DIR® Model and Floortime™ Approach

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DIR® Model and Floortime™ Approach

  1. 1. DEVELOPMENTAL, INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, RELATIONSHIP-BASED (DIR) MODEL GREENSPAN AND WEIDER
  2. 2. FLOORTIME APPROACH: A Comprehensive, Individualized Developmentally Based Interactive Approach Developed by Stanley Greenspan and Serena Weider
  3. 3. RESEARCH CONSENSUS Core Deficits <ul><li>Difficulties Integrating and Processing Complex Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher Level Thinking: Abstract, reflective thinking, making inferences & generating ideas . (Minshew & Goldstein, 2000. Bishop & Norbury, 2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems of Relating and Communicating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relating: Experiencing high levels of relatedness and empathy. (Hillier & Allinson, 2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating: Engaging in reciprocal affective interactions as part of a continuous flow of interactive problem-solving.( Minshew & Goldstein, 2000) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Research Consensus <ul><li>The Role of Emotion in Learning and Human </li></ul><ul><li>Development is supported by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent neurological research: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of the pathways that process emotion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The impact of emotional stress on the brain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The impact of brain lesions on emotional regulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The recognition of the social origins of cognition (Dennis, Lockyer & Lazenby, 2000.Greenspan & Shanker, 2004, p. 22) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Emotional Signaling and Concept Formation Emotional signaling in repeated pleasurable, synchroniesed interactions with significant others in the first years of life leading to the development of images, is the link between sensory perceptions & symbol/concept formation, such as that of the “Mother”. (Greenspan and Shanker, 2004, p. 29)
  6. 6. Emotional Signaling <ul><li>A reciprocated flow, between infant & mother of : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facial expressions: anger, fear, sadness, happiness or excitement & disappointment etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestures: waving arms or reaching at arm length, pointing etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocalizations: cooing, bubbling </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Harris Research Program On Human Development <ul><li>Stuart Shanker and Stanley Greenspan: </li></ul><ul><li>caregiver’s interactive style </li></ul><ul><li>child’s genetic and biological constitution </li></ul><ul><li>maturation </li></ul><ul><li>impact on the child’s level of emotional signaling </li></ul><ul><li>functional/emotional development & affective transformation, language formation, social-emotional & intellectual thinking </li></ul><ul><li>detecting early derailments </li></ul><ul><li>implementing early intervention </li></ul>
  8. 8. The DIR Model Environmental (Parents/Caregivers) Interaction Patterns and Dynamics NURTURE The Individual Constitutional and Maturational Characteristics NATURE The Individual Developmental Core Capacities and Functioning
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Developmental Profile <ul><li>Child ’s Processing & </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Differences : </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory-Visual Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory-Motor/Perceptual </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory Integration Skills </li></ul><ul><li>& Modulation </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul><ul><li>Child Developmental </li></ul><ul><li>Core Capacities: </li></ul><ul><li>Selfregulation & </li></ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Purposeful gesturing </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioralorganization </li></ul><ul><li>& Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional thinking & </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Bridging ideas/feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Child-Parent </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction Patterns: </li></ul><ul><li>Current patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal patterns </li></ul><ul><li>re. Child ’s </li></ul><ul><li>Core Capacities </li></ul><ul><li>& </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Differences </li></ul>Biomedical Excess or Difficiency
  11. 11. Comprehensive Functional Developmental Intervention Program Biomedical Intervention <ul><li>Home Programing </li></ul><ul><li>Spontanious </li></ul><ul><li>developmentally based </li></ul><ul><li>interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-Structured </li></ul><ul><li>sensory-motor </li></ul><ul><li>Structured </li></ul><ul><li>perceptual activities </li></ul>Family Support <ul><li>School Programing </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous, </li></ul><ul><li>developmentally based </li></ul><ul><li>interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-Structured </li></ul><ul><li>sensory-motor </li></ul><ul><li>Structured </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual activities </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Speech/Language </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational or </li></ul><ul><li>Physio-Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory/Visual & </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Training </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>School </li></ul><ul><li>Program </li></ul><ul><li>Includes three elements : </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous, developmentally </li></ul><ul><li>appropriate interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-structured sensory-motor & visual spatial </li></ul><ul><li>Structured pre-academic or academic </li></ul><ul><li>& educational activities </li></ul>Class Structure Additional Educational Strategies
  13. 13. Class Structure Inclusion or Regular Class placement with an aide If the preschooler is able to use complex gestures or words, priority should be given to an inclusive or a regular class with an aide Special Need Classes If the child is not using complex gestures to problem solve & is not imitating or using words, prioprity should be given to a special need class with a 1:1 ratio
  14. 14. Additional Educational Strategies PECS TEACCH Miller Method ABA Augmentative Communication Systems <ul><li>Visual-Spatial </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual-Motor </li></ul><ul><li>excercises </li></ul><ul><li>Visualization-based </li></ul><ul><li>concept building </li></ul>
  15. 15. Additional Educational Strategies <ul><li>PECS </li></ul><ul><li>When language lags behind visual-spatial thinking </li></ul><ul><li>TEACCH </li></ul><ul><li>When motor planning difficulties impede gestural communication </li></ul><ul><li>ABA </li></ul><ul><li>When structured excercises could be used to facilitate the development of imitation skills, basic motor planning and sequencing skills in children. </li></ul><ul><li>Miller Method </li></ul><ul><li>To help the child master early, basic cognitive capacities </li></ul>

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