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  1. 1. MODULE: #9 Autism Spectrum Disorders, Neurological Disabilities, Multiple Health Needs, Musculoskeletal Impairments, and Acquired Brain Injury (Read Chapter 12 and 13 Pages 165-190 Bennett/Dworet/Weber Text) State Whether the Following are True or False: 1. __F___ Research has solidly established that a possible cause of autism is vaccinations. 2. __T___ Students with autism spectrum disorder very often have great difficulty relating to others on a social level. 3. __T___ Modifications to classroom can often be very difficult for students with autism spectrum disorder. 4. ___F__ Prevalence rates for autism spectrum disorder have remained relatively stable over the past decade. 5. ___T__ For all intents and purposes, there is no standard, universally accepted treatment for autism spectrum disorder. 6. ___F__ Savant characteristics are a typical manifestation of autism spectrum disorder. 7. __F___ If a student has a neurologically based physical disability, he or she usually has a mental handicap as well. 8. ___T__ Cerebral Palsy is caused by an injury or insult to the brain before, during or very soon after birth. 9. ___T__ Hydrocephalus is often associated with the condition of Spina Bifida. 10. __T___ The recovery period for students with acquired brain injury is up to two years, 11. ___T__ Tourette Syndrome is a neurological disorder usually characterized by motor and verbal tics. 12. __F___ Many researchers now point to psychiatric explanations when looking at possible root causes of autism spectrum disorders.
  2. 2. 13. __T___ Autism is a severely incapacitating disability that can affect all aspects of a student's development, and, if not identified and properly treated, can be a life long struggle. 14. ___T__ The advances made in medical research and science, particularly related to the immediate post natal period, have led to a dramatic increase in the number of children who are now surviving very chronic conditions of earliest childhood. 15. __T___ Epilepsy is not a disease but rather a symptom of a brain disorder that leads to seizures. It is a condition that affects about 300,000 Canadians. SELECT THE CORRECT ANSWER: 16. In what decade of the 20th century was autism first described? (a) 1960'S (b) 1970's (c) 1940's 17. Asperger's Syndrome is a variation of autism usually applied to individuals with average to above average intelligence, but who are somewhat impaired ___________, and have unusually restricted or specialized interests. (a) cognitively (b) socially (c) linguistically 18. Recent research suggests that autism spectrum disorder usually appears in the first __________ years of life. (a) three (b) two (c) does not say 19. Autism spectrum disorder is four times more likely to be found in __________ when compared to ____________. (a) girls, boys (b) boys, girls (c) absolutely no difference 20. By 2004, Autism Canada was citing the prevalence rate of autism to be about one in every __________ births. (a) 500 (b) 5000 (c) 286 21. Which of the following does not belong? With respect to autism spectrum disorder, when it comes to developmental goals, parents should seek medical advice if they notice their child:
  3. 3. (a) does not babble at one year (b) does not walk before one year (c) hears but does not respond to his or her name (d) avoids eye contact (e) avoids cuddling (f) begins to develop basic language skills but then suddenly stops (g) does not point to things or does not seek any attention 22. Within current scientific communities, where the study of ASD is exclusively concerned, research is tending to lean heavily toward discovering a ________ basis for the disorder, overwhelmingly because of the familial patterns established by the disability. (a) psychological (b) genetic (c) biosocial 23. There is a specific geographical location in the state of New Jersey which has one of the world’s highest rates of autism, leading some to believe that an unknown ________ may be the ultimate cause. (a) food additive (b) childhood ailment (c) toxin 24. There is now a medical test which can detect autism in earliest childhood? (a) True (b) False (c) cannot determine 25. Professor I.O. Lovass, the founder of the Intensive Behavior Intervention approach to treating people with autism, borrows very heavily from the basic principles first developed and advocated by ______________________. (a) Abraham Maslow (b) B. F. Skinner (c) Jean Piaget 26. Restated, IBI follows _______________ principles and is a very intensive and hands on, typically involving 20 to 40 hours per week of direct service from professionals. (a) self actualization (b) linear capacity (c) behaviour modification 27. Very often, a student identified with autism spectrum disorder will come to the integrated classroom with a specific treatment program already in place. (a) True (b) False (c) does not say 28. Savant characteristics represent only about ________ of the overall autistic population.
