IST CULTURAL GUIDING / BOOK

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IST CULTURAL GUIDING / BOOK

  1. 1. (IST) Citizen PlatformAn interactive citizen Platform for Istanbul aroundartistic and cultural production and tracking ofurban lifeRelatore: Francesco ZURLOCorelatore: Daniela TERRILEby Deniz ORCUNIn collaboration with:Istanbul Foundation for Culture and Arts (IKSV)Politecnico di MilanoFacolta di DesignCorso di Laurea Specialistica Nel DisegnoIndustrialeAA. 2010-2011 1
  2. 2. Thank you... I wrote my thesis “on the road” between Brussels, Milan and most of all Istanbul. I have met numerous people on the way who offered their help, interests and avail- ibility but among those especially I would like to thank my professor Francesco Zurlo for his help and openness and Daniela Terrile for her sincere support and infi- nite energy. I can’t thank enough my dear friends, Daniel Metcalfe, for his precious inputs and his wisdom and with Rona to let me in their beautiful family, my dear Deniz for her inspiration and for always making me feel at home whenever i am near her. And finally my two families the Mukaddes, Alp Orcun and Levent, Esen, Asli Ricakci whose presence i feel wherever i go, and their endless support always with me. I can’t thank you enough... 32
  3. 3. Index: 1 Abstract: An Iteractive Citizen Platform For Istanbul 9 Introduzione in Italiano 10 2 Locality vs. Globalization in Istanbul? 17 Absence of cultural policy as a “state policy” 18 Mapping as a soft form of Activism in Istanbul 21 New roles in the cultural life of Istanbul 28 3 PARTICIPATIVE WAY OF WORKING 35 Definition of Public Participation Models in European Politics: 40 The Code of Good Practice 4 MAPPING AS EMPOWERMENT OF THE CITIZENS 47 Smart Communities Through Network Weaving 51 5 Digital Mapping Tools and City Guides Comparitive Study 57 Best Practices 57 6 The Project: (IST) by IKSV Citizen Platform 75 Concept Statement 75 Strategic Action 85 How does the Interface work? 88 Object System 96 Conclusions 98 References 100 Bibliography 101 54
  4. 4. 1. An interactive citizen Platform for Istanbul 76
  5. 5. Istanbul is becoming increasingly colorful in terms of its rich social, cultural, and commercial activities and increas- ingly gaining attention of foreign spectators. While world famous pop stars fill stadiums, activities like opera, ballet and theatre continue throughout the year. During seasonal festivals, world famous orchestras, chorale ensembles, concerts and jazz legends can be found often playing to a full house. Adding to this picture, the opening of 20 new museums in the past ten years in Istanbul we can say that is celebrating a very bright moment in it’s modern history from the point of view of cultural production. Unfortunately this is only one side of the story concerning the cultural production in this metropolis, that has tripled it’s popula- tion in the last 25 years. The more alternative art scene is still production of Istanbul and become a struggling in the absence of favorable tool for communicating and knowledge policy making and politic and social exchange within the society and with barriers. In addition to this the city the policy makers. culture is under great transformation as I have conducted my research together the new administration has put into ac- with the Istanbul Foundation For Culture tion a number of invasive urban renova- and Arts taking them as a model institu- tion projects. tion to orchestrate this complex service The city is changing fast and as positive solution. as this change may look at the moment This research is structured throughout we have no way of knowing how it will three main discussions; the idea of turn out in the near future because of “localism” in a city like Istanbul that is in this disproportionate growth. the middle of fast globalizing tenden- In my thesis I will be searching for a cies yet so attached to it’s past, the role service design solution that is an ap- of institutions in an “open” world, and propriate model of cultural platform that digital mapping as an act of empower- can host an ongoing activity of tracking ment of the citizens. and documenting of artistic and cultural 98
  6. 6. Introduzione in Italiano ultimi 25 anni ha triplicato la sua popo- Questa ricerca è strutturata attraverso fonte selettiva di informazioni per ri- lazione. tre principali discussioni: durre la quantità di input ai quali sonoUna piattaforma interattiva La scena artistica più alternativa è an- - l’idea di “localismo” in una città come esposti quotidianamente. cora alle prese con l’assenza di decisio- Istanbul che seppur sia ancora così Il servizio, ospitata dal IKSV, la ONGper la città di Istanbul che ni politiche favorevoli e con ostacoli di radicata al suo passato, si trova oggi leader del settore in Istanbul che utiliz-veicola (visualizza, comuni- natura politica e sociale. Oltre a questo nel mezzo di dinamiche e tendenze che zando la sua rete esistente gia estesaca) la produzione artistica e la cultura della città è in fase di grande volgono ad una rapida globalizzazione; e il know-how acquisita nel campo diculturale della stessa e (ne) trasformazione, così come la nuova -il ruolo delle istituzioni in un mondo “ap- arte da quasi 40 anni di esperienza dimonitora la vita urbana (quo- amministrazione che ha messo in atto erto” e la mappatura digitale come atto organizzazione e promozione di mani-tidiana) dei suoi cittadini. una serie di progetti di rinnovamento di responsabilizzazione dei cittadini. festazioni culturali e collaborazioni con urbano invasivo. istituti esteri.Istanbul sta divenendo sempre più una La città sta cambiando velocemente! Descrizione della proposta di Il database (IST), come punto dicittà colorata, in materia di attività Ma così come positivo può sembrare progetto: partenza, comunica gli eventi che pas-sociali, culturali e commerciali, e sem- ora questo cambiamento, in questo (IST) City Platform by IKSV sano attraverso un accurato filtro dellapre più si sta guadagnando l’attenzione momento non abbiamo modo di sapere fondazione in carica definiti in rispostedegli spettatori stranieri. come andrà a finire in un prossimo fu- La mia proposta di progetto è una alla interazione con I loro utenti. QuestoMentre le pop star di fama mondiale turo a causa di questa crescita spropor- piattaforma che promuove la parteci- è solo un primo livello per garantire lariempiono gli stadi, le attività quali zionata (del suo tessuto urbano). pazione immersive delle persone nella qualità del servizio.l’opera, la danza e il teatro proseguono Nella mia tesi ricercherò una soluzione promozione della produzione e mani- Oltre alla selezione di raccomandazioniper tutto l’arco dell’anno. Durante i progettuale di servizio che possa es- festazione artistica di Istanbul, usando di IKSV, un sistema di valutazione è pre-festival stagionali poi, orchestre