Leadership (principles of management)


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Leadership (principles of management)

  1. 1. Group 6: SOURCE: Samual CErto
  2. 2. Is the process of directing the behavior of others toward the accomplishment of the same objective. Causing individuals to act in a certain way to follow a particular course.
  3. 3. Some managers are leaders and some leaders are managers Leading and managing are “NOT” identical activities
  4. 4. 1. The rational assessment of a situation and the systematic selection of goals and purposes 2. The systematic development of strategies to achieve these goals 3. The marshalling of the required resources 4. The rational design, organization, and control of the activities required to attain the selected purposes 5. The motivating and rewarding of people to do work.
  5. 5. 1. Focuses on non-behavioral issues 2. Focuses on behavioral issues 3. Focuses on the people who do the job
  6. 6. Managers who are also leaders ManagersLeaders The most effective managers over the term are also leaders
  7. 7. Trait Approach to Leadership 1. Intelligence including judgment and verbal ability 2. Past achievement in scholarship and athletics 3. Emotional maturity and stability 4. Dependability, persistence, and a drive for continuing achievement 5. The skill to participate socially and adapt to various groups 6. A desire for status and socioeconomic position
  8. 8. Each instance of leadership is different and therefore requires a unique combination of leaders, followers and leadership situations. SL=f(L,F,S) SL- successful leader L-leader F-follower S-successful
  9. 9. Use of authority by the manager Area of freedom for subordinates Manager makes decision and announces Manger “sells” decision manager presents tentative decision subject to exchange Manager presents ideas & invites questions Manager presents problems, g ets suggestions, makes decision Manager defines limits; asks group to make decision Manager permits subordinates to function within limits defined by superior.
  10. 10. Manager makes decision and announces a. Identify the problem b. Analyze various alternatives available to solve it. c. Choosing the alternative the will be used to solve it. d. requiring followers to implement Manger “sells” decision The managers tries to persuade subordinates to accept the decision. The manager makes the decision and attempts to gain acceptance through persuasion and invites subordinates to ask questions about the decision. Manager presents ideas & invites questions Use of authority by the manager
  11. 11. Manager presents tentative decision subject to exchange Allows subordinates to have some part in the decision-making process but retains the responsibility for identifying and diagnosing the problem. The manager then arrives at a tentative decision that is subject to change on the basis of subordinate input. The final decision is made by the manager Area of freedom for subordinates Manager presents problems, gets suggestions, makes decision Allow subordinates the opportunity to offer problem solutions before the manager does. The manger is still the one to identify the problem Manager defines limits; asks group to make decision The manager defines the problem and sets a boundaries within which a certain decision must be made. then the manager enters into partnership with subordinates to arrive at a decision. Manager permits subordinates to function within limits defined by superior. The manager becomes an equal member of a problem-solving group. The entire group identifies & assesses the problem, develops possible solutions, and chooses an alternative to be implemented. Everyone within the group understands the group’s decision will be implemented.
  12. 12. Determining How to Make Decisions as a Leader Forces in the Manager mangers should be aware of four forces within themselves that influence their determination of how to make decisions as a leader. Four Forces 1. The Manager’s values. 2. The level of confidence in subordinates 3. The personal leadership strengths. 4. The tolerance for ambiguity. Forces in Subordinates Have a relatively high need for independence Have a readiness to assume responsibility for decision making Have a relatively high tolerance for ambiguity Interested in the problem and believes that it is important to solve it. Understand and identify with the organization’s goals. Have the necessary knowledge & experience to deal w/ the problem. Have learned to expect to share in decision making
  13. 13. Forces in the Situation The last group of forces that influence a manager’s determination of how to make decisions as a leader are forces in the leadership situation. Four types 1. The type of organization in which a leader works. 2. The effectiveness of the group 3. The problem to be solved. 4. The time available to make decision.
