Chapter 13


Published on

1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 13

  1. 1. Infectious and Noninfectious Conditions: Risks and Responsibilities
  2. 2. Assessing Your Disease Risks <ul><li>Risk factors you can’t control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heredity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organism Resistance </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Assessing Your Disease Risks <ul><li>Risk factors you can control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal hygiene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High risk behaviors </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Types of Pathogens and Routes of Transmission <ul><li>Transmission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autoinoculate yourself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmit from one part of body to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal-borne pathogens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interspecies transmission </li></ul></ul>
  5. 7. Your Body’s Defenses: Keeping You Well <ul><li>Physical and chemical defenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linings of the body </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. Your Body’s Defenses: Keeping You Well <ul><li>The immune system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antigens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antibodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immunoglobulins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humoral immune response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell-mediated immunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Macrophages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphocytes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Your Body’s Defenses: Keeping You Well <ul><li>Autoimmune diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immune deficiency syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rises in temperature can be harmful if extreme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High temperatures can destroy some disease causing organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates more white blood cell production </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Your Body’s Defenses: Keeping You Well <ul><li>Pain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Response to either direct or referred pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most often accompanied by inflammation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vaccines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccination and T- and B-cell memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquired immunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural immunity </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. The Immune Response Figure 13.1
  10. 12. Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule, by Vaccine and Age Group Figure 13.2
  11. 13. Living with Allergies <ul><li>Allergy-induced respiratory problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antigen or allergen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of antibodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypersensitive reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Release of histamines </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Steps of an Allergic Response Figure 13.3
  13. 15. Types of Pathogens and Routes of Transmission <ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single-celled organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staphylococcal infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streptococcal infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meningitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pneumonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuberculosis (TB) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Examples of 4 Major Types of Pathogens Figure 13.4
  15. 17. Types of Pathogens and Routes of Transmission <ul><li>Viruses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smallest pathogens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incubation periods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The common cold </li></ul><ul><li>Influenza </li></ul><ul><li>Infectious mononucleosis </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis: 3 types (HAV, HBV, HCV) </li></ul><ul><li>Measles </li></ul>
  16. 18. Is It an Allergy, a Cold, or the Flu? Figure 13.5
  17. 19. Types of Pathogens and Routes of Transmission <ul><li>Other pathogens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protozoa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitic worms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prions </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. Emerging and Resurgent Diseases <ul><li>Tiny microbes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mad Cow Disease (Bovine Spongiform Encephalitis-BSE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West Nile Virus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avian Bird Flu (H5N1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Escherichia coli 0157:H7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bioterrorism </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. ABC News: Infectious Disease <ul><li>Discussion Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the difference between an epidemic and pandemic? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What animals, other than birds, have been identified as having the “Bird flu?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What strategies have the Thailand Ministry of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control designed to monitor the spread of the Bird Flu in Thailand? </li></ul></ul>Play Video | Infectious Disease
  20. 22. Sexually Transmitted Infections <ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called STDs, once called venereal diseases (VD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 known types of STIs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the U.S, 19 million new cases reported every year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possible causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral and social stigma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Casual attitude toward sex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ignorance about infections/symptoms </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Sexually Transmitted Infections <ul><li>How STIs are transmitted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual intercourse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral-genital contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand-genital contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouth to mouth contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact with fluids from body sores </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Signs or Symptoms of Sexually Transmitted Infection Figure 13.6
  23. 25. Sexually Transmitted Infections <ul><li>Chlamydia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.8 million infected annually in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 10 % college students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many display no symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary damage can lead to sterility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conjunctivitis </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. Sexually Transmitted Infections <ul><li>Gonorrhea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the most common STIs in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CDC estimates over 700,000 cases per year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by bacterial pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early treatment: antibiotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complications with non-treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describes a number of infections of the uterus/fallopian tubes/ovaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can result from untreated infections </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. Sexually Transmitted Infections <ul><li>Syphilis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by a bacterial organism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spirochete known as Treponema pallidum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stages: primary, secondary, latent, late </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment: antibiotics </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. Syphilis Chancre
  27. 29. Sexually Transmitted Infections <ul><li>Herpes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Herpes simplex type 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herpes simplex type 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially serious in pregnant women – possible to transfer infection to baby during birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In women with herpes, greater risk for cervical cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preventing herpes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme caution in casual sexual affairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek medical help </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. Genital and Oral Herpes
  29. 31. Sexually Transmitted Infections <ul><li>Genital warts (Human Papilloma Virus - HPV) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 100 different types of HPV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infect over 6.2 million Americans each year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full-blown genital warts or flat warts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Health risks from genital warts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dysplasia – change in cells that may lead to a precancerous condition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vaccine to prevent HPV </li></ul>
  30. 32. Genital Warts
  31. 33. Sexually Transmitted Infections <ul><li>Candidiasis (moniliasis) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yeast-like fungus caused by Candida albicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms: severe itching, burning, swelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaginitis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trichomoniasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by a protozoan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Half of American men and women carry this organism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many remain symptom-free </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. Sexually Transmitted Infections <ul><li>Pubic lice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Crabs” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eggs nest in clothing, furniture and linens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General urinary tract infections (UTIs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can also be caused by invading organisms in the genital area </li></ul></ul>
