Autism Spectrum Disorders, Neurological Disabilities, Multiple Health
Needs, Musculoskeletal Impairments, and Acquired Brain Injury
(Read Chapter 12 and 13 Pages 165-190 Bennett/Dworet/Weber Text)
State Whether the Following are True or False:
1. __F___ Research has solidly established that a possible cause of autism is
2. __T___ Students with autism spectrum disorder very often have great
difficulty relating to others on a social level.
3. __T___ Modifications to classroom can often be very difficult for students
with autism spectrum disorder.
4. ___F__ Prevalence rates for autism spectrum disorder have remained
relatively stable over the past decade.
5. ___T__ For all intents and purposes, there is no standard, universally
accepted treatment for autism spectrum disorder.
6. ___F__ Savant characteristics are a typical manifestation of autism spectrum
7. __F___ If a student has a neurologically based physical disability, he or she
usually has a mental handicap as well.
8. ___T__ Cerebral Palsy is caused by an injury or insult to the brain before,
during or very soon after birth.
9. ___T__ Hydrocephalus is often associated with the condition of Spina Bifida.
10. __T___ The recovery period for students with acquired brain injury is up to
11. ___T__ Tourette Syndrome is a neurological disorder usually characterized
by motor and verbal tics.
12. __F___ Many researchers now point to psychiatric explanations when
looking at possible root causes of autism spectrum disorders.
13. __T___ Autism is a severely incapacitating disability that can affect all
aspects of a student's development, and, if not identified and properly
treated, can be a life long struggle.
14. ___T__ The advances made in medical research and science, particularly
related to the immediate post natal period, have led to a dramatic increase in
the number of children who are now surviving very chronic conditions of
15. __T___ Epilepsy is not a disease but rather a symptom of a brain disorder
that leads to seizures. It is a condition that affects about 300,000 Canadians.
SELECT THE CORRECT ANSWER:
16. In what decade of the 20th century was autism first described?
(a) 1960'S (b) 1970's (c) 1940's
17. Asperger's Syndrome is a variation of autism usually applied to individuals
with average to above average intelligence, but who are somewhat impaired
___________, and have unusually restricted or specialized interests.
(a) cognitively (b) socially (c) linguistically
18. Recent research suggests that autism spectrum disorder usually appears in
the first __________ years of life.
(a) three (b) two (c) does not say
19. Autism spectrum disorder is four times more likely to be found in
__________ when compared to ____________.
(a) girls, boys (b) boys, girls (c) absolutely no difference
20. By 2004, Autism Canada was citing the prevalence rate of autism to be
about one in every __________ births.
(a) 500 (b) 5000 (c) 286
21. Which of the following does not belong? With respect to autism spectrum
disorder, when it comes to developmental goals, parents should seek medical
advice if they notice their child:
(a) does not babble at one year
(b) does not walk before one year
(c) hears but does not respond to his or her name
(d) avoids eye contact
(e) avoids cuddling
(f) begins to develop basic language skills but then suddenly stops
(g) does not point to things or does not seek any attention
22. Within current scientific communities, where the study of ASD is exclusively
concerned, research is tending to lean heavily toward discovering a ________
basis for the disorder, overwhelmingly because of the familial patterns
established by the disability.
(a) psychological (b) genetic (c) biosocial
23. There is a specific geographical location in the state of New Jersey which has
one of the world’s highest rates of autism, leading some to believe that an
unknown ________ may be the ultimate cause.
(a) food additive (b) childhood ailment (c) toxin
24. There is now a medical test which can detect autism in earliest childhood?
(a) True (b) False (c) cannot determine
25. Professor I.O. Lovass, the founder of the Intensive Behavior Intervention
approach to treating people with autism, borrows very heavily from the basic
principles first developed and advocated by ______________________.
(a) Abraham Maslow (b) B. F. Skinner (c) Jean Piaget
26. Restated, IBI follows _______________ principles and is a very intensive and
hands on, typically involving 20 to 40 hours per week of direct service from
(a) self actualization (b) linear capacity (c) behaviour modification
27. Very often, a student identified with autism spectrum disorder will come to
the integrated classroom with a specific treatment program already in place.
(a) True (b) False (c) does not say
28. Savant characteristics represent only about ________ of the overall autistic
(a) 2% (b) 5% (c) 10%
29. With respect to teaching strategies and the ASD student, special interests
should rarely ever be utilized in the inclusive classroom.
(a) True (b) False (c) cannot determine
30. With respect to teaching strategies and the ASD student, when it comes to
reading ____________ may be the best approach.