di fama sere un appropriato modello di piatta- la mappatura come strumento primario. visto (fornito agli utenti) per gli utenti emondiale, ensemble corali, concerti e forma culturale, che possa ospitare una Si basa sulla fondazione di una mappa contribuirà a migliorare ed aggiustareleggende del jazz si trovano ovunque continua attività di monitoraggio e doc- interattiva delle manifestazioni culturali costantemente il processo di selezionedisseminati per la metropoli e fanno il umentazione della produzione artistica di Istanbul e sostenendo i membri della IKSV.tutto esaurito. e culturale di Istanbul e diventare così comunità nel contribuire ad un’azione Gli utenti al primo piano sono forniti daIn aggiunta a questo quadro, vi è uno strumento per la comunicazione di scambio di conoscenze attraverso la un’interfaccia di guida alle manifestazi-l’apertura di 20 nuovi musei negli ultimi e lo scambio di conoscenze all’interno mappatura e la selezione degli eventi in oni culturali della cita, forniti di un faciledieci anni. Possiamo dire infatti che, dal della società e con i responsabili politici. primo piano. set di filtri personalizzati per aiutarli apunto di vista della sua produzione cul- Ho condotto la mia ricerca insieme alla Istanbul, proporzionalmente alla sua raggiungere, in modo più veloce e pre-turale, Istanbul sta vivendo un momento Istanbul Foundation For Culture and enorme estensione territoriale, ospita ciso possibile, gli eventi ai quali potreb-molto brillante della sua storia moderna. Arts, prendendola come modello di un gran numero di eventi ogni anno. bero essere interessati a partecipare.Purtroppo questa è solo una parte della istituto esempio per orchestrare as- Considerando l’infinita varietà di sog- Basata su questa semplice interfacciastoria relativa alla produzione culturale sieme questa soluzione di servizio così getti/temi e di tipologie di eventi, gli di “event map” é la “City Platform” dovein questa metropoli; metropoli che negli complessa. utenti spesso hanno bisogno di una gli uttenti attraverso un’interfaccia di 11 10
  7. 7. mappatura aggiungeranno contenuti, e come un aiuto a creare punti di inizio naliera, permettendo di contribuire e dipercorsi fatti e esplorazioni esperienzati. e discussioni.. La piattaforma fonde in aggiungere diversi livelli di informazionePiattaforma utilizza uno strumento di un’unico spazio i tre database principali, per facilitare la selezione e la fruizionemappatura aperta (libera-partecipata). - IBB Istanbul municipality map (IBB): dei contenuti della mappa stessa. LoQuesto strumento permetterà di con- È un’applicazione (di servizio) aperta, scambio di punti di vista e conoscenzefigurare (particolareggiare e personaliz- per la mappatura specifica di Istan- specifici su Istanbul attraverso la car-zare) speciali percorsi tematici preparati bul, costruita dal Comune di Istanbul tografia aiutera a rendere piu visibili edalli utenti e la loro condivisione. Esso in occasione del Istanbul European tracciabili I trasformazioni nel tempo inpermetterà agli utenti o ai gruppi di Capital of Culture 2010. Utilizzo di tale questa citta.utenti, individualmente o collettiva- strumento funzionera anche come unmente, di creare percorsi che cambiano patto di partnership con la municipalitála prospettiva delle iniziative o sem- e li coinvolgera in modo piú diretto nellaplicemente di offrire nuovi punti di vista piattaforma.della (e sulla) città. - Becoming Istanbul Visual Encyclo-I risultati di questa attività saranno pedia (Garanti Pub.): É un progetto didisponibili per tutti, per vedere, consul- ricerca sulle dinamiche della cittá ditare, utilizzare e intervenire sugli stessi, Istanbul oltre I mainstream idee proto-come fossero parte di un Inventario tipate, che ha avuto come risultato una(della vita della città) di Istanbul; inven- mostra e vari libri.tario utile per i decisori e i ricercatori - l’inventario IKSV della cultura die come pratica guida di Istanbul per i Istanbul (IKSV): Un’iniziativa di IKSV cheresidenti e i turisti. Ogni mappa (IST) rendera pubblico il contenuto del suoè una nuova (fresca) prospettiva sulle archivio dei quaranta anni di esperienzaesperienze quotidiane che generano la relative alla produzione e promozionevita della città. della cultura ed arte.Regolarmente IKSV chiedera di lasciareu contributo nel database, a membri In una città come Istanbul infatti, cosìdella comunitá che sono personaggi grande e frammentata, con un com-noti al pubblic o che si stanno specializ- plicato sistema di trasporto, e dove lazando su argomenti connessi a Istanbul. programmazione è astratta e il tempoo semplicemente conoscitori di Istanbul. così relativo, un’interfaccia cartograficaQuesti percorsi tracciati e raccontati da di questo tipo, al livello pragmatico, tipoquesti ‘guest mapper’ verranno pubbli- offre l’aiuto necessario per superare lacati regolarmente per creare un ritmo difficoltà della programmazione gior 13 12
  8. 8. 2. Locality vs. Globalization in Istanbul? 1514
  9. 9. The functions of the behind it’s industrialist character, will cities are constantly shift more and more towards initiatives related to creativity, like in majority transformed according to of other big cities around the world. their location in the world Cultural heritage services and cultural and these functions add industries are the foundations of this physical, cultural, social new economy. new meanings to the cities. Sometimes the districts can When it comes to talk about turn into different forms in a city on the crossroads of order to adapt themselves the fast globalist tendencies to the new functions insisted like Istanbul, which still by the city. strongly possesses values Globalization is not necessarily the from its past, conflicts and messenger of the disappearance of local differences. Actually it would confusion would surely be not be wrong to state more just the an inevitable experience, opposite1. By underlining the place and happening in this city. what’s local and different, globalization The question is; can we take advantage helps to reconstruct these meanings of this climate to actually create once again in another sense . The dialogue between the citizens and global and the local; the old and the value local culture as well as the new; the living and the rotten; the contemporary tendencies? changing and the stable are all two Problems in this area include: dialectic inevitable, the best thing to do is to try to solve the ‘moment’ and the > Istanbul has increased it’s population ‘place’ we are living in, the city Istanbul. from 2 millions in 1960’s to an estimate 17 million in 2010. During this drastic Istanbul, in the future strategies of expansion people and most of all the central and local administrations is new citizens of Istanbul immigrated envisioned as a city of finance, services, to Istanbul from less developed cities and as a congress and culture tourism and villages in Turkey were left to live capital. It is for-seen that the monetary with the minimum essential for survival capital of this city, that is leaving 1716
