Occupational Ergonomics 2005.ppt


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Occupational Ergonomics 2005.ppt

  2. 2. AGENDA <ul><li>8:00 – 8:10 Opening comments </li></ul><ul><li>8:10 – 8:30 Quiz </li></ul><ul><li>8:30 – 9:30 The Fundamentals of Ergonomics </li></ul><ul><li>9:30 – 9:40 Break </li></ul><ul><li>9:40 – 10:45 Anthropometrics & Anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>10:45 – 11:15 Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>11:15 – 11:25 Break </li></ul><ul><li>11:25 - 12:00 VIDEO </li></ul><ul><li>12:00 – 1:00 LUNCH </li></ul>Stacy Rose, Loss Prevention Consultant Texas Mutual Insurance Company
  3. 3. AGENDA <ul><li>1:00 – 2:20 Occupational Risk Factors </li></ul><ul><li>2:20 – 2:30 Break </li></ul><ul><li>2:30 – 3:15 Conducting An Ergonomics Review </li></ul><ul><li>3:15 – 4:00 Office Ergonomics </li></ul><ul><li>4:00 – 4:10 Break </li></ul><ul><li>4:10 – 5:00 Industrial Ergonomics </li></ul>Stacy Rose, Loss Prevention Consultant Texas Mutual Insurance Company Stacy Rose, Loss Prevention Consultant Texas Mutual Insurance Company
  4. 4. Course Objectives <ul><li>Develop an understanding of work-related musculoskeletal disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to identify ergonomic risk factors in the workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Develop the knowledge necessary to conduct your own ergonomics review </li></ul><ul><li>Learn how the principles of ergonomics apply to office & industrial environments </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Science of Ergonomics Ergo 101
  6. 6. Objectives <ul><li>Introduce ergonomics & define common terms </li></ul><ul><li>Review basic anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Identify common musculoskeletal disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Define scope of the problem </li></ul>
  7. 7. Workplace Safety Electrical Safety Fire Prevention Hazard Communication Personal Protective Equipment Lockout/Tag-out Chemical Safety Asbestos Control Confined Space Medical & First Aid Ergonomics
  8. 8. Ergonomics Defined <ul><li>Early 1700’s, Ramazzini’s study of ill-effects of poor posture & poorly designed tools on the health of workers </li></ul><ul><li>Greek Words “Ergon = work, Nomikos = law” </li></ul><ul><li>Ergonomics Study of Work Laws </li></ul>
  9. 9. What Is Ergonomics? <ul><li>Modern Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Science of fitting workplace conditions and job demands to the capabilities of the working population </li></ul>
  10. 10. What Is Ergonomics? Ergon – work Nomos – laws of Ergonomics is the laws of work that define the limits to human capability.
  11. 11. What Is Ergonomics? <ul><li>Ergonomics is the science of improving employee performance and well-being in relation to the </li></ul><ul><ul><li>job tasks, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>equipment, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ergonomics is… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a continuous improvement effort to design the workplace for what people do well , and design against what people don’t do well. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. What Is Ergonomics? Ergonomics is fitting the job to the person.
  13. 13. Applying Ergonomics <ul><li>Study, research, & experimentation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate human traits/characteristics we need to know for engineering design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application & engineering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design tools, machines, shelter, environment, work tasks, and job procedures to fit and accommodate the human </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Ergonomics Human Machin e Work Environment Utmost Goal: “Humanization” of Work Design with “E & E”: Ease and Efficiency
  15. 15. The Basics of Ergonomics
  17. 19. Applications of Ergonomics Anatomy Orthopedics Physiology Medicine Psychology Sociology Industrial Engineering Bio-Engineering Systems Engineering Safety Engineering Military Engineering Computer-Aided Design Anthropometry Biomechanics Work Physiology Industrial Hygiene Management Labor Relations
  18. 20. Occupational Ergonomics <ul><li>Optimize worker well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Optimize productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize workplace stress factors </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize medical/workers’ compensation costs </li></ul>Increase Company Profitability
  19. 21. Occupational Factors Affecting The Worker…….. <ul><li>Physical Hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Hazards </li></ul>
  20. 22. Physical Hazards <ul><li>Heat Stress/Cold Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Illumination </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>Vibration </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Falling, Tripping, Slipping </li></ul>
  21. 23. Chemical Hazards <ul><li>Liquids </li></ul><ul><li>Solids </li></ul><ul><li>Gases </li></ul><ul><li>Dusts </li></ul><ul><li>Fumes </li></ul><ul><li>Mists </li></ul><ul><li>Fibers </li></ul>
  22. 24. Biological Hazards <ul><li>Needle Stick Injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Borne Pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Anthrax </li></ul><ul><li>Tuberculosis </li></ul><ul><li>Rabies </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis </li></ul>
  23. 25. Where Does Ergonomics Fit In? <ul><li>Physical Hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Hazards </li></ul>Ergonomics Human Machin e Work Environment   
  24. 26. Common Ergonomic Terms <ul><li>Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs) </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitive Motion Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) </li></ul>
  25. 27. Cumulative Trauma Disorders <ul><li>Bodily injuries or physical ailments that have developed gradually over periods of weeks, months, or even years as the result of repeated stresses on a particular body part </li></ul>Source: (Erdil & Dickerson, 1997)
  26. 28. Repetitive Motion Disorders <ul><li>A variety of muscular conditions that result from repeated motions performed in the course of normal work or other daily activities. </li></ul><ul><li>RMDs may be caused by: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>overexertion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>incorrect posture </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>muscle fatigue </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>compression of nerves or tissue </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>too many uninterrupted repetitions of an activity or motion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>friction caused by an unnatural or awkward motion such as twisting the arm or wrist </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Source: (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke )
  27. 29. Examples of Repetitive Motion Disorders <ul><li>Carpel tunnel syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>DeQuervain’s disease </li></ul><ul><li>Raynaud’s syndrome (white finger) </li></ul><ul><li>Tendinitis </li></ul><ul><li>Tenosynovitis </li></ul><ul><li>Trigger finger </li></ul>
  28. 30. Musculoskeletal Disorders <ul><li>An MSD is an injury or illness of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ligaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal Discs </li></ul></ul>A - articular capsule B - ligament C - tendon (section view) D - muscle E - tendons
  29. 31. Anterior View: Muscles & Bones
  30. 32. Posterior View: Muscles & Bones
  31. 33. Musculoskeletal System “ The Knee” “ Left Anterior Forearm”
  32. 34. Work-Related MSDs <ul><li>Disorders where the work environment & performance of work contribute significantly </li></ul><ul><li>Made worse or longer lasting by work conditions </li></ul>
  33. 35. Examples of WMSDs <ul><li>Lower Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low Back Pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back Strain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disc Disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degenerative Disc Disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sciatica </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knee Disorders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foot Disorders </li></ul></ul>
  34. 36. Examples of WMSDs <ul><li>Upper Body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tension Neck Syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotator Cuff Syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medial Epicondylitis (Golfer’s Elbow) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tendinitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carpal Tunnel Syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DeQuervain’s Tenosynovitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trigger Finger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome </li></ul></ul>
  35. 37. Common Physical Injuries/Illnesses A - inflammation of the shoulder tendons B - tennis elbow C - inflammation of the wrist tendons D - lesion of the knee cartilage E - inflammation or tearing of the Achilles tendon F - spraining of the thigh muscles G - backache (due to a lesion of the ligaments or muscles)
  36. 38. Scope of Problem
  37. 39. Why is Ergonomics Important? <ul><li>Financial </li></ul><ul><li>Humanistic </li></ul><ul><li>Regulatory </li></ul><ul><li>Public relations </li></ul><ul><li>Employee/labor relations </li></ul>$ Human
  38. 40. Regulatory Agencies <ul><li>National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Workers’ Compensation Insurance Companies </li></ul>
  39. 41. Bureau of Labor & Statistics Number of Fatalities Number of Non-Fatal Injuries & Illnesses Lost Workday Cases Injury and Illness Incident Rates The Bureau of Labor Statistics is the principal fact-finding agency for the Federal Government in the broad field of labor economics and statistics.
  40. 43. Scope of the problem <ul><li>Bureau of Labor & Statistics (BLS), 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Total cases of non-fatal injuries and illnesses </li></ul><ul><li>4,700,600 </li></ul>1,436,194 Cases Involved Days Away From Work
  41. 48. More about the injuries…… Carpal tunnel syndrome cases had more median days away from work (30) than either fractures (29) or amputations (26) Source: BLS 2002
  42. 52. Musculoskeletal Disorders <ul><li>Total musculoskeletal disorders 487.9 9 (1,000’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Occupations Number Median Days AFW </li></ul><ul><li>Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 44.4 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Truck drivers 36.8 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Laborers, nonconstruction 24.9 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Janitors and cleaners 15.2 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Assemblers 15.2 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Construction laborers 11.1 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Registered nurses 10.8 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisors and proprietors, sales occupations 9.9 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Cashiers 9.3 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Stock handlers and baggers 8.8 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Sales workers, other commodities 7.8 7 </li></ul>
  43. 53. Sprains, strains, and tears accounted for over 75.8% of the musculoskeletal disorders that resulted in days away from work in 2002. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome accounted for over 4.6% of the musculoskeletal disorders that resulted in days away from work in 2002. More about the injuries……
  44. 54. <ul><li>A majority of injured or ill workers were 20 to 44 years old </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Workers 20 to 44 had a higher incidence of injuries or illnesses, while workers 45 and older had a lower incidence of injuries or illnesses than each of their hours worked shares suggest </li></ul></ul></ul>More about the injuries……
  45. 55. Two-thirds of the injured or ill workers were men , well above their 59 percent share of the nation’s hours worked. Most workers (37.2%) had at least 1 to 5 years of service with their employer when they were injured or became ill. More about the injuries……
  46. 56. Workers’ Compensation Claims <ul><li>Texas Mutual Claims for 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>26,175 </li></ul>For 3 month period, small business policyholders (premium less than $50,000): Total Claims: 3,774 Strains 664 (18%) Sprains 424 (11%) Carpal Tunnel Syndrome 17 (0.45%)
  47. 57. Workers’ Compensation Costs <ul><li>Total Claims: 3,774 </li></ul><ul><li>Total Dollar Loss: $28,103,240 </li></ul><ul><li>Strains $5,044,619 $7,597 </li></ul><ul><li>Sprains $2,549,584 $6,013 </li></ul><ul><li>Carpal Tunnel Syndrome $180,232 $10,602 </li></ul>Total Incurred Cost Average Incurred Cost
  48. 58. Financial Burden Source: Liberty Mutual Workplace Safety Index, 2003; Published by The Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety In year 2001, serious workplace injury & illnesses cost $45.8 billion
  49. 59. Questions?