Introduction of business psychology


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Introduction of business psychology

  2. 2. Psychology Scientific study of human behavior and mental process and how they are affected by an organisms, physical state, mental state, and external environment.
  3. 3. Business  is a primary social institution in our society. It is defined as the sum total of the organized efforts by which the people engaged in commerce and industry provide the goods and services needed to maintain and improve the standard of living and quality of life to which each of us may aspire.
  4. 4. Types of Business Activities Service – exercise profession. Manufacturing – convert raw materials into finish products Merchandising – buy and sell
  5. 5. Forms of Business Organization • Sole proprietorship (single) • Partnership • Corporation • Cooperative
  6. 6. Business Psychology a relatively branch of psychology. is the study of the effectiveness of interpersonal relations in the workplace. Some business psychologists set up training workshop to improve executive’s management skills. They also evaluate job applicants and evaluate individuals being considered for promotions.
  7. 7. When can business psychology be useful? When you want more (self)-understanding of your behavior, of strengths and weaknesses, of future development, of optimal career choices. When you behave in ways that are self- defeating over controlling or under empowering abrasive, self-centered, disorganized, angry or hostile, poor listener, perfectionistic or rigid, authoritarian too timid in certain situations, distrustful or easily threatened.
  8. 8. When you need to deal with (difficult) colleagues or employees working with talented people who are difficult, dealing with people above in the power structure, dealing with people who are self-centered or narcissistic, developing effective relationships, leading and managing team members.
  9. 9. Background of Psychology
  10. 10. Origin and Beginnings of Modern Psychology  Its origin may be found in the writings of ancients Greek philosophers, who did much speculation about the motivational aspects of human behavior.  The Greek developed the empirical method, an approach that was sharpened by the empiricists of the seventeenth century.  In Renaissance time, scientist contributes the introducing of idea that observations could be further objectified through measurements.  Wilhelm Wundt is considered as the father of experimental psychology.
  11. 11.  His approach to the study of behavior is called structuralism.  Some America psychologist, one of them William James developed different approach called functionalism.  German psychologists, the Gestaltists objected to the idea of studying behavior by analyzing its elements and proposed that it be studied in terms of organization or forms.  John B. Watson expressed skepticism about studying any aspect behavior of organisms which he called behaviorism.
  12. 12. The Different School of Psychology
  13. 13. Structuralism  the first school of thought headed by Wilhelm Wundt, a German, and E.B Titchener started in 1879 when experimental psychology was gaining more incentives.  Thought of psychology as the study of conscious experience.  Stated that all complex substances could be analyzed through their components elements.  Held that elementary mental state such as sensations, images, and feelings from the structure of consciousness and are directly observable through introspection by careful empirical observation.  Sought to discover the physiological bases of various types of conscious experience, with emphasis on the knowledge of body structures.  The methods used are introspection and experiment.  Germany, the center of study, was the place where the first laboratory was established.
  14. 14. Functionalism  Another group of psychologists who called themselves functionalist paid little attention to conscious experience.  The school came into existence at the University of Chicago, around the turn of 20th century.  Headed by William James, James R. Angell, and John Dewey.  The functionalists sought to study the function of behavior and mental processes and not merely their structure.  Wide in scope and not sharply defined, functional psychology was named in America in 1898.  Through introspection and observation, the total behavior and experience of an individual is studied including the interest in the functions served by the things an individual does.  Functionalists redefined psychology as the “the study of man’s adjustments to his environment.”  Its includes instruments to aid in adjustments and ways in which he can improve his adjustment through learning.
  15. 15. Associationism Is a school of thought which is concerned with the factors of learning such as remembering and thinking. The primary exponent of this system of idea was Aristotle.  It started with the philosophical concept that learning is the formation of bonds or connections in the nervous system. Man is the greatest learner because he makes the greatest number of connections. In modern world, the exponents are Edward Thorndike, John Locke, and Thomas Hobbes. They proposed that everything around can be explained by association.
