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Facts on Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) (MS PowerPoint)


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Facts on Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) (MS PowerPoint)

  1. 1. TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY (TBI) Prepared by R.M. Tappin for Helmets To Hardhats © 2009.
  2. 2. <ul><li>A term that describes sudden and physical damage and trauma to the brain </li></ul>Traumatic Brain Injury: WHAT IS TBI?
  3. 3. THE BRAIN & Its Functions
  4. 4. ( ) CONCUSSION: a type of TBI
  5. 5. <ul><li>A blow or jolt to the head </li></ul><ul><li>An injury that penetrates the head and enters brain tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Not all blows/jolts to head cause TBI </li></ul>CAUSES OF TBI
  6. 6. <ul><li>Falls (28%) </li></ul><ul><li>Motor vehicle-traffic crashes (20%) </li></ul><ul><li>Struck by, or against, something (19%) </li></ul><ul><li>Assaults (11%) </li></ul><ul><li>( http:// / ) </li></ul>CAUSES OF TBI
  7. 7. <ul><li>50,000 die </li></ul><ul><li>235,000 are hospitalized </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 million are treated and released from an emergency department [3] </li></ul><ul><li>About 5.5 million Americans estimated to have long-term care needs as a result of TBI. </li></ul><ul><li>Not known how many are injured, not seen by emergency or other medical facilities, and receive no care. </li></ul><ul><li>(Langlois JA, Rutland-Brown W, Thomas KE) </li></ul>STATISTICS ON TBI
  8. 8. <ul><li>TBI is the signature wound of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)) </li></ul><ul><li>Most service related TBI caused by blast injuries </li></ul><ul><li>66% of service personnel in Iraq exposed to or injured by a Blast injury </li></ul>STATISTICS ON SERVICE RELATED TBI
  9. 9. <ul><li>40% of service personnel returning from OIF & OEF show signs & symptoms of TBI due to a blast injury </li></ul><ul><li>The large majority (80%) of combat head injuries sustained in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom are mild concussions as opposed to severe, debilitating TBI. </li></ul><ul><li>National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. </li></ul><ul><li>( http:// ) </li></ul>STATISTICS ON SERVICE RELATED TBI
  10. 10. <ul><li>Headaches or neck pain that do not go away </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty remembering, concentrating, or making decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Slowness in thinking, speaking, acting, or reading </li></ul><ul><li>Getting lost or easily confused </li></ul>SIGNS OF TBI
  11. 11. <ul><li>Feeling tired all of the time, having no energy or motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Mood changes (feeling sad or angry for no reason) </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in sleep patterns (sleeping a lot more or having a hard time sleeping) </li></ul><ul><li>Light-headedness, dizziness, or loss of balance </li></ul><ul><li>Urge to vomit (nausea) </li></ul>SIGNS OF TBI, cont’d
  12. 12. <ul><li>Increased sensitivity to lights, sounds, or distractions </li></ul><ul><li>Blurred vision or eyes that tire easily </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of sense of smell or taste </li></ul><ul><li>Ringing in the ears </li></ul><ul><li>( http:// ) </li></ul>SIGNS OF TBI, cont’d
  13. 13. <ul><li>Exact figure not known. However: </li></ul><ul><li>Plopping down on easy chair = 10g’s </li></ul><ul><li>The force of a professional boxer’s hit = 52 g’s </li></ul><ul><li>Between 10 and 50 g’s = estimated force needed to cause permanent brain injury </li></ul>ESTIMATED FORCE TO PRODUCE TBI
  14. 14. <ul><li>Two major types: </li></ul><ul><li>Penetrating brain injuries </li></ul><ul><li>Closed head injuries </li></ul>TYPES OF TBI
  15. 15. <ul><li>Foreign object enters brain (e.g. bullet) </li></ul><ul><li>Damage occurs along path of injury </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms vary according to part of brain that is damaged </li></ul>TYPE OF TBI: Penetrating
  16. 16. <ul><li>Results from blow to the head (e.g. car accident) </li></ul><ul><li>Causes two type of brain injuries: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul></ul></ul>Type of TBI: Closed head