  10. 10. and culture was not a primary concern to promote tourism in Istanbul, the was funded culture in Turkey was break the ice with it’s neighbors andduring the development of the cities effort to engage locals is not enough. being transformed with a series of to look at them more closely. Howevernew suburbs. > Trend of perceiving places as efforts that can ultimately be defined it hasn’t been easy to delete the deep> Today, Istanbul is becoming rapidly products (typical municipality approach as “turkification”, modernization or influence of an 80year period of culturaland increasingly rich in terms of in Istanbul) under the concept of westernization. The most important purification and sterility.its social, cultural, and commercial “branding” is damaging severely the sign of this transformation was the The effort is still vivid to think in deepactivities. This leads to new districts natural fabric of the city. The idea that acceptance of the Latin alphabet in and formulating common questionsof culture, changing the present design is relevant to the public space 1928 which set an invisible barrier based on available data, and to form alandscape of Istanbul creating new only in this process of concealing local between the present and a very long platform of future actions that can haveconflicts, putting gentrification in the dynamics with marketable slogans is a past. Secondly, the new Republic an influence on policy making.agenda. product of this approach. entered an intense process of To this picture we can add the state of friendship with the newly formed young> Although urban life and its actors > Despite the liveliness of the scene and policy making in arts and culture. In the states of the Balkans in the west, thehave become supremely pluralized, the collaborations of different levels there Western countries, the state supports Soviet Union in the north and the Middlestereotypes, discriminating discourses isn’t any strong networks of cultural arts and culture either directly or from East countries.and cliché thought patterns referred operators. a distance, developing the necessaryto when speaking about Istanbul has The Second World War however tools of facilitation and incentives, > Turkey is amongst the countries fornot disappeared. Those who speak changed everything and the American and does not play a direct role in the highest tourism income in the world,about Istanbul both inside and outside era had begun. Turkey had chosen to ‘artistic practice’. It stops at drawing a but culture in this geography still needsTurkey can’t help but use a serious of be on the side of this ne global power. general policy frame. The situation in to be promoted first to be graspedstereotyped concepts, for instance, This caused a long lasting lack of trust Turkey however is almost the opposite. locally, to sustainably be communicatedIstanbul is still “the place where the between turkey and it’s neighbors State funding for the arts and culture globally and to be able to get aEast and West meets,” or “a model of leaving the country isolated from it’s is constantly reduced but the state still distance from stereotyped images.cultural and religious dialogue.” Still, geography. In the same period of doesn’t hold back from interfering inTourists wander in the city thinking they early 1950’s, the first weak signs of the practice to a certain extent. We can sayhave come to an Eastern oriental city. Absence of cultural policy as a formation of an art market, the artists’ that the absence of policy in this fieldStill those who visualize Eastern images “state policy” 2 finding an independent and different works as a “policy by default”.for popular culture generalize and form of expression and privatization of It is worth mentioning one specificconstantly reproduce the domes and culture took place in the country. Before outlining the main moment in history that marked theminarets of Istanbul. Then, the world changed fast, and a characteristics of the project I would hostile divide between officers and> The fascination with tourist-related lot, within a short period of time with artists, the military coup in 1980. After like to give a short history of the“supermarket type of localism”. (Manzini, the Berlin wall coming down and the this separation state and municipal relationship between culture and police2005) Soviet Union dissolving. After these owned museums remained focused on making in Turkey. developments Turkey has started to the artistic patrimony and artifacts of> Although there are numerous attempts In the early 1920’s when the republic 19 18
  11. 11. the past, while means for encouraging finding a chance for documentation. Mapping as a soft form of forms of human behavior. Locality isartistic exploration and development Activism in Istanbul not exactly defined as “community”went underground. but as an experience, or practices of communities, in the urban sphere.Only after 2000 a new approach Locality is an act, an event that Rudiger Korff5 takes this a little furtheremerged. Wealthy families, industrial combines spatial network with political by saying “ a locality must be seen as aconcerns and financial institutions and social values. The joint phenomena response to, and attempt to cope with,took up the role of Maecenas to the of globalization and networking have the metropolitan environment and thearts making their private collections given rise once again to the local globalization process in particular. It isthe cores of newly built, prestigious dimension and it’s representation.3 not a geographic but a social category.museums and opening art galleries, Pelin Tan4 in her essay argues howsometimes in conjunction with concert In the soft forms of activism in the concept of locality doesn’t refervenues or their own publishing houses / the context of projects that create any more to a homogeneous culturalbookstores most of which on Istanbul’s collectivities on the micro level, as geography. Nor does “local” simply referrevitalized grand boulevard Istiklal discussed by Toni Negri, Constantin to a place especially within the contextCaddesi. Petcou, Doina Petrescu and Anna of an urban sphere, local becomes Querrien6, the “soft” implies that theAs great as this seems on the surface Fig.1 an act In itself, which takes place in a political can exist outside of the bio-it masked some problematic issues. Istanbul Map Project context defined by the politics of space, by the Spanish artist political diagram the latter being “theThese new museums of Istanbul Anna Sala economic transformation, media, and space in which the organization oftend to operate as much in a modeof competition as of thoughtfulcooperation. Few, if any, chose to holdon to a specific focus, subject, matter,or tone but instead try to outdo oneanother through extravagance. Theyalmost always chose to spend greatsums to realize big exhibitions of artistslong gone instead of supporting newand upcoming ones.As a result, young artists seekalternative ways of interacting, workingand exhibitions but such attempts areusually fragile and dissolve due to thevolatility of the creative process without 21 20