  16. 16. Behaviorism  the next important movement was a revolt against both structuralism and functionalism.  It originated in America in 1912.  John B. Watson and E.L. Thorndike turned to the study of overt behavior.  Rejecting the study of conscious experience as a subject for scientific research.  This school known as behaviorism defines psychology as the science of behavior and not of consciousness.  It emphasizes conditional reflexes as the elements of behavior.  It denies the existence of instinct or of inborn tendencies, but insists on learned behavior.  Also studies animal behavior and emphasizes he objective method in observing responses.  It is psychology based upon stimulus – response connections.  The behaviorists believe that there can be no response without stimulus.
  17. 17. Psychoanalytic School  Psychoanalysts Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler and Carl Jung were the advocators of psychoanalysis.  Freud insists on human desires and primitive impulses as the central factors of behavior.  He attributes inner conflicts of the individual to repression of desires which remain submerged in his subconscious.  Sigmund Freud, a famous physician and psychiatrist, postulated the existence of unconscious mental processes which influence the individual’s behavior in various indirect ways.  He attempted to find the cause and cure of personality disorders.  The Freudian or psychoanalytic theory stresses the role of motives and cravings, often hidden and repressed in the subconscious or unconscious mind which result in abnormal behavior.  He also asserts that the sex urges in the unconscious constitute the main human drive.  This is known as the “Libido” theory.  His method of treatment, called “Psychoanalysis” emphasizes “free association” by having the patient freely associate his thought and experiences and with the help of the psychiatrist, analyzes the cause of his difficulty.  Between 1911-1912, he and his adherents Carl Jung and Alfred Adler gad a split in their ideas and theories.  To Carl Jung, men and women are either extrovert or introverts and his school is sometimes called the “analytical school”.  To Adler, the prime mover of men is his desire for superiority.
  18. 18. Humanistic School a number of psychologists led by Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers and Rollo May objected to Freud’s view that human beings are basically destructive and are constantly fighting their negative impulses.  The humanistic movement began in the 1950s.  The main theme of the approach is that people are basically good.  Not driven by unconscious desire to destroy  Rather have free will and given the proper environment, will strive to achieve positive social goals.  The humanistic psychology stresses the creative aspect of people and asserts that they are driven by the desire to reach their true potential.  They further argue that each person is unique, and that psychologists should examine this individuality instead of lumping people into categories.  The humanists also reject the behaviorists’ view that psychologists should only study observable stimuli and responses.  Their argue, it is their thoughts, desires, and feelings that make people unique.
  19. 19. Purposivism  in Duke University at Durham , North Carolina, William McDougall conducted researches in the field of psychology.  He believed that objects, movements, and behavior have a definite purpose.  Its emphasis on the importance of hormones in life, purposivism was called “hormic” psychology.  Hormic psychologists regard man not only as a unit but also as a purposive, striving organism.  They are strongly opposed to the mechanistic or behavioristic point of view.  Each school began as a revolt against the established order.  The established order of 1900 was itself young and had been revolutionary not long before.  It is an old tradition in psychology to rebel against tradition.  Contemporary educational psychologists tend to make use of the discoveries and ideas contributed by all preceding schools of thought.
  20. 20. Scope of Psychology
  21. 21.  The study of human behavior includes a broad area.  Research on eye, ear or brain functions relates closely to psychology and neurology.  Studies of attitudes, opinions and propaganda are a kin to sociology and other social sciences.  Between these extremes, the majority of psychologists work at understanding the abilities, emotions, motives, memories and whole personalities of children, adolescents, and adults both normal and abnormal.  Because psychology includes such varied material, several specialized subdivisions have developed.  In some of these fields emphasis falls on facts, principles and theories rather than on application.  Psychologists devote their lives to the study or application, or both, of findings organized about a particular field or branch of psychology.
  22. 22. Branches of Psychology
  23. 23.  General Psychology – this is a field of psychology that explains the underlying principle of human behavior.  the study of how and why people behave this way or that way. In this subject, the principle of the structural and functional mechanisms of the human body are discussed.  Comparative Psychology – is that branch of psychology which treats of the behavior and mental processes of the different species. This is also known as animal psychology where activities of both man and animal are compared and differentiated, particularly in relation to genetic and evolutionary theory.  Developmental or Genetic Psychology – concerns itself with the study of human behavior in all its aspect of growth and developmental.  The entire life of an individual which is divided into the stages of prenatal, neonatal, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and senescence are scientifically presented with its physical, mental, emotional, social and moral developments during the period.
