Lec #11 Freudian Theory


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Lec #11 Freudian Theory

  1. 1. Dr. Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis
  2. 2. Psychoanalytic Perspective “ first comprehensive theory of personality” (1856-1939) Biography: Freud went to University of Vienna 1873 Was a Voracious Reader & Medical School Graduate Specialized in Nervous Disorders Some patients’ disorders had no physical cause!
  3. 3. Why Psychoanalysis? Q : What caused neurological symptoms in patients with no physical neurological problems? Freud felt he needed to access the Unconscious through Hypnosis, Free Association and analysis of discussions [psychoanalysis] Unconscious Hypnosis Free Association “ Psychoanalysis”
  4. 4. The Unconscious “ the mind is like an iceburg - mostly hidden” Conscious Awareness small part above surface (Preconscious) Unconscious below the surface (thoughts, feelings, wishes, memories) Repression banishing unacceptable thoughts & passions to Unconscious revealed through Dreams & Slips
  5. 5. Freud & Personality Structure Id - energy constantly striving to satisfy basic drives Pleasure Principle Ego - seeks to gratify the Id in realistic ways Reality Principle Super Ego - voice of conscience that focuses on how we ought to behave Ego Super Ego Id
  6. 6. Freud & Personality Development “ personality forms during the first few years of life, rooted in unresolved conflicts of early childhood” Psychosexual Stages Oral (0-18 mos) - centered on the mouth Anal (18-36 mos) - focus on bowel/bladder elimination Phallic (3-6 yrs) - focus on genitals/“Oedipus Complex” (Identification & Gender Identity) Latency (6-puberty) - sexuality is dormant Genital (puberty on) - sexual feelings toward others Strong conflict can fixate an individual at Stages 1,2 or 3
  7. 7. Struggle of Id, Ego & Super Ego Id Super Ego Ego Ego protects itself via Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanisms reduce/redirect anxiety by distorting reality When the inner war gets out of hand, the result is Anxiety
  8. 8. <ul><li>Repression - banishes certain thoughts/feelings from consciousness (underlies all other defense </li></ul><ul><li>mechanisms) </li></ul><ul><li>Regression - retreating to earlier stage of fixated </li></ul><ul><li>development </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction Formation - ego makes unacceptable impulses appear as their opposites </li></ul><ul><li>Projection - attributes threatening impulses to others </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalization - generate self-justifying explanations to hide the real reasons for our actions </li></ul><ul><li>Displacement - divert impulses toward a more </li></ul><ul><li>acceptable object </li></ul><ul><li>Sublimation - transform unacceptable impulse into </li></ul><ul><li>something socially valued </li></ul>Defense Mechanisms
  9. 9. Freudian Theories <ul><li>Oedipus Complex [Son fixated on Mother] </li></ul><ul><li>Electra Complex [Daughter fixated on Father] </li></ul><ul><li>Penis Envy [Girl wishing she were a Boy] </li></ul><ul><li>Transference [Our traits we see in others but don’t recognize in ourselves] </li></ul>
  10. 10. Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Perspective Were Freud’s theories the “best of his time” or were they simply incorrect? Current research contradicts many of Freud’s specific ideas Development does not stop in childhood Dreams may not be unconscious drives and wishes Slips of the tongue are likely competing “ nodes” in memory network
  11. 11. Freud Today <ul><li>Whiles still considered the father of modern psychology, many of Freud’s theories were never really tested or proven scientifically. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He utilized a few case studies, such as Dora that you read about in your handbook, to create his theories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From these few cases, he hypothesized to the many. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Today, modern psychologists rely on more scientific approaches. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They create a hypothesis and use the scientific method to create an experiment, using larger groups of subjects and holding as many variable stable as possible to focus on the one being tested. </li></ul></ul>