  14. 14. VROOM-YETTON-JAGO MODEL (VYJ) Another major decision- focused theory of leadership that has gained widespread attention was first developed in 1973 and refined and expanded in 1988. It focuses on how much participation to allow subordinates in the decision-making process. This model is built in two important premises. : 1)Organizational decisions should be of high quality (should have a beneficial impact on performance) 2)Subordinate should accept and be committed to organizational decisions that are made.
  15. 15. The VYJ model suggests five different decision styles or ways that leaders make decisions. These styles range from autocratic (the leader makes the decision) consultative (the leader makes the decision after interacting with the followers) to group focused (the manager meets with the group, and the group makes the decision).
  16. 16. Decision Style Al All Cl Cll Gll Definition Manager makes the decision alone Manager asks for information from subordinates but makes the decision alone. Manger shares the situation with individual subordinates and asks for information and evaluation Manager and subordinates meet as a group to discuss the situation, but the manager makes the decision Manager and subordinates meet as a group to discuss the situation , and the group makes the decision. A= Autocratic, C= consultative G= group
  17. 17. Using the Model Is a method for determining when a leader should use which decision styles. As you can see the model is a type of decision tree. To determine which decision style to use a particular situation, the leader start at the left of the decision tree by stating the organizational problem being addressed then the leader asks a series of questions about the problem as determines by the structure of the decision tree until he or she arrives at a decision style appropriate for the situation at the far right side of the model.
  18. 18. •Quality Requirement (QR): How important is the technical quality of the decision? •Commitment Requirement (CR): How important is subordinate commitment to the decision? •Leader's Information (LI): Do you (the leader) have sufficient information to make a high quality decision on your own? •Problem Structure (ST): Is the problem well structured (e.g., defined, clear, organized, lend itself to solution, time limited, etc.)? •Commitment Probability (CP): If you were to make the decision by yourself, is it reasonably certain that your subordinates would be committed to the decision? •Goal Congruence (GC): Do subordinates share the organizational goals to be attained in solving the problem? •Subordinate conflict (CO): Is conflict among subordinates over preferred solutions likely? •Subordinate information (SI): Do subordinates have sufficient information to make a high quality decision?
  19. 19. Leadership Behavior The failure to identify predictive leadership traits researchers in this area to turn to other variables to explain leadership success. Rather than looking at traits leaders should possess the behavioral approach l0oked at what good leaders do. Two major studies series were conducted to identify leadership behavior, one by the Bureau of Business Research at Ohio State University (OSU Studies) and another by the University of Michigan (Michigan Studies)
  20. 20. OSU Studies Two main types of behavior. Structure Behavior - is any leadership activity that delineates the relationship between the leader and the leader’s followers or establishes well- defined procedures that followers should adhere to in performing their jobs. - limits the sell guidance of followers in the performance of their tasks, but while it can be relatively firm, it is never rude or malicious. Structure Behavior - is any leadership activity that delineates the relationship between the leader and the leader’s followers or establishes well- defined procedures that followers should adhere to in performing their jobs.
  21. 21. Leadership style Is the behavior a leader exhibits while guiding organization members in appropriate directions. The Michigan Studies Led by Rensis Likert It pinpointed two basic types of leader behavior: job centered behavior and employee centered behavior.
  22. 22. Job-centered behavior Leader behavior that focuses primary on work a subordinate is doing. The job- centered leader is interested in the job the subordinate is doing and in how well the subordinate is performing at that job. Employee-centered behavior Leader behavior that focuses primarily on subordinated as a people. The employee- centered leader is attentive to personal needs of subordinates and is interested in building cooperative work teams that satisfying to subordinates and advantageous for the organization.
  24. 24. The Hersey- Blanchard Life Cycle theory of Leadership A rationale for linking leadership styles with various situations as to ensure effective leadership. This theory posits essentially the same two types of leadership behavior as the OSU leadership studies, but it calls them “task” and “relationship” rather than “structure” and “consideration”. Maturity The life cycle theory is based on the relationship among the follower maturity, leader task behavior, and leader relationship behavior. Maturity is defined as the ability of followers to perform their job independently, to assume additional responsibility, and to desire to achieve success.