  24. 24. Child Psychology is the scientific study of human behavior from its post- natal beginnings up to early adolescence This science deals with the stage of growth and maturation, the effects of environmental influences upon individual patterns of development, and psychological and social interactions between the child and the society into which he is born and in which he is reared.
  25. 25. Adolescent Psychology – is the study of behavior from puberty to later life, approximately from twelve to twenty years old. It involves the physical and mental maturation of an individual, as well the attainment of emotional and social maturity. Senescent Psychology is the scientific study of human behavior in old age.
  26. 26. Abnormal Psychology  is the scientific study of human behavior and the etiology or cause of personality defects, or man’s behavior which deviates from the average reaction, hence abnormal. Experimental Psychology  deals with observation and experiments in a psychology laboratory and the investigations of different types of behavior, and aims to understand the fundamental cause of behavior. Differential Psychology  is a branch of study which investigates difference and similarities existing among individuals, social groups, and races.
  27. 27. Dynamic Psychology is a scientific interpretation of mental phenomena emphasizing internal drives and motives as the cause of behavior. In contemporary psychology, this is also referred to as personality psychology which is largely concerned with understanding of the non – deviant individual case. Psychiatry is psychology applied in medicine. It is concerned with the treatment of mental diseases.
  28. 28. Legal Psychology  is the application of the principles of human behavior in law, or any legal proceedings. Psychological facts are employed by lawyers in their professional goals. It deals with testimony and evidence, the examination of witnesses, the study of the individual delinquent and the criminal and with problems of the law.
  29. 29. Clinical Psychology  pertains to the diagnosis and treatment of emotional and behavioral disorders that rage from mild to very severe  In this fields, there are three kinds of specialists who do and apply clinical work : psychiatrists, psychoanalysts, and clinical psychologists. Educational Psychology  deals with learning, motivations, and other subjects in the actual educational process together with the practical application of psychological principle to education.
  30. 30. Business-Psychology  is the study of the principles of psychology as applied to business and deals particularly with the behavior of consumers. Psychological methods are employed to gain more customers and impress prospective buyers. Industrial and Engineering Psychology  is a field of specialization concerned with methods of selecting, training, counseling, and supervising personnel in business and industry.  It can also defined as the study of human nature and reactions as related to problems of industry, especially those affecting personnel and job efficiency.
  31. 31. Social Psychology  is the study of behavior of groups of individuals in their relationship to groups. Mental Hygiene  is the systematic practice of measures for the prevention of mental illness and the preservation of mental health. Forensic Psychology  is concerned with behaviors that relate to our legal system.
  32. 32. Methods of Psychological Research
  33. 33. 1. Introspection Method – a subjective method of observation which was introduced by St. Augustine The psychologists studies himself, records his own feelings and experiences and later interprets them. 2. Observation Method - is a visual and oral method of examining, describing, and interpreting the reactions of individuals and groups in a laboratory, classroom, or out-of-school situations
  34. 34. Several kinds of observations:  Uncontrolled or informal – this method of observation does not follow any particular scope of behavior to be observed.  Naturalistic Observation – an observation of things as they naturally happened is the naturalistic observation method.  Controlled or formal observation – follows certain rules, in gathering materials in order to draw the best conclusion.
  35. 35. Objective of Psychology
  36. 36. Psychology has made great strides in the development of principles and methods and the discovery of facts which find useful application in various aspects of everyday life. The objectives of psychology are: To understand human behavior. To predict human behavior by means of observation and experimenting. To influence or alter the behavior of the individual or group in desirable ways so that he can achieve the goal he desire.