  12. 12. Fig.2 Emotional Map Parisorganized life (social, political) in all Christian Noldits dimensions is controlled, capturedand exploited.” In this context art andculture practices may play an importantrole not by affirming notions of socialhealing or representing social function,but by collaborating with neighborhoodinitiatives to open up spaces for newrealities. Yet another important role canbe given to mapping.An intervention into the process ofurban transformation that is an exampleof critic practice is the Istanbul MapProject (see Fig.1) by the Spanishartist Anna Sala, who works on criticalcartographies about the privatizationof urban space. Sala’s Map present’sthe situation of neighborhoods inseveral urban parts of Istanbul. Itshows clearly the urban projects ofthe Greater Municipality of Istanbulthat aim to evict residents from theirneighborhoods to transform entiredistricts. The maps reveal current urbanconditions and warning of the futureproblems threatening the generalpopulation. Creating an environment,a platform for practices from differentfields that allow artists and residentsfocusing on specific issues to intervenein the ongoing process of urbantransformation or urban privatizationis an effective way not only to expandartistic practices, but also to act with 23 22
  13. 13. Fig.3collective responsibility. screens or our GPS. With Google Earth, Emotional Map Paris Google Maps, Mappy and the other Christian NoldCartography and power are closely geo-portals, the whole world is offeredrelated: Who controls the map controls on our computer screens in just a fewthe territory, and this is true at several clicks, free from any constraints withlevels. The person who consults it, regard to scale and paper. Still, theinsofar as he knows how to interpret it, concept of urban living in general andgains the ability to identify his position public space in particular has beenin space. The person who creates (and still is) determined for the mostit – who is situated one step above – part by official maps, statistics andproposes (or imposes) his vision of the administrative limits, without takingterritory, as he perceives it or as he into account other visions of the city,projects it. The person who possesses particularly those of everyone who livesit, finally, decides how to distribute it there on a daily basis.and consequently decides to grantor deny others the power he has For more than three years, a group ofconcerning the territory7. In fact, a map people in Brussels has been workingis hardly a harmless tool: figurative as on the project Towards a Subjectivewell as projective, simulation of space Collective Cartography (see Fig. 2). Thisas much as a space for simulation – it is an effort to see mapmaking – mapsis found at the very source of military themselves, as well as the process forstrategies, mercantile capitalism, drafting them and the data associatedterritorial divisions, and in the particular with them – as a common good, incase of towns, by and large it has terms of access to them (universal,determined what is to be drawn and rather than restricted), regulationmeasured, and consequently, at the end (permissive, rather than restrictive), andof the day, what is to be built or at least ownership (public rather than private).planned. Cartography, formerly reserved This desire to defend the right of thestrictly to a minority, is now opening community to consult, create, publishup to a broad range of users. With our and exchange maps, as well as to havegreater mobility, as neo-nomads in a access to cartographic data, is bothglobal world, we use them and find poetic and political. Poetic becausethem everywhere in public transport, it responds to the inevitable sharetour guides, streets, shopping malls and, of subjectivity in an approach to thestill more particularly, on our computer territory and considers that multiple 25 24
  14. 14. cartographic visions are as many collective projects.possible metaphors of the world we live Another very interesting use ofin. mapping is explored by Christian Nold8Political, because it gives users , Emotional Cartography (see Fig.3),the power to think individually or that explores the relation of body andcollectively about the territory and the city through Bio Mapping projects,perhaps to influence its future. In the investigating the implications ofpast, urban action could take place creating technologies that can record,without or even counter to many users visualize and share with each other ourof the city, or occasionally with them, in intimate body-states in reaction to oura sort of concession won over from the urban experiences. And toauthorities or generously consented explore the political, social and culturalby them, but things should be very implications of visualizing intimatedifferent today. In fact, the way people biometric data andfeel about and perceive a city– and emotional experiences usinga map can be used to represent technology.this – should be the keystone of thedemocratic decision making process To conclude these series of reflectionsconcerning the territory in general and on mapping as an act of activismpublic space in particular. I would like to give an example where collective mapping is directlyGiven these observations and connected to projecting and proposingobjectives, the Towards project focuses future scenarios about public spaces.on creating two different tools that are (Fig. 4)nevertheless complementary: an Atlasof Brussels on one hand that includes The European district in Brusselsthe various maps of the city (imaginary, has seen over twenty years of majoranecdotal, emotional, etc.) and, on the upheavals and restructuring projects. Atother, a cartographic software project the same time it has witnessed a new– Tresor – that will make it possible to generation of people and buildings:create maps, consult them, compare estate speculators, satellite offices,them, adjust the parameters that define shops trying to adapt to the newthem, complete them, publish them or situation.use them as part of personal or Fig.4 CityMine9, together with the artist and Map-it European Quarter 27 26
