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Motivation (Principles of Management)


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Motivation (Principles of Management)

  1. 1. MOTIVATION 10:00 – 12:00 SOURCE: Samuel Certo Group 7
  2. 2. CHAPTER OUTLINE: MOTIVATION •The Motivation Process I.Defining motivation II.Process Theories of Motivation •Content Theories of Motivation: Human Needs •Motivating Organization members I.The Importance of Motivating Organization Members II.Strategies for motivating III.Managerial Communication
  3. 3. Question: What ways can you motivate your group to work harder?
  4. 4. Motivation Skill: the ability to create organizational situations in which individuals performing organizational activities are simultaneously satisfying personal needs and helping the organization attain its goals What is Motivation Skill?
  5. 5. I. The Motivation Process Motivation is the inner state that causes an individual to behave in a way that ensures the accomplishment of some goal. A. Defining Motivation The better a manager understands organization members’ behavior, the more able that manager will be to influence subordinates’ behavior to make it more consistent with the accomplishment of organizational objectives, because productivity is a result of the behavior of organization members, motivating organization members is the key to reaching organizational goals.
  6. 6. Two Basic Types of Motivation: a. Process Theories – are explanations of motivation that emphasize how individuals are motivated. They focus, essentially, on the steps that occur when an individual is motivated. b. Content Theories – are explanations of motivation that emphasize people’s internal characteristics. They focus on understanding what needs people have and how these needs can be satisfied.
  7. 7. B. Process Theories of Motivation  It begins with an individual feeling a NEED, and then it is transformed into behavior directed at supporting or allowing the performance of goal behavior to reduce the felt need. 1. Needs-Goal Theory  It is the most fundamental of all the motivation theories.  The goal-supportive behavior and goal behavior itself continue until the felt need has been significantly reduced.
  8. 8. Needs-Goal Theory
  9. 9. Managers have to understand the personal needs of their employees. When managers offer rewards that are not relevant to their employees’ personal needs, the employees will not be motivated. The Role of Individual Needs
  10. 10. 2. Vroom Expectancy Theory  It encompasses some complexities that are not supported by the needs-goal theory.  It is based on the premise that felt needs cause human behavior. Motivation strength - an individual’s degree of desire to perform a behavior.
  11. 11. d. Some will leave the situation rather than changing it. 3.Equity Theory  It looks at an individual’s perceived fairness of an employment situation and finds that perceived inequities can lead to changes in behavior.  If individuals believe that they are treated unfairly in comparison with other coworkers, they will react in one of the following ways to try to right the inequity: b. Some will change their work outputs to better match the rewards that they are receiving. a. Some will try to change the compensation they receive for their work by asking a raise or by taking legal action. c. Some will try to change their own perception of the inequality.
  12. 12. 4. Porter-Lawler Theory  It provides a more complete description of the motivation process than either needs-goal theory or Vroom expectancy theory.  Accepts the premises that felt needs cause human behavior and that effort expended to accomplish a task is determined by the perceived value of rewards that will result from finishing the task and the probability that those reward will materialize.
  13. 13. Porter-Lawler Theory
  14. 14.  The perceived fairness of rewards influences the amount of satisfaction produced by those rewards. Characteristics of motivation process:  Perceived value of a reward is determined by both INTRINSIC (comes directly from performing the task) and EXTRINSIC (extraneous to the task) rewards.  The extent to which an individual effectively accomplishes a task is determined primarily by two variables: (1) the individual’s perception of what is required to perform the task and the individual’s ability to perform the task.