  37. 37. Objectives of Business Psychology
  38. 38. Business psychology involves applications of psychological facts and procedures to market research, advertising, salesmanship, and selection of employees. :
  39. 39. The aims of business psychology are:  To help the students use insight more and trial-and-error less in attempting to discover the solutions to human problems.  To apply the knowledge of psychological facts and principles about human nature to the different aspects of business and industrial activities such as correspondence, selling, and advertising.  To help the students in knowing how to work efficiently and how to get along with other workers.  To give the students an idea of the psychological methods of obtaining data such as the observational, experimental, and clinical methods.  Business psychology is regarded as the most practical and effective instrument in buying, selling, collecting, and adjusting whenever human element is present.
  40. 40. Values of Psychology
  41. 41.  Psychology is the great importance to man since psychological problems are common to group relations, employer-employee relationships, and others.  In the case of businessman, the study of psychology is of great advantage. It will help much in determining the consumer’s behavior, motives, attitudes, and the like. The businessman has to keep in mind that the success and failure of business depends greatly on how he deals with the consumers.  The facts of psychology are themselves applied, as in the case of courtroom testimony. Legal psychology involves applications in crime detection, in the alleviation of delinquency, and in courtroom procedure.
  42. 42.     Chapter 2 Human Behavior as a Scientific Subject Matter
  43. 43. Psychological factors in Behavior Behavior depends upon  psychological factors  environmental factors.  Ruch (1964) defines behavior as “the activities or processes that can be observed objectively such as the organized patterns of responses as a whole.”
  44. 44. Individual Differences An exciting aspect working in the business world is that a person encounters all kinds of people. Knowing them, in time, will expand his horizons, just as their knowing him will expand theirs. In dealing with other people, it pays to be constantly aware of the many causes of individual differences, and it pays to be alert to those differences among employees, customers, or others with whom one comes in contact with.
  45. 45. Some ways of detecting individual differences in people are by:  Listening attentively to their remarks or suggestions.  Observing their behavior.  Conducting opinion and attitude surveys, and  Using psychological tests which are designed to measure specific individual differences such as intelligence, motor skill, sensory acquit, interests, or personality traits.
  46. 46. Causes of Individual Differences
  47. 47. Heredity and Environment  varied hereditary background and  differing environmental conditions are the underlying causes of individual differences. E.B Hurlock (1982) stated that man’s biological characteristics determining his capacity for growth and development.  Heredity is defines as “the transmission of characteristic traits from parents to offspring biologically through the genes.”  The belief that heredity implies parental resemblance is false because the genes are continuous from generation to generation.  Ruch stressed that the individual inherits not only the physical characteristic that have remained latent for many generations but also those that may appear in an offspring because of a particular combination of genes.
  48. 48. Mechanics of Heredity  it is said to begin with fertilization of the egg cell by the sperm cell. The fertilized egg or ovum (zygote) contains the potentiality for growth and development that eventually result in a fully mature individual who is both similar to and different from every other person. The continuance of human life from generation to generation is made possible through the passing of specialized cells from parents to their children. These cells are capable of reproducing a new organism having specific traits and tendency to develop in certain infinite ways rather than in other ways. Determination of Sex  in every species in which sexual reproduction is the rule, nature intended every man and woman to have 46 which determine countless characteristics other than sex, and two genesomes, which determine countless characteristics. In the female, there are a pair of X’s or matched chromosomes.  There are evidence that physical characteristics, such as height and weight tendencies, eye and skin color, body structure and contours tends to have their hereditary base since they seem to “run in families”. Yet variation in the organization of the genes or new combinations can be expected to follow similar courses. It is more difficult, however to demonstrate that the mental and emotional characteristics of an individual are traceable to inherited tendencies rather than to environmental influences.
  49. 49. Ordinary Cell Division  one egg cell and one sperm cell unite to begin new human being. This fertilized egg divides by what is called ordinary cell division into two cells. Each cells has its own nucleus with 46 chromosomes. Moreover, these cells usually stick together. The process of cell division continues and with each new division, the number of cells is doubled. Under the direction of the genes and in the ideal environment of the uterus, these cells from a human infant. Identical and Fraternal Twins  twins are either identical or fraternal. When twins develop from the same fertilized ovum, they are said to be identical twins, since they present the same kind of hereditary genes. Identical twins always re of the same sex and resemblance each other very closely, especially in physical appearance. Fraternal twins develop simultaneously from the fertilized ova and do not have the same set of genes. They may be the same or different sex and may not resemblance each other. Their one similarity is that their prenatal development takes place in the mother at the same time.