(a) Whole Language (b) Phonics (c) a non-structured environment
31. Motor disability and paralysis are typically classified according to the
_________ involved in the condition.
(a) limbs (b) precursors (c) people
32. Among the leading causes of Acquired brain injury, motor vehicle accidents,
near drowning, violence related incidents, and ______________ are cited
among the most prevalent.
(a) drug overdose (b) vitamin deficiency (c) sports related injuries
33. Tourette Syndrome usually first manifests itself in _________________.
(a) adolescence (b) childhood (c) early adulthood
34. Spina bifida occurs when one or more ___________ do not close during pre-
(a) ribs (b) heart valves (c) vertebrae
35. There is a ________ incidence of intellectual problems among people with
cerebral palsy, but the connection or lack of connection is not absolute.
(a) lower (b) higher (c) does not say
36. By utilizing your text, or by searching the internet, match the specific
"exceptionality" with the most accurate "description".
__C Asperger syndrome
__I Severe Developmental Disabilities
__D Cystic Fibrosis
__H Juvenile Arthritis
__ G Muscular Dystrophy
__ F Tourette Syndrome
__ A Spina Bifida
__B Cerebral Palsy
A Neural tube defect that occurs during the first four weeks of pregnancy
causing spinal cord to fail to develop properly
B Disorders affecting body movement and muscle coordination resulting from
damage to the brain during pregnancy or first three years
C Severe and sustained impairment in social interaction, and development of
restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior and interests
D Disorder caused by inherited genetic defect, affecting mainly the lungs and
E Impairments in verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction;
restricted, repetitive patterns behavior; and intellectual impairments
F A neurological disorder, often times characterized by tics
G Genetically based muscle disorders that result in progressive weakness of
H Continuous inflammation of joints in people under 16 years
I Severe limitation in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviors
J Neurological disorder involving sudden bursts of electrical energy in brain
SOME STUDENT NOTES / GENERAL OBSERVATIONS:
Low Incidence Exceptionalities
• Students with "low incidence" exceptionalities are generally identified soon after
• Research states, "labels give us a shared language, but it is important that, as
teachers, our language is respectful and professional
• Research implies that, with reference to students of "low incidence"
exceptionality, parents are often the best informed and should be consistently
consulted within the educational process.
• To arrive at a diagnosis of a "developmental disability", it is strongly implied that
issues of cultural diversity should always be seriously considered first.
• Among the leading causes of “developmental "disabilities", the following are all
a) Chromosomal Abnormalities
b) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
c) Fragile X Syndrome
d) Cerebral Palsy
e) Spina Bifida
f) Down Syndrome
• With the "developmentally disabled" student, modification of learning outcome
may have to be seriously considered.
• With reference to the "developmentally disabled" student, his or her IEP should,
at minimum, seriously consider all of the following goal(s):
a) functional academic skills
b) physical development and personal care
c) communication skills and social interaction skills
d) community living skills
e) career development, work experience, and transition planning
• All of the following would be considered a curricular modification.
a) using high interest low vocabulary resources
b) giving easier questions with respect to the same general concept
c) changing learning outcomes by reducing overall expectations
• Some literature suggests, Asperger Syndrome might have previously been
referred to as "high functioning autism"
• The general category of PDD includes both Autism and Asperger Syndrome.
• Autism is believed to be genetic in origin and a general diagnosis is based on
behaviors observed in the child's first three years of life.
• General Characteristics of Autism are:
a) restricted, repetitive and stereotypic patterns of behavior, interests and
b) impairments in verbal and nonverbal communication
c) impairments in reciprocal social interaction
d) impairments in imaginative creativity
e) in many instances, same level of intellectual impairment
• It is estimated that about 50% of those with Autism never develop functional
• With reference to a communication strategy for the student with autism, it may be
necessary to teach the student to listen by facing the speaker, remaining still, and
specifically focusing on what is being said.
• In successfully dealing with a student with Autism, research states that educators
should try and minimize both auditory and visual stimuli, as well as removing
textures the student finds particularly aversive.
• Students with Asperger Syndrome share many characteristics of Autism,
however, they may display no significant delays related to language acquisition or
• Students with Asperger Syndrome are characterized by a qualitative impairment
in social interaction.
• Quite frequently, you will observe students with Asperger Syndrome misinterpret
social cues, lack empathy, appear socially awkward, and be completely unaware
of the general rules of conversation.
• Students with Asperger Syndrome may generally have average or above average
intelligence, however, they may still need intensive teaching in reading
comprehension, problem-solving, organizational skills, and inference making.
They will also need very explicit instruction in the general social skills area.
• Work experiences, participation in co-curricular activities, help with developing
hygiene and appropriate dress, and self management skills, may need to be
seriously considered as legitimate objectives, when working at the secondary
level with students with Autism and, in some cases, Asperger Syndrome.