  4. 4. (a) 2% (b) 5% (c) 10% 29. With respect to teaching strategies and the ASD student, special interests should rarely ever be utilized in the inclusive classroom. (a) True (b) False (c) cannot determine 30. With respect to teaching strategies and the ASD student, when it comes to reading ____________ may be the best approach. (a) Whole Language (b) Phonics (c) a non-structured environment 31. Motor disability and paralysis are typically classified according to the _________ involved in the condition. (a) limbs (b) precursors (c) people 32. Among the leading causes of Acquired brain injury, motor vehicle accidents, near drowning, violence related incidents, and ______________ are cited among the most prevalent. (a) drug overdose (b) vitamin deficiency (c) sports related injuries 33. Tourette Syndrome usually first manifests itself in _________________. (a) adolescence (b) childhood (c) early adulthood 34. Spina bifida occurs when one or more ___________ do not close during pre- natal development. (a) ribs (b) heart valves (c) vertebrae 35. There is a ________ incidence of intellectual problems among people with cerebral palsy, but the connection or lack of connection is not absolute. (a) lower (b) higher (c) does not say 36. By utilizing your text, or by searching the internet, match the specific "exceptionality" with the most accurate "description".
  5. 5. __C Asperger syndrome __E Autism __I Severe Developmental Disabilities __D Cystic Fibrosis __H Juvenile Arthritis __J Epilepsy __ G Muscular Dystrophy __ F Tourette Syndrome __ A Spina Bifida __B Cerebral Palsy A Neural tube defect that occurs during the first four weeks of pregnancy causing spinal cord to fail to develop properly B Disorders affecting body movement and muscle coordination resulting from damage to the brain during pregnancy or first three years C Severe and sustained impairment in social interaction, and development of restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior and interests D Disorder caused by inherited genetic defect, affecting mainly the lungs and digestive system E Impairments in verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction; restricted, repetitive patterns behavior; and intellectual impairments F A neurological disorder, often times characterized by tics G Genetically based muscle disorders that result in progressive weakness of muscles H Continuous inflammation of joints in people under 16 years I Severe limitation in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviors J Neurological disorder involving sudden bursts of electrical energy in brain
  6. 6. SOME STUDENT NOTES / GENERAL OBSERVATIONS: Low Incidence Exceptionalities • Students with "low incidence" exceptionalities are generally identified soon after birth: • Research states, "labels give us a shared language, but it is important that, as teachers, our language is respectful and professional • Research implies that, with reference to students of "low incidence" exceptionality, parents are often the best informed and should be consistently consulted within the educational process. • To arrive at a diagnosis of a "developmental disability", it is strongly implied that issues of cultural diversity should always be seriously considered first. • Among the leading causes of “developmental "disabilities", the following are all seriously considered. a) Chromosomal Abnormalities b) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome c) Fragile X Syndrome d) Cerebral Palsy e) Spina Bifida f) Down Syndrome • With the "developmentally disabled" student, modification of learning outcome may have to be seriously considered. • With reference to the "developmentally disabled" student, his or her IEP should, at minimum, seriously consider all of the following goal(s): a) functional academic skills b) physical development and personal care c) communication skills and social interaction skills d) community living skills
  7. 7. e) career development, work experience, and transition planning • All of the following would be considered a curricular modification. a) using high interest low vocabulary resources b) giving easier questions with respect to the same general concept c) changing learning outcomes by reducing overall expectations • Some literature suggests, Asperger Syndrome might have previously been referred to as "high functioning autism" • The general category of PDD includes both Autism and Asperger Syndrome. • Autism is believed to be genetic in origin and a general diagnosis is based on behaviors observed in the child's first three years of life. • General Characteristics of Autism are: a) restricted, repetitive and stereotypic patterns of behavior, interests and activities b) impairments in verbal and nonverbal communication c) impairments in reciprocal social interaction d) impairments in imaginative creativity e) in many instances, same level of intellectual impairment • It is estimated that about 50% of those with Autism never develop functional speech. • With reference to a communication strategy for the student with autism, it may be necessary to teach the student to listen by facing the speaker, remaining still, and specifically focusing on what is being said. • In successfully dealing with a student with Autism, research states that educators should try and minimize both auditory and visual stimuli, as well as removing textures the student finds particularly aversive.
  8. 8. • Students with Asperger Syndrome share many characteristics of Autism, however, they may display no significant delays related to language acquisition or cognitive development. • Students with Asperger Syndrome are characterized by a qualitative impairment in social interaction. • Quite frequently, you will observe students with Asperger Syndrome misinterpret social cues, lack empathy, appear socially awkward, and be completely unaware of the general rules of conversation. • Students with Asperger Syndrome may generally have average or above average intelligence, however, they may still need intensive teaching in reading comprehension, problem-solving, organizational skills, and inference making. They will also need very explicit instruction in the general social skills area. • Work experiences, participation in co-curricular activities, help with developing hygiene and appropriate dress, and self management skills, may need to be seriously considered as legitimate objectives, when working at the secondary level with students with Autism and, in some cases, Asperger Syndrome.