  50. 50. Environmental and Human Development
  51. 51. Environment   environment refers “all the conditions outside the living organism which influence its growth, development, and behavior from the time it is conceived to the time it dies.” There are two kinds of environment wherein a person’s personality may be developed: Prenatal Environment  this is kind of environment which influences the individual before birth, including the condition of the mother during the development of the baby. Postnatal Environment  this is the environment after birth. After birth, life continues to come under the influence of many varied environmental stimuli. Home Influence  the child is affected directly or indirectly by the kind of home into which he is born and reared through percept and example.
  52. 52. Neighborhood Influences  the child reared in an urban community specialty in apartment houses of an overcrowded section, is usually denied the freedom of activity that is available to the child living in a rural or suburban area. School Experiences  he encounters situations and conditions that differ from his earlier experiences in his home and his immediate neighborhood. He is affected by buildings and equipment in his new surroundings, by a new little people of his own age, and by a mother substitute in from of a teacher who begins to direct his behavior differently from ways to which he has been accustomed. Training  training is closely attached to environment and includes all of the social, educational, cultural, moral, and religious agencies with which the child comes in contact. Effort of the Will  by means of the will, inherited capacities are realized and intellectual opportunities are utilized. Will is man’s capacity to direct and to restrain thought, action and emotion
  53. 53. Sex   It is also frequently asserted that individual  differences may be attribute in part at least to  sex. Results of studies that have been conducted  indicate that: › Boys tend to be more active and aggressive, less  neat and exacting than girls. › Boys seem to be superior in mathematical and  scientific subjects while girls excel in the language  arts, arts, spelling and penmanship. › Boys surpass girls in test of spatial nature, of  mechanical aptitude, and of general information  while girls excel in tests of manual dexterity, speed  and precision. › A smaller percentage of girls than boys tend to be  mentally retarded.  
  54. 54. The Sense Organs  Everything we know about this world comes to us through our senses. The sense tells us what is going on; it warns us of danger and it also gives us pleasure. The best known kinds of senses are those listed by Aristotle. They are the visual sense ( sense of seeing), the auditory sense (sense of hearing), the olfactory sense (sense of smell), gustatory sense (sense of taste), and the cutaneous sense (sense of feeling). However, modern scientists know that the body has senses other than five. And the now-known additional are the internal senses which are the kinesthetics sense (sense of active movements), the static sense (sense of balance), and other organic sense.
  55. 55. The Sensory Processes  Beach and Clark (1959) explained the importance of understanding the senses and some basic knowledge of how they operate in advertising and selling because these very senses are the media by which the businessmen can get through potential consumer with his message  Two general principles which he said should be considered in any presentation of the product to the public are:  The more senses utilized in making the impression to the receiver the better and;  As much as possible the presentation should be appealing and pleasant to these which are called into play.
  56. 56. The External Senses and the Internal Ones
  57. 57.  The Visual Sense – this sense is very high in cognitive value because much of our knowledge of objective sensible relations comes to us through the medium of this sense. The organ used by the faculty is the eye.  The Auditory Sense or Organ of Hearing – this sense is of high cognitive value too. The ear which is the organ for hearing is divided into; the outer part which collects the sound waves, the middle ear where the small bones, the incus, the malleus and stapes are found, and the inner ear where the cochlea and the semicircular canals are found.  The Cutaneous Sense – this is the most extensive of all external senses because it embraces a number of powers which are the sense of contacts, sense of pressure, and the sense of pain.  The Olfactory Sense – this sense is uses as its organ the olfactory cells in the nasal chambers located in the nose. These cells acquire impressions of odor from sensible realities.  The Gustatory Sense – the organ for this is the tongue. On the surface of the tongue are the taste buds which are responsible for the acquisition of gustatory impressions. The proper sensibility for this faculty is flavor, but to be able to excite the organ of taste, the substances placed in the mouth must be sapid or soluble
  58. 58. The Internal Sense Organs  The kinesthetic Sense – the kinesthetic sense is the movement sense. There are number of bodily movements which are independent of our sense of sight.  The static sense – this is called the vestibular or static sense which tells us of the body orientation in space. This is due to the excitation of the vestibular portion of the inner ear.  The organic sense – the feeling of nausea or stomach cramps are example of the feelings felt in this sensation. The organic sense gives the result of the sensitivity of the visceral and other internal organs of the body.
