED 391 Dr. Yvonne Goddard [email_address] www.sitemaker.umic...
 
Key Terms in Special Education <ul><li>Exceptional Children:  physical attributes and/or learning abilities differ from th...
Six Major Principles of IDEA <ul><li>Zero reject:  schools must educate  all  children with disabilities </li></ul><ul><li...
Six Major Principles of IDEA (continued) <ul><li>Least restrictive environment:  students with disabilities must be educat...
Disability Categories at Federal Level  with MI terminology in ( ) <ul><li>Specific Learning Disabilities (LD)  = SLD </li...
Learning Disabilities Defined <ul><li>Severe discrepancy between ability and achievement  (different from state to state) ...
Attention Problems and Hyperactivity <ul><li>Physician determines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be subjective </li></ul></ul><...
Cognitive Impairments  <ul><li>Intellectual & cognitive deficits </li></ul><ul><li>Deficits in adaptive behavior </li></ul...
<ul><li>Three criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Severity – behavior must differ markedly from norm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Autism <ul><li>Autism is a complex developmental disability that typically  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>appears during the first...
Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) <ul><li>Autism is one of five disorders that falls under the umbrella of Pervasive ...
Outcomes of Special Education in the U.S. <ul><li>Age 14, IEP team must consider post-school goals  </li></ul><ul><li>Age ...
Gifted/Talented <ul><li>Not covered by IDEA </li></ul><ul><li>Renzulli’s Three-Component Definition:  </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
A Few Facts <ul><li>IDEA vs 504 </li></ul><ul><li>Person-first language </li></ul><ul><li>LD greatest percentage </li></ul...
The IEP <ul><li>It is a legal document </li></ul><ul><li>You are responsible for obtaining and reading them </li></ul><ul>...
Working with Parents, Aides, Special Education Teachers <ul><li>Document, document, document </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengt...
Students’ rights <ul><li>To be treated humanely, respectfully, fairly </li></ul><ul><li>To feel safe, physically and psych...
Dealing with Differences <ul><li>Fair is not always equal </li></ul><ul><li>Not just the student with disabilities who nee...
Dealing with Refusal to Work <ul><li>Understand history of frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Build in success </li></ul><ul><l...
How to Provide Appropriate Challenges <ul><li>Identify “big ideas” </li></ul><ul><li>How can all students access informati...
What Does An Inclusive Classroom Look Like? <ul><li>Students doing different things with people helping them. </li></ul><u...
Inclusive classroom, cont. <ul><li>A classroom where respect is the norm. </li></ul><ul><li>A classroom where students kno...
Determining How to Adapt (From CEC Digest #E645, “Adapting Language Arts, Social Studies, and Science Materials for the In...
Determining How to Adapt (cont.) <ul><li>Determine: Content or Format Adjustments? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content – only if...
Determining How to Adapt (cont.) <ul><li>ID Features of Materials to be Adapted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are materials: Abstr...
Determining How to Adapt (cont.) <ul><li>Inform key people of adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student, parents, other tea...
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Overview of Special Education

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  • Asperger’s – academically adept; bright; social issues
  • Overview of Special Education

    1. 1. Special Education Secondary Undergraduate Program 2 nd term, ED 391 Dr. Yvonne Goddard [email_address] www.sitemaker.umich.edu/special.education
    2. 3. Key Terms in Special Education <ul><li>Exceptional Children: physical attributes and/or learning abilities differ from the norm (either below or above); individualized program of adapted, specialized education required to meet needs </li></ul><ul><li>At-Risk: not currently identified as having a disability, but considered to have a greater-than-usual chance of developing a disability </li></ul><ul><li>Disability (impairment): reduced function or loss of a particular body part or organ which limits ability to perform certain tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Handicap: problem a person with a disability may have when interacting with the environment (a disability may be a handicap in one environment, but not another) </li></ul>
    3. 4. Six Major Principles of IDEA <ul><li>Zero reject: schools must educate all children with disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Nondiscriminatory identification and evaluation: schools must use nonbiased, multifactored methods of evaluation to determine disability and whether special education services are needed </li></ul><ul><li>Free, appropriate public education (FAPE): all children with disabilities must be provided an appropriate education at public expense. IEP (individualized education program) must be developed and implemented for each child who qualifies. </li></ul>
    4. 5. Six Major Principles of IDEA (continued) <ul><li>Least restrictive environment: students with disabilities must be educated with peers without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate to meet their individual needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Due process safeguards : schools must provide safeguards to protect the rights of children with disabilities and their parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Parent and student participation and shared decision making: schools must collaborate with parents and students in the design and implementation of special education services. </li></ul>