  33. 35. HIV/AIDS <ul><li>Facts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global health problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Since 1981, over 65 million people in the world have become infected with HIV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>39.5 million living with HIV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A shifting epidemic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newly found indicator of virus: drop in CD4s, the master immune cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved reporting/accuracy </li></ul></ul>
  34. 36. HIV/AIDS <ul><li>How HIV is transmitted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engaging in high risk behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange of body fluids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injecting drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiving a blood transfusion prior to 1985 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mother-to-infant transmission (perinatal) </li></ul></ul>
  35. 37. HIV/AIDS <ul><li>Women and AIDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women represented 27% of newly reported AIDS cases in 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special concerns for women with HIV/AIDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4-10 times more likely than men to contract HIV through unprotected sexual intercourse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Underrepresented in clinical trials for treatment and prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural barriers to decision-making </li></ul></ul>
  36. 38. Sources of HIV Infection in Men and Women in the United States Figure 13.7
  37. 39. HIV/AIDS <ul><li>Symptoms of HIV/AIDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incubation time varies greatly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For HIV positive adults with no medical treatment, AIDS will develop in 8-10 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunistic infections </li></ul></ul>
  38. 40. HIV/AIDS <ul><li>Testing for HIV antibodies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood test known as ELISA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western blot – follows 2 positive ELISA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These tests detect antibodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even with antibodies, not all develop AIDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A cure does NOT exist </li></ul></ul>
  39. 41. HIV/AIDS <ul><li>New hope and treatments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New drugs slow progression of virus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medication currently very expensive and cause many side effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protease inhibitors/reverse transcriptase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preventing HIV infection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No vaccine currently available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce risk by responsible choices and behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstinence or safe sexual practices </li></ul></ul>
  40. 42. Noninfectious Diseases <ul><li>More than just major ailments such as cancer and heart disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most other chronic conditions can be prevented or symptoms alleviated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally not transmitted by pathogen or personal contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifestyle and personal habits often underlying causes </li></ul></ul>
  41. 43. Chronic Lung Diseases <ul><li>Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronchitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphysema </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asthma </li></ul></ul>
  42. 44. Chronic Lung Diseases <ul><li>Bronchitis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammation of lining of bronchial tubes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced air flow from the lungs/heavy mucous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acute bronchitis: symptoms improve in a few weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic bronchitis: last for at leas 3 months, serious form </li></ul></ul>
  43. 45. Chronic Lung Diseases <ul><li>Emphysema </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gradual destruction of alveoli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More and more difficult to exhale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Victim struggles to take in air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chest cavity expands over time (barrel-chest) </li></ul></ul>
  44. 46. Chronic Lung Diseases <ul><li>Asthma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term chronic inflammatory disorder that blocks airflow to the lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air pollutants, particulates, smoke, allergens and stress can trigger an asthma attack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrinsic (allergic asthma) or intrinsic (nonallergic) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relief: relaxation techniques, medications </li></ul></ul>
  45. 47. Chronic Lung Diseases <ul><li>Sleep apnea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects more than 18 million Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periodic episodes of breathing cessation for 10 seconds or longer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes restless sleep, high blood pressure, irregular heart beats, heart attack, stroke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common treatments: reduce alcohol use, losing weight, change sleeping position, medicinal interventions </li></ul></ul>
  46. 48. Neurological Disorders <ul><li>Headaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tension headaches: muscular contraction headaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treatments: relaxation, hot water, massage, pain medication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migraine headaches: severe debilitating symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treatments: ergot drugs, other medications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cluster headaches: more rare forms; “killer” or “suicidal” pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Treatments: oxygen therapy, drugs, surgery </li></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 49. Neurological Disorders <ul><li>Seizure disorders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epilepsy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 million people in the U.S. suffer some form of seizure-related disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Partial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generalized </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About half are of unknown origin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promising treatments today </li></ul></ul>
  48. 50. Neurological Disorders <ul><li>Parkinson’s Disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic, slow neurological condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over 1.5 million Americans suffer from it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“Shaking palsy”, rigid or stiff muscles, poor balance, slurred speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progressive and incurable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New drug therapies to control symptoms / new surgical procedures show promise </li></ul></ul>
  49. 51. Neurological Disorders <ul><li>Multiple Sclerosis (MS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects over 500,000 Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Degenerative disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve malfunctions from break down by myelin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically appears between 15 and 50 years of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause: Inconclusive theories </li></ul></ul>
  50. 52. Digestion-Related Disorders <ul><li>Lactose intolerance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No ability to produce digestive enzyme lactase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dietary treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colitis and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ulcerative colitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe stomach cramps, weight loss, nausea, sweating, fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment: Increase fiber intake, anti-inflammatory drugs, other medications </li></ul></ul>
  51. 53. Musculoskeletal Diseases <ul><li>Arthritis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strikes 1 in 5 Americans/ over 46 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osteoarthritis (OA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rheumatoid arthritis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fibromyalgia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic joint pain, headaches, dizziness, numbness, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Array of symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to diagnose </li></ul></ul>
  52. 54. Musculoskeletal Diseases <ul><li>Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE or Lupus) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack kidneys, brain, heart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90% of all victims are female </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low back pain (LBP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>85% of Americans will experience LBP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90% of all back problems in lumbar region (lower) </li></ul></ul>
  53. 55. Other Maladies <ul><li>Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feeling tired all the time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No viral cause found, possible psychosocial roots </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25% of work injuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High costs to employers in workers’ compensation and absenteeism </li></ul></ul>