  15. 15. esearcher Thomas Laureyssens10 and New roles in the cultural life of and artistic assets of Turkey, by using an institution that organizes fivethe committees of neighborhoods, Istanbul11 arts to create an international platform international festivals.propose a collaborative mapping of communication. The International Istanbul Jazz Festivalexercise of a public space in the district. From a single “Istanbul Festival” to five was initiated in 1994, the same year The past 20 years have marked theThey invite the community to ask major international festivals that the International Istanbul Festival opening of over twenty museumsthemselves the following questions: changed its name to the International meeting the international standards. The first International IstanbulWhen the institutional planning Istanbul Music Festival. Thus, Istanbul What these museums have in common Festival, organized in 1973 on the 50thredraws the city with the bulldozer, Foundation for Culture and Arts became is that they are all initiated and funded Anniversary of the foundation of thewhat happens with the inhabitants of an institution that organizes five by leading industrialists, finance leaders Turkish Republic, covered a period ofthe neighborhood? How do they find international festivals. of Turkey. We can take a look also at the one and a half months and focusedagain their home, and (re)inspire their major events in the city, the biennale, mainly on classical music. Soon after, On the occasion of its 30th anniversary,imagination? Is it possible to create and fashion and design weeks, we it included other artistic fields in its the Istanbul Foundation for Culturenew meeting places and connections would see the same thing. Among program such as film screenings, and Arts initiated a social responsibilitybetween neighborhoods? these industrialist the Eczacibasi Family theatre productions, jazz and ballet project and founded the IstanbulA low-tech tool to plan, analyze and can be considered to be the first to performances, and art exhibitions held Friends of Culture and Arts Tulipreconstruct past and future projects by invest in arts supporting the founding of in historic venues. As public interest membership program with the intentioncreating open and flexible visualization the Istanbul Foundation for Culture and grew, groups of events organized in of protecting cultural heritage andof a process in space and time. The first Arts (IKSV). different artistic disciplines gradually fostering the development of arts.MAP-it European Quarter workshop was evolved into distinct festivals. Continuing today under the name ofheld at the CityMine(d) Urban Platform Tulip membership, the program gathers Presented as a separate section under Eczacibasi Family and IKSV12event in November 2010. It resulted art enthusiasts under one roof, and the name “International Istanbul Filmin a good overview of the problems provides its members a variety of days” in 1983, the film week transformedand opportunities of the quarter and Istanbul Foundation for Culture privileges during İKSV-organized events into the International Istanbul Filmbrought up some inspiring ideas. and Arts (İKSV) is a non-profit, non- including the Istanbul Festivals. Festival in 1989; 1987 marked theI believe that engaging and acting governmental organization founded beginning of the International Istanbul The same year, İKSV made a decisionwithin localities (both social and urban), in 1973 by seventeen businessmen Biennial, and in 1989 the International to organize innovative, smaller eventsconceiving the artistic object in terms and art enthusiasts who gathered Istanbul Theatre Festival was initiated. in addition to the Istanbul Festivals.of a critical instrument in a process- under the leadership of Dr. Nejat F. Beginning with Filmekimi (a week of film The International Istanbul Jazz Festivalbased engagement in public space, and Eczacıbaşı, with the aim of organizing screenings in October) in 2002, The was initiated in 1994, the same yearcreating specific representation in order an international arts festival in Istanbul. Foundation continued to add brand that the International Istanbul Festivalto find ways to disseminate action and The Foundation’s initial goal was to new events to its portfolio. in 2003. In changed its name to the Internationalknowledge are the only ways to create offer the finest examples of art from 2006, İKSV assumed the organization Istanbul Music Festival. Thus, Istanbulpossibilities of counter-culture. around the world, while at the same of the bi-annual Leyla Gencer Voice Foundation for Culture and Arts became time promoting the national, cultural 29 28
  16. 16. Competition, from its 4th edition onward.The Foundation has been committedto bringing together different culturesand contributing to the creation of aplatform for multicultural dialogue. Inthis respect, İKSV organizes a series ofinternational festivals in major Europeancities. This journey began in 2004 with“Şimdi Now” in Berlin and continuedwith “Şimdi Stuttgart” in 2005, “TurkeyNow” in Amsterdam and Rotterdam in2007 and 2008, Russia in 2008, andVienna, Austria in 2009. The “CulturalSeason of Turkey in France” activitiesheld between 1 July 2009 and 31 March2010 were also organized by İKSV, incollaboration with Cultures France.İKSV has been organizing the Pavilionof Turkey at the Venice Biennale since2007.2009 marked a turning point in İKSV’shistory as the headquarters moved fromits home on the historic İstiklal Street inBeyoğlu to another historical building,Deniz Palace, in Şişhane. Togetherwith its new building, İKSV realized along time plan, and launched its ownperformance venue, Salon, in which itdoes not only organize, but also hostcultural and artistic events. 31 30
  17. 17. 3. Participative way of working 3332
  18. 18. It is undisputable that wikily”14 is characterized by greater we are living in an era of openness, transparency, decentralized participative approaches to decision-making, and collective action. collaborative working made (The term working wikily is based on the easier through the rise of word wiki, a Web site that allows groups the Internet and low cost of people to collectively create and edit technology, the spread of the Web site and information on it. The knowledge and education, best-known use of a wiki is Wikipedia.) the ethic of participation. What once seemed a marginal activity became mainstream after President Barack Obama’s election campaign We see and use everyday hi tech combined grassroots organizing with versions of elementary community online tools to mobilize more than 13 dynamics realized through the likes of million supporters and raise nearly $750 Wikipedia, YouTube, Facebook, EBay million for his 2008 election15. Indeed, blogging and pod casting. They are for anyone serious about social impact, characterized by the common interest it’s quickly becoming difficult to imagine of their users to contribute in the working not wikily. creation of content and passionate Networks, collections of people amateurs who are looking for a platform connected to each other through to express themselves. relations, aren’t new. We are all parts of On the other side of the spectrum are networks; our families, schools, social the organizations, institutionalized circles, workplaces. There is a wealth models. Traditional organizational of knowledge from social science approach aims to create professional research and from decades of on-the- clusters of special people, in specific ground experience about what helps places and the innovation down the performance of groups and larger the pipeline o the users. While new human systems. But it is only now that organizations, utilizing new technology, people are realizing that there is an that thrive on this spirit of mass alternative. participation move towards a new What’s different now is that a wave model that is between open and of new technologies allow people to closed13. more easily visualize, communicate This approach described as “working 3534