    5. 6. Disability Categories at Federal Level with MI terminology in ( ) <ul><li>Specific Learning Disabilities (LD) = SLD </li></ul><ul><li>Speech or Language (Communication) Impairments = SLI </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Retardation (MR) = Cognitive Impairments (CI) </li></ul><ul><li>Serious Emotional Disturbance (SED) = Emotionally Impaired (EI) </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Handicapped (MH) </li></ul><ul><li>Orthopedic Impairments </li></ul><ul><li>Other Health Impairments (OHI) = POHI (May include OI) </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing Impairment (HI) </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Impairments (VI) </li></ul><ul><li>Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) = Not separate in MI </li></ul><ul><li>Autism = Autistically Impaired (AI) </li></ul><ul><li>Early Childhood Intervention (ages 3-5 mandatory; infant-3 optional) = Pre-Primary Impaired </li></ul><ul><li>Talented and Gifted – not governed by IDEA </li></ul>SXI – Severely Multiply Impaired
    6. 7. Learning Disabilities Defined <ul><li>Severe discrepancy between ability and achievement (different from state to state) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition may change to “Response to Intervention (RTI)”. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need for special education services </li></ul><ul><li>7 Areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>basic reading, reading comp, writing (spelling) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dyslexia, dysgraphia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>math calculation, math problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dyscalculia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*** listening comp, oral expression *** </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exclusion criterion: learning problems not explained by other disabilities or lack of opportunity to learn </li></ul>
    7. 8. Attention Problems and Hyperactivity <ul><li>Physician determines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be subjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADHD Evaluation Scales </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) </li></ul><ul><li>Dimensions: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Six or more symptoms for at least 6 months </li></ul><ul><li>May co-occur with LD, but not the same </li></ul>
    8. 9. Cognitive Impairments <ul><li>Intellectual & cognitive deficits </li></ul><ul><li>Deficits in adaptive behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Manifested during developmental period (birth to 18 yrs) </li></ul><ul><li>Some characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slower pace of learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of age-appropriate adaptive behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack age-appropriate social skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receptive & expressive language deficits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulties learning basic academic skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor motor coordination </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>Three criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Severity – behavior must differ markedly from norm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty in school – adverse effect on educational performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronicity – problems have existed over long period of time; likely to be unresponsive to direct intervention in general education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficits in social skills and maturity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggressive with peers or adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responds inappropriately to discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appears oblivious to class/school rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher risk for substance abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acts socially withdrawn or isolated; has few friends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhibits negative attributions </li></ul></ul>Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
    10. 11. Autism <ul><li>Autism is a complex developmental disability that typically </li></ul><ul><ul><li>appears during the first three years of life and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is the result of a neurological disorder that affects the normal functioning of the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Autism impacts development in the areas of social interaction and communication skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Both children and adults with autism typically show difficulties in verbal and non-verbal communication, social interactions, and leisure or play activities. </li></ul>From: http://www.autism-society.org/site/PageServer?pagename=WhatisAutism
    11. 12. Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) <ul><li>Autism is one of five disorders that falls under the umbrella of Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD), a category of neurological disorders characterized by “severe and pervasive impairment in several areas of development.” The five disorders under PDD are: </li></ul><ul><li>Autistic Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Asperger's Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD) </li></ul><ul><li>Rett's Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>PDD-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) </li></ul><ul><li>Each of these disorders has specific diagnostic criteria which been outlined in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR). </li></ul>
    12. 13. Outcomes of Special Education in the U.S. <ul><li>Age 14, IEP team must consider post-school goals </li></ul><ul><li>Age 16, Individualized Transition Plan must be developed </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>The unemployment rate for young adults with disabilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>out of school < 2 years = 46% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>out of school 3-5 years = 37% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 out of 5 former special education students had still not achieved independent adulthood after being out of high school for up to 5 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Adults with disabilities continue to face lack of acceptance as full members of society. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: 24 th Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of IDEA. </li></ul>
