Is the process of directing the behavior of others
toward the accomplishment of the same
Causing individuals to act in a certain way to
follow a particular course.
Some managers are leaders and some leaders are
Leading and managing are “NOT”
1. The rational assessment of a situation and
the systematic selection of goals and
2. The systematic development of strategies
to achieve these goals
3. The marshalling of the required resources
4. The rational design, organization, and
control of the activities required to attain
the selected purposes
5. The motivating and rewarding of people to
1. Focuses on non-behavioral issues
2. Focuses on behavioral issues
3. Focuses on the people who do the job
Managers who are also
The most effective managers over the term are also
Trait Approach to Leadership
1. Intelligence including judgment and verbal ability
2. Past achievement in scholarship and athletics
3. Emotional maturity and stability
4. Dependability, persistence, and a drive for continuing
5. The skill to participate socially and adapt to various
6. A desire for status and socioeconomic position
Each instance of leadership is different and therefore
requires a unique combination of leaders, followers and
SL- successful leader
Use of authority by the manager
Area of freedom for subordinates
Manager makes decision and announces
a. Identify the problem
b. Analyze various alternatives available to solve it.
c. Choosing the alternative the will be used to
d. requiring followers to implement
Manger “sells” decision
The managers tries to persuade subordinates to accept the
The manager makes the decision and attempts to gain
acceptance through persuasion and invites subordinates to ask
questions about the decision.
Manager presents ideas & invites questions
Use of authority by the manager
Manager presents tentative decision subject to exchange
Allows subordinates to have some part in the decision-making process but
retains the responsibility for identifying and diagnosing the problem. The
manager then arrives at a tentative decision that is subject to change on the
basis of subordinate input. The final decision is made by the manager
Area of freedom for subordinates
Manager presents problems, gets suggestions, makes decision
Allow subordinates the opportunity to offer problem solutions before
the manager does. The manger is still the one to identify the problem
Manager defines limits; asks group to make decision
The manager defines the problem and sets a boundaries within which a
certain decision must be made. then the manager enters into
partnership with subordinates to arrive at a decision.
Manager permits subordinates to function within limits defined by
The manager becomes an equal member of a problem-solving group. The
entire group identifies & assesses the problem, develops possible
solutions, and chooses an alternative to be implemented. Everyone within
the group understands the group’s decision will be implemented.
Determining How to Make Decisions as a Leader
Forces in the Manager
mangers should be aware of four forces within themselves that
influence their determination of how to make decisions as a leader.
1. The Manager’s values.
2. The level of confidence in subordinates
3. The personal leadership strengths.
4. The tolerance for ambiguity.
Forces in Subordinates
Have a relatively high need for independence
Have a readiness to assume responsibility for decision making
Have a relatively high tolerance for ambiguity
Interested in the problem and believes that it is important to solve
Understand and identify with the organization’s goals.
Have the necessary knowledge & experience to deal w/ the
Have learned to expect to share in decision making
Forces in the Situation
The last group of forces that influence a manager’s determination of
how to make decisions as a leader are forces in the leadership
1. The type of organization in which a leader works.
2. The effectiveness of the group
3. The problem to be solved.
4. The time available to make decision.
VROOM-YETTON-JAGO MODEL (VYJ)
Another major decision- focused theory of leadership
that has gained widespread attention was first developed in 1973
and refined and expanded in 1988. It focuses on how much
participation to allow subordinates in the decision-making
This model is built in two important premises. :
1)Organizational decisions should be of high quality
(should have a beneficial impact on performance)
2)Subordinate should accept and be committed to
organizational decisions that are made.
The VYJ model suggests five different
decision styles or ways that leaders make
decisions. These styles range from autocratic
(the leader makes the decision) consultative
(the leader makes the decision after
interacting with the followers) to group
focused (the manager meets with the
group, and the group makes the decision).
Manager makes the decision alone
Manager asks for information from
subordinates but makes the decision
Manger shares the situation with
individual subordinates and asks for
information and evaluation
Manager and subordinates meet as a
group to discuss the situation, but the
manager makes the decision
Manager and subordinates meet as a
group to discuss the situation , and the
group makes the decision.
A= Autocratic, C= consultative G= group
Using the Model
Is a method for determining when a leader should
use which decision styles. As you can see the
model is a type of decision tree. To determine
which decision style to use a particular
situation, the leader start at the left of the decision
tree by stating the organizational problem being
addressed then the leader asks a series of
questions about the problem as determines by the
structure of the decision tree until he or she arrives
at a decision style appropriate for the situation at
the far right side of the model.
•Quality Requirement (QR): How important is the technical
quality of the decision?
•Commitment Requirement (CR): How important is
subordinate commitment to the decision?
•Leader's Information (LI): Do you (the leader) have sufficient
information to make a high quality decision on your own?
•Problem Structure (ST): Is the problem well structured
(e.g., defined, clear, organized, lend itself to solution, time
•Commitment Probability (CP): If you were to make the
decision by yourself, is it reasonably certain that your
subordinates would be committed to the decision?
•Goal Congruence (GC): Do subordinates share the
organizational goals to be attained in solving the problem?
•Subordinate conflict (CO): Is conflict among subordinates
over preferred solutions likely?
•Subordinate information (SI): Do subordinates have sufficient
information to make a high quality decision?
The failure to identify predictive
leadership traits researchers in this area
to turn to other variables to explain
leadership success. Rather than looking
at traits leaders should possess the
behavioral approach l0oked at what
good leaders do.
Two major studies series were
conducted to identify leadership
behavior, one by the Bureau of
Business Research at Ohio State
University (OSU Studies) and another by
the University of Michigan (Michigan
Two main types of behavior.