  19. 19. with, and act on existing personal and centralized infrastructure. Perhaps the STRUCTURE TYPE EXAMPLES professional networks, and to create most vivid example of this new reality strong connections with new ones. are the emergence of “smart mobs”.CENTRALIZED > Nonprofit Many local direct These tools make it possible to connect Large groups of people linked by cell- service providers with any number of people (irrespective phones, text messages, e-mails or other organizations without explicit network of geographic distance), to access a channels who get together suddenly structure greater diversity of perspectives, to in a public space to perform some accelerate the sharing of information, collective action. and to drastically reduce the costs > Connecting people and ideas is Membership Membership Clubs organizations with of participation and coordination.That getting faster and faster. network component makes them well suited to facilitating > Networks are open and transparent: progress on complex social and The new social tools are making the environmental challenges that require sharing of information routine and people and organizations to coordinate Nonprofits with Church making more resources and information axplicit network their efforts across traditional available for more people and allow strategy and boundaries and sectors. structure people to freely build together. They As important as these new technologies often borrow from, link to or build on are, the most important change goes one another. Coalition or alliance Save Darfur beyond the tools themselves. The real > Our ability to search expertise transformation that is taking place is expanded: The wikies provide today is the fundamental shift in the public forums for scientists, activists way that people think, form groups, and academics and general public to share do their work, in part because of the ideas about the best ways to effectively widespread accessibility of the tools solve pressing problems.< DECENTRALIZED Networks of networks WiserEarth and the networks they can help to create. > Effectiveness in mobilizing: While in Ad hoc Networks Flash mobs institutions longevity is an advantage, As we are moving through this new era Facebook networks can disassemble as fast of new, networked facts of life how is as they assemble to reform in new the world beginning to look: constellations to answer different > Efforts can be decentralized: In a specific problems. networked model, new technologies In his book, “We Think: Why mass allow people to self organize easily creativity is the next big thing”, Charles and quickly without the burden of 37 36
  20. 20. ORGANIZATION-CENTRIC NETWORK-CENTRIC IMPLICATIONS FOR THE WAYS Leadbeater explains why starting from organizing efforts. But new approachesMODEL MODEL WE WORK AND CONNECT now the way we organize ourselves in are now allowing community organizers future will not just be an extension of to view their work through a network the industrial era.16 A growing band of lens, and to better understand> Centralized > Decentralized > People and groups use new tecnologies to self organize organizations in future will resurrect the ties and complex connections without centralized planning ancient ideas and meld them with between individuals in order to foster and infrastructure. new technology. Adaptive and self- healthier communities. Organizers> Connecting ideas and > The pace of conection is > Ideas can spread and groupspeople takes time. fast can form more quickly than organizing communities rely on more are deliberately acting as “network ever before as the new tools than good communications between weavers”—a term coined by network allow people to connect with others instantaneously and neighbors and peers to make sure expert June Holley17 to describe the act virally. everything works. An overall order of deliberately connecting others in an> Coordination and > Coordination and > Barriers to collaborative emerges from a mass of localized effort to strengthen ties. Weavers linkcollaboration are difficult collaboration are easier effort are low enough that people can now do “big things decisions only if there are some simple previously disconnected individuals and for love” or find partners in norms and goals to provide a skeleton groups, surface untapped opportunities narrow passions. structure. Given a platform, some for community members to produce> Closed and proprietary > Open and transparent > Sharing is routine, resources and knowledge are available rules and the tools any passionate better outcomes, and encourage to many, and multiple efforts user can become content create. But new relationships and collaborations. and ideas can build on one another. the questions to be asked at this In some ways, it’s what community> Our ability to tap expertise > Our ability to tap expertise > When we look for knowledge, point are on how to keep the balance organizers have always done—only theand share knowledge is and share knowledge is leadership and expertise, we between open and closed, networked new approaches emphasize a lack ofconstrained expanded will increasingly be able to access it in places that were and controlled systems. For example hierarchy or traditional power structures, once beyond our reach can we really survive on volunteers or focusing instead on connectivity and> Effectiveness is equated > Effectiveness is equated > Groups do not need to how do we nee determine the level of social capital.with longevity with mobilization last; they can come together and disassemble as need to involvement of institutions in different > Accessing Diverse Perspectives: achieve goals; people are not cases? necessarily looking for long Social media tools and the term membership. There are many different reasons why accompanying network mind-set are> Organizations are the > Organizations are one way > Organizations will continiue, people use a network approach to expanding our ability to access newprimary way to organize to organize effort but they are no longer the onlyeffort way to get things done; work achieve social change. Some of which perspectives by tapping into the ideas can be done without reference are: and expertise of many individuals to traditional institutions. through crowdsourcing, rather than > Weaving Community: Building relying only on an elite few. community and strengthening social capital have long been at the core > Building and Sharing Knowledge: of neighborhood revitalization and The network mind-set and tools are 39 38