  59. 59. Comparison of the External and Internal Senses  The internal sense are more immaterial in their activities than the external senses. The external sense are preventive senses and since they present the object to the mind, they function only in the presence of the material object. The internal sense, with exception of the common sense, function even in the absence of the material objects. Sensation and Perception  Sensation and perception are mental processes that are sometimes mistaken for each other. Sensation is defined as, “the conscious experience that follows immediately upon the stimulation of a sense organ or a sensory nerve.”  A factor influencing man’s behavior and his adjustment is how he looks at places, persons, objects, things, and situations. His interpretations about them affects greatly his business and everyday life.
  60. 60. Definition of Perception  The dictionary of education – defines perception in its most limited sense as “awareness of external objects, conditions, relationship as a result of sensory stimulation.”  Beach and Clark (1959) defines it as “the process which involves the receiving and organizing or interpreting of stimuli, by the individual.” Characteristics of the Perception Process  It is selective – through the sense organs, in other words, we select only those things we are interested in. there is but a particular things that may attract, maintain, or distract the attention of an individual.  It is Structuring or Patterning Process – a person perceives a real thing when it comes in the correct pattern or structure of the thing. A complete pattern of an object means that it has all the attributes of the object: (1) it must have shape, (2) must have a color, (3) it must have smell, (4) it must have a taste.  It Contains Meaning – the particular sensations experienced by a person are interpreted in a way that will give them meaning in terms of the person’s experience.  It is Adoptive or subjective – he suits his perception according to his likes, his feelings, his desires, and his beliefs.
  61. 61. Factors Affecting or Influencing Perception
  62. 62. There are several factors to be considered to understand perception. These are the sense organs, intelligence, the emotions and feelings, culture, trainings, social factors, interests, attitudes and motives.  The role of the senses – how a person interprets things or situations depends primarily upon his sense organs. Some sense are stronger than others.  Culture – culture influences our perception both directly and indirectly. Indirectly, because culture influences our personal needs and motives. Directly, because a person’s habit of looking at and interpreting things, objects, persons, and situations depends partly on his culture.  Trainings – trainings means the education and experience the individual gains in his life. It involves observing others/or following instruction.  Social factors – a person’s social experiences exert a strong influence on how he sees or interprets a situation, especially a social situation. His perception of situations depends upon his social interactions with people and society.
  63. 63.  Emotions – a situation which appears “very bad” during negative emotional moment often turns out to be “not bad after all” in a calmer moment.  Intelligence – he sees things in several dimensions.  Motives or Drives – our motives, needs, desires and drives condition our perception.  Interests – different individuals perceive the same objects in varying ways influenced by their interests.  Attitudes – the attitude of a person is a determining factor of perception. A favorable attitude towards an object or thing will make him see the object as a desirable things.
  64. 64.  Special Types of Perception Perception involves the interaction of many senses, but vision seems to be the preferred sense; so perception is considered primarily from the point of view of the visual sense.  Extra-sensory Perception – these kinds of perception are unexplainable. The four types are:  Mental telepathy, or the transfer of thought from one person to another without sensory cues.  Clairvoyance or the perception of objects without the use of sense.  Precognition or a foretelling of future events.  Psychokenisis or a mental operation which affects a material body.  Extra-sensory means “outside the senses” while perception means “becoming aware of”.  “ESP” is concerned with things that happen wherein no physical cause can be found.  False Perception or Error in perception – faulty perception are classified into illusion and hallucination (Heper,1966).  Illusion – is a experiencing certain things which fail to corresponding with the situation as objectively measured. What is perceived does not correspond to physical reality.  Hallucination – is a false perception relating to anyone of the special sense organs. They are usually confined to the mental ill. It happens to normal individuals if they are under the influence of drugs. It happen to one who has committed a crime.