  17. 17. ( ) CAUSES OF TBI
  18. 18. <ul><li>Skull fracture: breaking of the bony skull </li></ul><ul><li>Contusions/bruises: often occur right under the location of impact or at points where the force of the blow has driven the brain against the bony ridges inside the skull </li></ul><ul><li>Hematomas/blood clots: occur between the skull and the brain or inside the brain itself </li></ul><ul><li>( ) </li></ul>Primary Closed Head Injuries:
  19. 19. <ul><li>Lacerations: </li></ul><ul><li>Tearing of the frontal (front) and temporal (on the side) lobes or blood vessels of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>(the force of the blow causes the brain to rotate across the hard ridges of the skull, causing the tears) </li></ul><ul><li>( ) </li></ul>Primary Closed Head Injuries, cont’d:
  20. 20. <ul><li>Nerve damage (diffuse axonal injury): </li></ul><ul><li>Arises from a cutting, or shearing, force from the blow that damages nerve cells in the brain's connecting nerve fibers </li></ul><ul><li>( ) </li></ul>Primary Closed Head Injuries, cont’d:
  21. 21. <ul><li>Evolves over time (after trauma has occurred) </li></ul><ul><li>brain swelling (edema) </li></ul><ul><li>increased pressure inside of the skull (intracranial pressure) </li></ul><ul><li>epilepsy </li></ul><ul><li>intracranial infection </li></ul><ul><li>fever </li></ul><ul><li>hematoma ( for more info visit: ) </li></ul>SECONDARY CLOSED HEAD INJURIES:
  22. 22. ( ) HEMATOMA
  23. 23. <ul><li>ACUTE Subdural Hematomas : can occur after serious head injuries </li></ul><ul><li>MILD Subdural Hematomas: can occur after mild head injuries </li></ul><ul><li>SPONTANEOUS Subdural Hematomas: can occur spontaneously </li></ul>SUBDURAL HEMATOMAS
  25. 25. <ul><li>Trouble finding words </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty understanding written & verbal communications </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty spelling, reading, writing </li></ul>COMMUNICATION PROBLEMS CAUSED BY TBI
  26. 26. <ul><li>Inappropriately interrupting conversations </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to follow conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Using inappropriate tone of voice </li></ul><ul><li>Unable to process subtleties/nuances in language (e.g. difference between tongue-in-cheek and seriousness) </li></ul><ul><li>( ) </li></ul>COMMUNICATION PROBLEMS, cont’d
  27. 27. <ul><li>Slower processing of information </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of short-term memory </li></ul><ul><li>Poor planning, organizing skills </li></ul><ul><li>Setting goals </li></ul><ul><li>Completing tasks </li></ul><ul><li>May act impulsively </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty solving problems </li></ul>COGNITIVE PROBLEMS CAUSED BY TBI
  28. 28. <ul><li>Research still being conducted </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment dependent on severity of the TBI </li></ul><ul><li>In mild TBI cognitive behavioral therapy most common treatment form </li></ul><ul><li>Support treatment: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>(b) education </li></ul><ul><li>(c) counseling & family support </li></ul><ul><li>(d) medication for symptomatic relief </li></ul>TREATMENT OF TBI
  29. 29. <ul><li>Recovery varies from person to person </li></ul><ul><li>Can be spontaneous </li></ul><ul><li>80 – 85% mild TBI recover within 6 months </li></ul><ul><li>15 – 20% mild TBI will recover in 1 – 2 years </li></ul><ul><li>Most will make full recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Some partial recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Extreme cases may never recover </li></ul><ul><li>( http:// =123124683 ) </li></ul>LENGTH OF RECOVERY FROM TBI
  30. 30. PLEASE SUPPORT OUR TROOPS… EMPLOY A VET We owe our freedom to them!
  31. 31. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul><ul><li>http:// </li></ul><ul><li>http:// =123124683 </li></ul><ul><li>National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Traumatic brain injury: hope through research. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health; 2002 Feb. NIH Publication No.: 02-158. </li></ul>sources