  21. 21. changing the way individuals and Definition of Public Participationorganizations develop and share Models in European Politics: Theknowledge and best practices. Code of Good Practice18Nonprofits that use a federated oraffiliate model have long known the One of the major concerns of modernbenefits of sharing best practices democracies is the alienation of citizensacross their networks. Now people from the political processes. In thisnot part of the same organizational context, as in many others, civil societystructure are learning to do the same constitutes an important element of thethrough communities of practice and democratic process. It provides citizensother collective mechanisms. with an alternative way, alongside> Mobilizing People | Network The Code of Good Practice underlines accountability from both the NGOs and those of political parties and lobbies, ofapproaches are useful for motivating a series of common principles to act public authorities, with transparency at channeling different views and securingpeople to act and that way mobilizing as foundation for the members to build all stages. a variety of interests in the decision-collective action. The new social tools upon. making process. > Independence: NGOs must beare easy to use, lower the cost of In an effort to regulate and spread Civil > Participation: NGOs collect and recognized as free and independentcoordination, and help catalyze public Participation and with the he principal channel views of their members, user bodies in respect to their aims,action on a large scale because activity objective of the Code of Good Practice groups and concerned citizens. This decisions and activities. They have thecan be viral and doesn’t have to be for Civil Participation is to contribute to input provides crucial value to the right to act independently and advocaterouted through a central authority. the creation of an enabling environment political decision-making process, positions different from the authoritiesOne of the best-known examples of for NGOs in Council of Europe member enhancing the quality, understanding with whom they may otherwisethis is the Iranian election protests State by defining at European level a set and longer-term applicability of the cooperate.in 2009 and other so-called “Twitter of general principles, guidelines, tools policy initiative. A pre-condition forRevolutions.” And defines a series of cross-cutting and mechanisms for civil participation this principle is that the processes for tools and mechanisms for civil> Coordinating Resources and Action participation are open and accessible, in the political decision-making process. participation| Social media tools and network based on agreed parameters for The intent is that the Code of Goodapproaches are making it easier for > E-participation: E-tools offer great Practice will be implemented at local, participation.activists to coordinate their resources potential for improving democratic regional and national level. The Code > Trust: An open and democratic societyand action. practice and participation of an of Good Practice is based on actual is based on honest interaction between organized civil society. They can experiences from NGOs across Europe actors and sectors. largely contribute to the transparency, sharing their good practices and valid > Accountability and transparency: accountability and responsiveness methods for engaging with public Acting in the public interest requires of institutions, as well as to the authorities. openness, responsibility, clarity and promotion of citizens’ engagement 41 40
  22. 22. and to increasing empowerment and advisory bodies (permanent or ad-hoc);the accessibility and inclusiveness of or NGO alliances/coalitions which poolthe democratic process. In order to resources and develop joint positions.fully all participants of the decision > Framework documents on cooperationmaking should integrate benefit from between NGOs and public authorities:their potential, e-tools, including the In many European countries frameworkauthorities at all levels and organized agreements have been developedcivil society. to outline undertakings, roles and> Capacity-building for participation: responsibilities and procedures forIt is essential to develop the capacity cooperation. These documents lay outand skills of local, regional and a clear basis for the relationship andnational NGOs so that they may be thereby facilitate ongoing dialogue andactively involved in policy formulation, mutual understanding between NGOsproject development and service and public authorities. They includeprovision. Capacity-building can also bilateral agreements with parliamentinclude training seminars to improve or government, strategy documentsthe understanding of the reciprocal for cooperation and official programsroles of NGOs and public authorities for cooperation, adopted by publicin this engagement, as well as authorities.exchange programs to facilitate the The Role of designers: A role that aunderstanding of each other’s realities. service designer takes over in this field> Structures for cooperation between is to understand the phenomenon ofNGOs and public authorities: In order social innovation at the grassroots levelto facilitate the relationship between in various contexts, identify its relationpublic authorities and NGOs, a to policy and to design conditions thatnumber of countries have developed empowers people to use their creativitycoordinating bodies. These include: to ideate, implement and disseminategovernment bodies such as a contact the solutions for their needs. As Manziniperson for civil society in each ministry claims, transition towards sustainabilityor a central coordination body as a is a social learning process thatsingle interlocutor; joint structures requires active involvement of socialsuch as multi-stakeholder committees, constituents.19work groups, expert councils and other 43 42
  23. 23. 4. Mapping as Empowerment of the Citizens 4544