    13. 14. Gifted/Talented <ul><li>Not covered by IDEA </li></ul><ul><li>Renzulli’s Three-Component Definition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>above-average ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>task commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New definition: outstanding talent; exceptional talent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced focus on IQ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes persons from all cultural and socioeconomic groups </li></ul></ul>
    14. 15. A Few Facts <ul><li>IDEA vs 504 </li></ul><ul><li>Person-first language </li></ul><ul><li>LD greatest percentage </li></ul><ul><li>ADHD medical diagnosis </li></ul><ul><li>Asperger’s syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t retain </li></ul><ul><li>If you have concerns, talk to the special ed teacher </li></ul><ul><li>YOU may be the ONE teacher who makes a difference </li></ul>
    15. 16. The IEP <ul><li>It is a legal document </li></ul><ul><li>You are responsible for obtaining and reading them </li></ul><ul><li>If an accommodation is in the IEP, you are required to support it </li></ul><ul><li>You can ask for a meeting </li></ul><ul><li>You should go to IEP meetings </li></ul>
    16. 17. Working with Parents, Aides, Special Education Teachers <ul><li>Document, document, document </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengths and needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be tactful, kind, polite, respectful </li></ul><ul><li>Parents have the final say </li></ul><ul><li>Aides are not licensed teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Special education teachers are licensed teachers, not aides </li></ul>
    17. 18. Students’ rights <ul><li>To be treated humanely, respectfully, fairly </li></ul><ul><li>To feel safe, physically and psychologically </li></ul><ul><li>To have opportunities to learn, to socialize, to grow </li></ul><ul><li>To be appreciated for strengths and supported in needs </li></ul><ul><li>To be self-aware and to self-advocate </li></ul>
    18. 19. Dealing with Differences <ul><li>Fair is not always equal </li></ul><ul><li>Not just the student with disabilities who needs support in your classroom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good teaching is good for all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you’re meeting all students’ needs, the student with disabilities does not have to deal with stigma </li></ul></ul>
    19. 20. Dealing with Refusal to Work <ul><li>Understand history of frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Build in success </li></ul><ul><li>Be the cheerleader </li></ul><ul><li>Make work interesting </li></ul><ul><li>Talk with student </li></ul><ul><li>Talk with parents </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior plans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student buy-in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not “lifers” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replacement behaviors </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. How to Provide Appropriate Challenges <ul><li>Identify “big ideas” </li></ul><ul><li>How can all students access information? </li></ul><ul><li>How can all students show what they have learned? </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of group activities, hands-on work </li></ul><ul><li>Break tasks down </li></ul>
    21. 22. What Does An Inclusive Classroom Look Like? <ul><li>Students doing different things with people helping them. </li></ul><ul><li>Students moving from one environment to another (whole group, small group, centers, ...) </li></ul><ul><li>A positive classroom where the students are actively engaged, and the teacher is happy to be there. </li></ul><ul><li>Student-centered. Students have a high level of responsibility for creating their community. </li></ul>
    22. 23. Inclusive classroom, cont. <ul><li>A classroom where respect is the norm. </li></ul><ul><li>A classroom where students know others will be doing different things and “fairness” is not an issue because that's just the way it is. </li></ul><ul><li>Most likely, your classroom </li></ul>
    23. 24. Determining How to Adapt (From CEC Digest #E645, “Adapting Language Arts, Social Studies, and Science Materials for the Inclusive Classroom”) <ul><li>ID & Evaluate demands student is not meeting; having difficulty: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquiring information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remembering information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressing information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop goals for teaching strategies & making accommodations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-term vs long-term solutions </li></ul></ul>
    24. 25. Determining How to Adapt (cont.) <ul><li>Determine: Content or Format Adjustments? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content – only if called for in IEP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep in mind lesson plans – can student learn this content? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What are critical ideas/concepts? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How can students demonstrate their knowledge? </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 26. Determining How to Adapt (cont.) <ul><li>ID Features of Materials to be Adapted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are materials: Abstract? Complex? Poorly organized? Give too much info? Relevant (necessary for learning content)? Boring? Reading level too high? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Determine Type of Adaptation Needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewrite, reorganize, re-cast? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional instruction, support, guidance? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternate materials? </li></ul></ul>
    26. 27. Determining How to Adapt (cont.) <ul><li>Inform key people of adaptation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student, parents, other teachers, administrator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluate effects of adaptations and Adjust as needed to promote success </li></ul><ul><li>Fade the adaptation as soon as possible (do not let the students be “lifers” </li></ul>

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