- is any leadership activity that delineates the
relationship between the leader and the leader’s
followers or establishes well- defined procedures that
followers should adhere to in performing their jobs.
- limits the sell guidance of followers in the
performance of their tasks, but while it can be
relatively firm, it is never rude or malicious.
- is any leadership activity
that delineates the relationship
between the leader and the
leader’s followers or establishes well-
defined procedures that followers
should adhere to in performing their
Is the behavior a leader exhibits
while guiding organization
members in appropriate directions.
The Michigan Studies
Led by Rensis Likert
It pinpointed two basic types of
leader behavior: job centered
behavior and employee centered
Leader behavior that focuses primary on work a
subordinate is doing. The job- centered leader is
interested in the job the subordinate is doing and in
how well the subordinate is performing at that job.
Leader behavior that focuses primarily on
subordinated as a people. The employee-
centered leader is attentive to personal needs of
subordinates and is interested in building
cooperative work teams that satisfying to
subordinates and advantageous for the
C O N S I D E R A T I O N
The Hersey- Blanchard Life Cycle
theory of Leadership
A rationale for linking leadership styles with various
situations as to ensure effective leadership. This theory
posits essentially the same two types of leadership
behavior as the OSU leadership studies, but it calls
them “task” and “relationship” rather than “structure”
The life cycle theory is based on the relationship
among the follower maturity, leader task
behavior, and leader relationship behavior.
Maturity is defined as the ability of followers to
perform their job independently, to assume
additional responsibility, and to desire to achieve
Leader flexibility- the idea that successful
leaders must change their leadership
styles as they encounter different
Contingency theory of leadership…
Leaders in modern organizations have been confronting
many situations rarely encountered organizational leaders of
Today’s leaders are often called upon to make massive
personnel cuts in order to eliminate unnecessary levels of
organizations and thereby lower labor expenses, to
introduce work teams in order to enhance organizational
decision making and work flow, to reengineer work so that
organization members will be more efficient and effective
and to initiate programs designed to improve the overall
quality of organizational functioning.
Organizations are emphasizing leadership styles that
concentrate on getting employees involved in the
organization and giving them the freedom to use their
abilities as they think best.
Leadership that inspires organizational
success by profoundly affecting
follower’s beliefs in what an organization
should be , as well as their values such as
integrity and justice.
This creates a sense of duty within an
organization, encourages new ways of
handling problems , and promotes
learning for all organization members.
Perform several important tasks:
1st – they raise followers’ awareness of organizational
issues and their consequences.
- organization members must understand an
organization’s high-priority issues and what will happen if
these issues are not successfully resolved.
2nd – transformational leaders create a vision of what the
organization should be,
- build a commitment to that vision throughout the
- facilitate organizational changes that support the vision
Transformational leadership is consistent with strategy
developed through an organization’s strategic
A leadership that instructs followers on
how to meet the special organizational
challenges they face.
– the leader tries to gather both
the facts in what is said and the feelings
and emotions behind what is said.
- a leader is careful to really listen
and not fall into the trap of immediately
rebutting statements made by followers.
Gives emotional support
– the coaching leader gives followers personal
encouragement. Such encouragement should
constantly aimed at motivating them to do their best
to meet the high demands of successful organizations.
Shows by example what constitutes appropriate
– the coaching leader shows followers, for
instance, how to handle an employee problem or a
production glitch. By demonstrating, the coaching
leader builds the trust and respect of followers.
This is leading by showing others how to lead themselves. If
superleaders are successful, they develop followers who
are productive, work independently and need only
minimal attention from the superleader.
they teach followers how to think on their own and act
constructively and independently.
They encourage people to eliminate negative thoughts
and beliefs about the company and coworkers and to
replace them with more positive and constructive beliefs.
Building the self-confidence of followers by convincing
them that they are competent, have a significant reservoir
of potential and are capable of meeting the difficult
challenges of the work situation.
Is an approach to leading in which leaders view
their primary role as helping followers in their
quests to satisfy personal needs, aspirations and
interests as secondary to the followers’ pursuit of
Servant leaders place high value on service to
others over self-interests and see their main
responsibility as the care of human resources of
They maintain that human resources are the most
valuable resources in organizations and constantly
strive to transform their followers into wiser and
more autonomous individuals.
Good listeners – listening is a critical characteristics of servant leaders.
- the ability to listen carefully to follower comment , for example, helps the
servant leaders to more accurately define the critical factors of follower
needs, aspirations, and interests and thereby more effectively assist followers in their
quest to achieve them.
Persuasive – seldom do servant leaders use authority to mandate action to be taken
by followers. Instead, servant leaders focus on convincing followers of activity that
should be performed.
Aware of their surroundings – servant leaders are keenly aware of organizational
surroundings. As such, servant leaders know what factors might create barriers to
followers in their quest to pursue needs, interests and aspirations and take action to
eliminate those barriers.
Empathetic – empathy is the intellectual identification with the feelings, thoughts or
attitudes of another. Being empathetic helps servant leaders to better relate to
followers in helping them to solve problems.
Stewards - a steward is defined as an individual who is entrusted with managing the
affairs of another. Overall, servant leaders see themselves as being entrusted with
managing the human assets of an organization and are responsible for helping
organization members to maximize their potential.
A leadership that is based on the
attitude that the leader is self-employed.
They behave as if they are taking the risk
of losing money but will receive the profit
if one is made.
They approach each mistake as if it were
a significant error rather than a smaller
error that will be neutralized the normal
functioning of the organization.