  25. 25. Leader flexibility- the idea that successful leaders must change their leadership styles as they encounter different situations. … Contingency theory of leadership…
  26. 26.  Leaders in modern organizations have been confronting many situations rarely encountered organizational leaders of the past.  Today’s leaders are often called upon to make massive personnel cuts in order to eliminate unnecessary levels of organizations and thereby lower labor expenses, to introduce work teams in order to enhance organizational decision making and work flow, to reengineer work so that organization members will be more efficient and effective and to initiate programs designed to improve the overall quality of organizational functioning.  Organizations are emphasizing leadership styles that concentrate on getting employees involved in the organization and giving them the freedom to use their abilities as they think best.
  27. 27.  Leadership that inspires organizational success by profoundly affecting follower’s beliefs in what an organization should be , as well as their values such as integrity and justice.  This creates a sense of duty within an organization, encourages new ways of handling problems , and promotes learning for all organization members.
  28. 28.  Perform several important tasks:  1st – they raise followers’ awareness of organizational issues and their consequences. - organization members must understand an organization’s high-priority issues and what will happen if these issues are not successfully resolved.  2nd – transformational leaders create a vision of what the organization should be, - build a commitment to that vision throughout the organization and - facilitate organizational changes that support the vision  Transformational leadership is consistent with strategy developed through an organization’s strategic management process.
  29. 29.  A leadership that instructs followers on how to meet the special organizational challenges they face. Coaching Behavior  Listens closely – the leader tries to gather both the facts in what is said and the feelings and emotions behind what is said. - a leader is careful to really listen and not fall into the trap of immediately rebutting statements made by followers.
  30. 30.  Gives emotional support – the coaching leader gives followers personal encouragement. Such encouragement should constantly aimed at motivating them to do their best to meet the high demands of successful organizations.  Shows by example what constitutes appropriate behavior – the coaching leader shows followers, for instance, how to handle an employee problem or a production glitch. By demonstrating, the coaching leader builds the trust and respect of followers.
  31. 31.  This is leading by showing others how to lead themselves. If superleaders are successful, they develop followers who are productive, work independently and need only minimal attention from the superleader.  they teach followers how to think on their own and act constructively and independently.  They encourage people to eliminate negative thoughts and beliefs about the company and coworkers and to replace them with more positive and constructive beliefs.  Building the self-confidence of followers by convincing them that they are competent, have a significant reservoir of potential and are capable of meeting the difficult challenges of the work situation.
  32. 32.  Is an approach to leading in which leaders view their primary role as helping followers in their quests to satisfy personal needs, aspirations and interests as secondary to the followers’ pursuit of these factors.  Servant leaders place high value on service to others over self-interests and see their main responsibility as the care of human resources of the organizations.  They maintain that human resources are the most valuable resources in organizations and constantly strive to transform their followers into wiser and more autonomous individuals.
  33. 33.  Good listeners – listening is a critical characteristics of servant leaders. - the ability to listen carefully to follower comment , for example, helps the servant leaders to more accurately define the critical factors of follower needs, aspirations, and interests and thereby more effectively assist followers in their quest to achieve them.  Persuasive – seldom do servant leaders use authority to mandate action to be taken by followers. Instead, servant leaders focus on convincing followers of activity that should be performed.  Aware of their surroundings – servant leaders are keenly aware of organizational surroundings. As such, servant leaders know what factors might create barriers to followers in their quest to pursue needs, interests and aspirations and take action to eliminate those barriers.  Empathetic – empathy is the intellectual identification with the feelings, thoughts or attitudes of another. Being empathetic helps servant leaders to better relate to followers in helping them to solve problems.  Stewards - a steward is defined as an individual who is entrusted with managing the affairs of another. Overall, servant leaders see themselves as being entrusted with managing the human assets of an organization and are responsible for helping organization members to maximize their potential.
  34. 34.  A leadership that is based on the attitude that the leader is self-employed.  They behave as if they are taking the risk of losing money but will receive the profit if one is made.  They approach each mistake as if it were a significant error rather than a smaller error that will be neutralized the normal functioning of the organization.