  24. 24. Mapping Matters: From maps as world abandoned the discipline of truth to maps as critic geography. This discipline was no longer considered relevant on many campuses as the field was perceived The city is a complex construction of to be either redundant in respect to the lived experience mediated through technological advancements associated representation. The understanding of with satellite imaging, or so complicit in the contemporary city as an object the politics of modern urban planning of study has renewed the interest as to be lost. in questions of representation in And then, just as the discipline of the last few decades. Collectively, geography seemed destined to enter the design disciplines have found the dustbin of the history of academic themselves over the past two decades history along with other seemingly engaged in a renewal of interest in irrelevant fields, geography started maps and mapping, as one modality to get interesting again. As part of a of representation with which urban broader turn in the humanities and experience and urban identity is formed. a reawakening of scholarship in the Over the last decades the disciplines design disciplines, many fields found a aspiring to represent urban form new interest in spatial studies and the have moved from positions of relative representation of power structures. distance to one another, toward a As geography was seemingly loosing it’s convergence of sensibilities with existence as an academic discipline and respect to maps and mapping. The lost as a profession, the representation map, the tool that once defined the of spatial, economic, and social orders geographic knowledge, had by the became relevant in a range of other 1960’s and 70’s began to stand for the disciplines. While many geographers failings of the modernist social project, had been producing solid academic the brutality of urban planning, and the achievements, a few geographers beginning of environmental crisis. In the began to cure a seemingly more wake of these critiques associated with remote branch of the discipline. Among the politics of ‘68 and the economics of them, the cultural geographer Denis ‘73, maps and mapping fell into a period Cosgrove was particularly effective of dis reputation, during which time in renewing the discipline’s relevance universities across the English language 4746
  25. 25. and role. Cosgrove’s research interests In stark contrast to the increasingly educated in the role of images of their context was deemed to be irrelevant;evolved from a focus on the meanings scientific paradigm of modernist maps cities as key to the new global economy the world existed independent of theof landscape in human and cultural that proposed to be scientific, value- and particularly to the economy of observer and maps served only togeography, especially in Western free, and neutral arbiters of spatial destination tourism. The combination map the world. The cartographer wasEurope since the fifteenth century, to conditions, Cosgrove argued that maps of these conditions means that cities separate from the user and optimala broader concern with the role of were culturally relative constructions started to look for ways to differentiate maps could be produced to meetspatial images and representations that were political. themselves from their peers and are different needs.in the making and communicating of By shifting geography’s attention much more drawn to using architectural The aims of the cartographer wereknowledge. His work included how toward the construction of values projects, arts installations and cultural normative; to reduce error in thevisual images have been used in history attendant to the simple act of making tourism as economic income. representation and to increase mapto shape geographical imaginations a map, Cosgrove was able to renew Central to these projects is the broader effectiveness through good design.and in connection between geography the relevance of the field for architects, dissemination of images of the city Research thus sought to improve mapas a formal discipline, imaginative urbanists, land space architects, and as objects of cultural value to a broad designs by carefully controlled scientificexpressions of geographical planners. international audience. experimentation that focused on issuesknowledge and experience in the Contemporary design culture has been such as how to represent location, The latter part of the twentieth centuryvisual arts (including cartography). greatly influenced by the regaining direction and distance; how to select saw also, US scholar Arthur RobinsonWithin his cultural research, Cosgrove of geography. Maps and mapping information; how best to symbolize and his collaborators who tried to re-differentiated between dominant have found themselves central to the these data; how to combine these cast cartography, focusing in particularcultures and alternative cultures. The debates of the day. Maps and mapping symbols together; and what kind of on systematically detailing map designdominant culture has the most influence have come to be understood as unique map to publish. The research agenda principles with the map user in mind.in shaping a landscape. Most of what forms of representation through which of cartography was to reduce signal His aim was to create a science ofyou see, he claimed, is likely to be a designers derive particular disciplinary distortion in the communication of data cartography that would produce whatproduct of the dominant culture in and professional expertise and render to users. Art and beauty had no place in he named “map effectiveness” – thata region. However, one is also likely their work both more political and more this functional cartographic universe. is, maps that capture and portrayto see evidence of alternative, or relevant. The active representations of relevant information in a way that the Out of this context in the late 1960s andsubcultures in the landscape. Within the the city are itself both the product and map-reader can analyze and interpret. 1970s emerged a series of attemptscategory of alternative culture Cosgrove act of design. The work of mapping Robinson suggested that an new to develop and position cartographicdifferentiated between residual cultures has increasingly entered the public approach to mapping grounded in communication models as the dominant(historic cultures that have disappeared sphere as artists, community groups, experimental psychology might be the theoretical framework to academicor are in the process of fading away), city planners, and art critics come to best way for cartography to gain it’s research. Communication modelsemergent cultures (those that are just read there representations as a lens intellectual respectability. Robinson encouraged researchers to look beyondnow appearing), and excluded cultures onto the a new world. Simultaneously, adopted a view of the mind as an a functional analysis of map design,(those that are actively or passively mayors and media have come to be information-processing device. Social exploring filters that might hinder theexcluded by the dominant culture). 49 48

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