BURNS & FROSTBITE Assist. Prof. Hülya Akan, M.D.Yeditepe University Medical Faculty Department of Family Medicine
BURNS A burn is damaged tissue caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or nuclear radiation.Burns can be caused by dry heat (like fire),wet heat (such as steam or hot liquids),radiation, friction, heated objects, the sun,electricity, or chemicals.
TYPES OF BURNSPHYSICAL- Heat- Electricity- Radiation- Friction- FreezingCHEMICAL- Acid and alkali chemicals
FACTORS AFFECTING THE SEVERITY OF BURNSDepthExtensionRegionThe risk of infectionAgeHarm to airwaysPrevious diseases
DefinitionThere are three levels of burns:First-degree burns affect only the outer layer ofthe skin. They cause pain, redness, andswelling.Second-degree burns affect both the outer andunderlying layer of skin. They cause pain,redness, swelling, and blistering.Third-degree burns extend into deeper tissues.They cause white or blackened, charred skinthat may be numb.
The First degree burnsThe First degree burns damage the outer layer of skin (epidermis)and cause pain, redness and swelling (erythema).
Mild, or first degree burns causeonly reddening of the epidermis(outer layer of the skin), as seenin this photograph.
Second degree burns damage the epidermis and the inner layer,the dermis, causing erythema and blistering.
Burn, Blister - Close-Up Second degree burns produce blistering, as seen here.
Damage from third degree burns extend into the hypodermis, causing destruction of the full thickness of skin with its nervesupply (numbness). Third degree burns leave scars and may cause loss offunction and/or sensation.
NEGATIVE AFFECTS OF BURNSAccording to depth, extensiveness andregion it causes organ dysfunction andfailure. Due to pain and loss of water itcauses shock. Due to the microorganismswhich found on the patient/victims ownbody, infections occur.
Children under age 4 and adults overage 60 have a higher chance ofcomplications and death from severeburns.Burns to the head, neck, chest,and groin are the most dangerous.
FIRST AID IN HEAT BURNS If person is still burning, prevent panic and STOP him/ her Cover the patient/victim with a blanket and ROLL over and over and over,
Check the vital signs ABCCheck if the air ways are affected.Run cool water over the burn area for at least20 MINUTES ( if the burn is very extensivedon’t do, because of loss of heat)Think about edema, so take off rings,bracelets, watches etcTake the clothes of without peeling the skin.
Take care of hygiene and cleannessDon’t burst the blistersDon’t put anything on the burned areaCover with dry, nonstick, sterile dressing,keep area clean
Cover the patient/victim with a blanketDon’t bandage the burned areas togetherIf the burned area is large and the medicalaid will be late and if the person isconciouss, give some water to preventdehydration: 1 litre water,1 teaspooncarbonate,1 teaspoon saltCall 112
Minor Burn First Aid -Series: Procedure, part 1 To treat a minor burn, run cool water over the area of the burn or soak it in a cool water bath (not ice water). Keep the area submerged for at least 5 minutes
Minor Burn First Aid - Series: Procedure, part 2 After flushing or soaking for several minutes, cover the burn with a sterile bandage or a clean cloth. Over the counter pain medications, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen, may be used to help relieve the pain. Minor burns will usually heal without further treatment
First Aid In Chemical BurnsStop the contact of the chemical with theskin as soon is possibleRinse the area with water 15-20 minutesgentlyTake the clothes offCover the patient/victimCall 112
First Aid In Electrical BurnsBe quite and calmStop the electrical current before touching thepatient/victimIf there is no possibilty to stop the current, cutthe electrical contact with a wooden rod or fiberDo not interfere to the person with WATERCheck the ABC of the patient/victimDo not move the patient/victimCover the damaged areaCall 112
Burns: Do NotDO NOT apply ointment, butter, ice, medications, fluffy cottondressing, adhesive bandages, cream, oil spray, or any householdremedy to a burn. This can interfere with proper healing.DO NOT allow the burn to become contaminated. Avoidbreathing or coughing on the burn.DO NOT disturb blistered or dead skin.DO NOT remove clothing that is stuck to the skin.DO NOT give the person anything by mouth, if there is a severeburn.DO NOT immerse a severe burn in cold water. This can causeshock.DO NOT place a pillow under the persons head if there is anairway burn and he or she is lying down. This can close theairway.
HEAT STROKE High temperatures and humidity results uncontrolled body heat. The signs of heat stroke:- Muscle cramps- Tiredness- Vertigo, dizziness- Behavioural disorders, anxiety- Pale and warm skin
HEAT STROKE- Sweating (later on decreases)- Stomach cramps- Nausea, vomiting- Loss of consiousness, day dreams- Rapid pulse
FİRST AID IN HEAT STROKETake the patient cool and airfresh placeTake the clothes offLay down back and elevate arms and legsIf conciouss and no vomiting, to replacesalt and water loss give 1 liter water- 1teaspoon baking powder- 1 teaspoon saltmixture or soda
RISK GROUPS IN HEAT STROKECardiac patientsHypertensive patientsDiabetic patientsCancer patientsVery low or very high body weightPhyscologic or physciatric patientsNephrology patientsOver 65 yrs oldYounger than 5 yrs oldPregnantsContionous and unconciouss dietPeople who does not drink enough water
PREVENTION IN HOT SUMMER DAYSAppropiate accessories like sun glasses,umbrella, hat to protect from sun lightLight dresses appropiate with climateDrink lots of waterRegular and enough meal portionsNot use unnecessary and non-prescribed drugsDo not exposure to direct sun lightRefresh air in closed areas regularly
FrostbiteFrostbite is the freezing ofa part of the body, mostoften the nose, ears,cheeks, fingers or toes.Because of extreme cold,blood can’t circulate tothe affected area andtissue harm occurs due tocoagulation of the bloodin the affected area.
Frostbite FIRST DEGREE- Mildest form, with early intervention heals quickly- There is paleness of skin and sensation of cold- There is numbness and weakness- Later on redness and tingling sensation SECOND DEGREE- With increasing length of time the signs become more prominent- Feeling of stretching on the affected area- Edema, swelling, pain and blisters- When healing blistres turn to black crusts
THIRD DEGREE- Irreversible damage of tissues- There is a black area with clear cut margins form healthy skin
Frostbite: PreventionBe aware of factors that can contribute tofrostbite, such as extreme cold, wet clothes,high winds, and poor circulation. This can becaused by tight clothing or boots, crampedpositions, fatigue, certain medications,smoking, alcohol use, or diseases that affectthe blood vessels, such as diabetes.
Frostbite: First Aid Shelter the victim from the cold and movethe victim to a warmer place.Keep the patient/victim calmDo not move the patient/victimRemove any constricting jewellery and wetclothing. Cover with dry dressings and givesome hot liquids. Put dressings betweenfrostbitten fingers or toes to keep themseparated. Do not burst the blisters
Frostbite: First AidDo not rub the affected areaKeep the hands and feet in naturalpositionAfter warming if there is still numbness,wrap the affected areaElevate arms and legsCall 112
Frostbite: Do NotDO NOT thaw out a frostbitten area if it cannotbe kept thawed. Refreezing may make tissuedamage even worse.DO NOT use direct dry heat (such as a radiator,campfire, heating pad, or hair dryer) to thaw thefrostbitten areas. Direct heat can burn thetissues that are already damaged.DO NOT rub or massage the affected area.DO NOT disturb blisters on frostbitten skin.DO NOT smoke or drink alcoholic beveragesduring recovery as both can interfere with bloodcirculation.