  65. 65. How to Improve Accuracy in Perception Education, Training, and Experience – learning the job will help the person perceive a thing or situation arising from the job. Learn the what’s, the where’s, and the why’s about one’s job and you will understand and interpret job situations. Use of Cues – cues serve as hints or guide in determining a person’s accuracy in perceiving. The more complete the cues, the more accurate the perception is.
  66. 66. The Psychological Role of Perception in Business and Everyday Life  Perception prepares businessmen, executives, employers, and employee for action. All the actions and reactions of business personnel and the common “tao” are dependent upon their perception. They perceive the situation first before they act.  One has to know also that perception are clearer and impressions more lasting if what the businessman says is tied up with the experiences of the buyer.  Gilmer (1966) feels that the importance of perception in selling stems from the fact that the sales interview involves a unique interaction between the salesman and the customer
  67. 67. The Endocrine Glands and its Effect Upon Personality
  68. 68.  Hormones - are specific chemical entities secreted by specialized cells, tissues, or organs and transported in solutions in body fluids to other cells, tissues, or organs where they exerted specific physiological action at low concentration.  The study of the action of hormones is important to the business psychologist because much of human behavior cannot be understood without taking them into account.  The Pituitary Gland – the pituitary gland, often called the “ master gland”, is located at the base of the brain and consist of two lobes, anterior and posterior. The anterior lobes secretes hormones controlling body growth, milk secretion, and other metabolic functions.  The malfunction of the pituitary glands produces a hyposecretion of the hormones of the anterior lobe; this causes infantilism or failure of the sex organ to develop and dwarfism.
  69. 69.  The Thyroid Gland – the thyroid gland is a bilobed gland, connected by an isthumus, located over the trachea. The active principle of the thyroid gland has been proved to be thyroglobulin, which when secreted into the bloodstream governs the rate of the body’s metabolism as well as the growth of the body. Underactivity of the thyroid gland is associated with sluggishness, apathy, and low energy level, whereas an overfunctioning of the thyroid causes the individual to be excessively active, irritable, and excitable. Iodine is essential to correct functioning of the thyroid.  The Parathyroid Gland – the parathyroids, which are four in man, are attached to the capsule of the thyroid glands on its posterior aspects. The parathyroids regulate the calcium-phosphorus balance of the blood. This is important in order to prevent undue irritation of nervous elements and resultant tetany.  The Adrenal glands – the adrenal glands are a pair of glands situated immediately above the kidneys. Each consists of an outer part of the cortex and the inner portion known as medulla.  Underactivity of the adrenals is associated with the tendency to become easily fatigued, whereas excessive adrenal activity induces a highly tense physical state in the individual.
  70. 70. The Gonads – the testes and the ovaries are the glands in which reproductive cells are formed, but embedded in them are hormone-producing cells. These hormones control growth, development and reproductive behavior. The two ovaries (female gonads) are concerned with the production of two hormones:  Theelin or Oestrin – which regulates the development of the uterus, secondary sex characteristics, and the female sex urge, and  Lutein – which regulates the different changes in the uterus, breasts, and the rest of the body necessary for a successful pregnancy. The Thymus – in the upper chest of humans and some other animals, just in front of the aorta, there is a two-lobed glands, the thymus. Just recently been discovered that the thymus produces the blood cells that makes antibodies. It also appears to secrete a substance that enables the cells to make antibodies.
  71. 71. How the Endocrine Glands Affects One’s Personality  The effects of endocrines on personality is particularly apparent when something has gone wrong with their secretions. A person may become tense and irritable from too great a secretion of thyroxine or sluggish from too little secretion; or a person may suffer from general fatigue and lack of energy as a result of the little secretion from a part of the adrenals. In case of a goiter or a diseased thyroid gland, the unsightly, the enlarge might bring feelings of embarrassment or interfere with social adjustment.