  15. 15. II. Content Theories of Motivation: Human Needs
  16. 16. II. Content Theories of Motivation: Human Needs Physiological needs Security needs Social needs Esteem needs Self-actualization needs A. Maslow’s Hierarchy Needs
  17. 17. Existence needs Relatedness needs Growth needs B. Alderfer’s ERG Theory
  18. 18. 7. From a lack of self-awareness to awareness and control over self C. Argyris’s Maturity-Immaturity Continuum 1. From a state of passivity to increasing activity 2. From a state of dependence on others to relative independence 3. From being capable of behaving only in a few ways to being capable of behaving in many different ways 4. From having erratic, casual, shallow, and quickly dropped interests to having deeper, more lasting interests 5. From having a short time perspective to having a much longer one 6. From being in a subordinate position to aspiring to occupy an equal or superordinate position
  19. 19. •Need for achievement (nAch) •Need for power (nPower) •Need for affiliation (nAff) D. McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory
  20. 20. Motivating Organization members People are motivated to perform behavior that satisfies their personal needs. Therefore from a managerial view point, motivation is the process of furnishing organization members with the opportunity to satisfy their need by performing productive behavior within the organization. Successful managers minimize appropriate behavior among subordinate. A. The Importance
  21. 21. B. Strategies for motivating  Each strategy is aimed at satisfying subordinates. A. Theory X – Theory Y – Theory X involves negative assumption about people that McGregor believes manager often use as the basic for dealing their subordinate. Theory Y represents positive assumptions about people that McGregor believes managers should strive to use. – managers can use to motivate organization members involves designing jobs that organization member perform. B. Job Design
  22. 22. Job Enlargement – increasing the number of operation an individual performs in order to enhance the individual satisfaction in work. Earlier Job Design Strategies – A movement has long existed in American Business the idea behind this movement is to make worker move productive by enabling them to be more efficient. Job Rotation – Moving workers from job to job rather than requiring them to perform only one simple and specialized job over the long term.
  23. 23. Job Enrichment – Frederick Herzberg conclude from his research that the degrees of satisfaction and dissatisfaction feel as a result of performing a job are two different variables determined by two different sets of items. A. HYGIENE OR MAINTENANCE FACTORS – The items that influence the degree of job and satisfaction B. MOTIVATING FACTORS OR MOTIVATORS – those that influence the degree of job satisfaction – The process of incorporating motivators in job situation
  24. 24. – the main purpose of these scheduling innovations is not to reduce the total number of work hours, but rather to give workers greater Flexibility in scheduling their work hours. It also allows workers to complete their jobs within the worksheet. Flextime – focuses on encouraging appropriate behavior by controlling the consequences of that behavior. C. Behavior Modification – modification theory asserts that if managers want to modify subordinates behavior, they must ensure that appropriate consequences occur as a result of that behavior. Reinforcement Behavior
  25. 25. – is a reward that consists of the elimination of an undesirable consequence of behavior. 2 Types of Consequences Behavior 1. Positive reinforcement – is a reward that consists of a desirable consequences behavior. 2. Negative reinforcement – is the presentation of an undesirable behavior consequence or the removal of a desirable behavior consequence that decrease the likelihood that the behavior will continue. Punishment
  26. 26. – behavior modification programs have been applied both successfully and unsuccessfully in a number of organizations. Applying Behavior Modification 4. Always giving out rewards and punishment that are earned to emphasize that management is serious about its behavior modification effects. Other ingredients of successful behavior modification programs are the following: 1. Giving different levels of rewards to different workers according to the quality of their performance. 2. Telling workers what they are doing wrong. 3. Punishing workers privately in orders not to embarrass in front of others.
  27. 27. D. Likert’s Management Systems Likerts concluded that management styles in organizations can be categorized into the following systems: – is another strategy that managers can use to motivate organization member is based on the work of Rensis Likert. System 4 – this style of management is characterized by complete trust and confidence in subordinate. System 1 – this style of management is characterized by a lack of confidence or trust in subordinates. System 2 – this style of management is characterized by a condescending master – to – servant style confidence and trust is subordinate. System 3 – this style of management is characterized by substantial though not complete, confidence in subordinate.
  28. 28. – A firm can also keep its employees committed and motivated by nonmonetary means. Styles, Systems, and Productivity – Conversely managers who initiate a system four management style will probably face some decline in production initially but will see an increase in production over the long term. E. Monetary Incentives – A number of firms make a wide range of money-based compensation programs available to their employees as a form of motivation. F. Nonmonetary Incentives
  29. 29. Perhaps the most basic motivation strategy for managers is to communicate well with organization members. Effective manager subordinate communication can satisfy such basic human needs as recognition, a sense of belonging, and security. C. Managerial Communication
  30. 30. The End