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BURNS
           &
       FROSTBITE
  Assist. Prof. Hülya Akan, M.D.
Yeditepe University Medical Faculty
  Department of Family Medicine
BURNS
                         A burn is damaged
                         tissue caused by
                         heat, chemicals,
                         electricity, sunlight, or
                         nuclear radiation.

Burns can be caused by dry heat (like fire),
wet heat (such as steam or hot liquids),
radiation, friction, heated objects, the sun,
electricity, or chemicals.
TYPES OF BURNS
PHYSICAL
- Heat
- Electricity
- Radiation
- Friction
- Freezing
CHEMICAL
- Acid and alkali chemicals
FACTORS AFFECTING THE
    SEVERITY OF BURNS
Depth
Extension
Region
The risk of infection
Age
Harm to airways
Previous diseases
Definition
There are three levels of burns:
First-degree burns affect only the outer layer of
the skin. They cause pain, redness, and
swelling.
Second-degree burns affect both the outer and
underlying layer of skin. They cause pain,
redness, swelling, and blistering.
Third-degree burns extend into deeper tissues.
They cause white or blackened, charred skin
that may be numb.
The First degree burns




The First degree burns damage the outer layer of skin (epidermis)
and cause pain, redness and swelling (erythema).
Mild, or first degree burns cause
only reddening of the epidermis
(outer layer of the skin), as seen
in this photograph.
Second degree burns damage the epidermis and the inner layer,
the dermis, causing erythema and blistering.
Burn, Blister - Close-Up


              Second  degree burns
              produce blistering, as
              seen here.
Damage   from third degree burns extend into the hypodermis,
 causing destruction of the full thickness of skin with its nerve
supply (numbness). Third degree burns leave scars and may cause loss of
function and/or sensation.
NEGATIVE AFFECTS OF BURNS
According to depth, extensiveness and
region it causes organ dysfunction and
failure. Due to pain and loss of water it
causes shock. Due to the microorganisms
which found on the patient/victims own
body, infections occur.
Children under age 4 and adults over
age 60 have a higher chance of
complications and death from severe
burns.
Burns to the head, neck, chest,
and groin are the most dangerous.
FIRST AID IN HEAT BURNS
             If person is still
             burning, prevent
             panic and STOP him/
             her
             Cover the
             patient/victim with a
             blanket and ROLL
             over and over and
             over,
Check the vital signs ABC
Check if the air ways are affected.
Run cool water over the burn area for at least
20 MINUTES ( if the burn is very extensive
don’t do, because of loss of heat)
Think about edema, so take off rings,
bracelets, watches etc
Take the clothes of without peeling the skin.
Take care of hygiene and cleanness
Don’t burst the blisters
Don’t put anything on the burned area
Cover with dry, nonstick, sterile dressing,
keep area clean
Cover the patient/victim with a blanket
Don’t bandage the burned areas together
If the burned area is large and the medical
aid will be late and if the person is
conciouss, give some water to prevent
dehydration: 1 litre water,1 teaspoon
carbonate,1 teaspoon salt
Call 112
Minor    Burn First    Aid -
Series:    Procedure,    part 1
                 To treat a minor
                 burn, run cool
                 water over the
                 area of the burn
                 or soak it in a
                 cool water bath
                 (not ice water).
                 Keep the area
                 submerged for at
                 least 5 minutes
Minor Burn First Aid - Series:
     Procedure, part 2
                 After flushing or soaking
                 for several minutes, cover
                 the burn with a sterile
                 bandage or a clean cloth.
                 Over the counter pain
                 medications, such as
                 ibuprofen or
                 acetaminophen, may be
                 used to help relieve the
                 pain. Minor burns will
                 usually heal without
                 further treatment
First Aid In Chemical Burns
Stop the contact of the chemical with the
skin as soon is possible
Rinse the area with water 15-20 minutes
gently
Take the clothes off
Cover the patient/victim
Call 112
First Aid In Electrical Burns
Be quite and calm
Stop the electrical current before touching the
patient/victim
If there is no possibilty to stop the current, cut
the electrical contact with a wooden rod or fiber
Do not interfere to the person with WATER
Check the ABC of the patient/victim
Do not move the patient/victim
Cover the damaged area
Call 112
Burns: Do Not
DO NOT apply ointment, butter, ice, medications, fluffy cotton
dressing, adhesive bandages, cream, oil spray, or any household
remedy to a burn. This can interfere with proper healing.
DO NOT allow the burn to become contaminated. Avoid
breathing or coughing on the burn.
DO NOT disturb blistered or dead skin.
DO NOT remove clothing that is stuck to the skin.
DO NOT give the person anything by mouth, if there is a severe
burn.
DO NOT immerse a severe burn in cold water. This can cause
shock.
DO NOT place a pillow under the person's head if there is an
airway burn and he or she is lying down. This can close the
airway.
HEAT STROKE
 High temperatures and humidity results
 uncontrolled body heat. The signs of heat
 stroke:
- Muscle cramps
- Tiredness
- Vertigo, dizziness
- Behavioural disorders, anxiety
- Pale and warm skin
HEAT STROKE
- Sweating (later on decreases)
- Stomach cramps
- Nausea, vomiting
- Loss of consiousness, day dreams
- Rapid pulse
FİRST AID IN HEAT STROKE
Take the patient cool and airfresh place
Take the clothes off
Lay down back and elevate arms and legs
If conciouss and no vomiting, to replace
salt and water loss give 1 liter water- 1
teaspoon baking powder- 1 teaspoon salt
mixture or soda
RISK GROUPS IN HEAT STROKE
Cardiac patients
Hypertensive patients
Diabetic patients
Cancer patients
Very low or very high body weight
Physcologic or physciatric patients
Nephrology patients
Over 65 yrs old
Younger than 5 yrs old
Pregnants
Contionous and unconciouss diet
People who does not drink enough water
PREVENTION IN HOT SUMMER
         DAYS
Appropiate accessories like sun glasses,
umbrella, hat to protect from sun light
Light dresses appropiate with climate
Drink lots of water
Regular and enough meal portions
Not use unnecessary and non-prescribed drugs
Do not exposure to direct sun light
Refresh air in closed areas regularly
Frostbite
Frostbite
Frostbite is the freezing of
a part of the body, most
often the nose, ears,
cheeks, fingers or toes.
Because of extreme cold,
blood can’t circulate to
the affected area and
tissue harm occurs due to
coagulation of the blood
in the affected area.
Frostbite
Alternate Names :
Cold Exposure -
Extremities
Frostbite
    FIRST DEGREE
-   Mildest form, with early intervention heals quickly
-   There is paleness of skin and sensation of cold
-   There is numbness and weakness
-   Later on redness and tingling sensation

    SECOND DEGREE
-   With increasing length of time the signs become more prominent
-   Feeling of stretching on the affected area
-   Edema, swelling, pain and blisters
-   When healing blistres turn to black crusts
THIRD DEGREE
- Irreversible damage of tissues
- There is a black area with clear cut
  margins form healthy skin
Frostbite: Prevention
Be aware of factors that can contribute to
frostbite, such as extreme cold, wet clothes,
high winds, and poor circulation. This can be
caused by tight clothing or boots, cramped
positions, fatigue, certain medications,
smoking, alcohol use, or diseases that affect
the blood vessels, such as diabetes.
Frostbite: First Aid
 Shelter the victim from the cold and move
the victim to a warmer place.
Keep the patient/victim calm
Do not move the patient/victim
Remove any constricting jewellery and wet
clothing. Cover with dry dressings and give
some hot liquids. Put dressings between
frostbitten fingers or toes to keep them
separated.
 Do not burst the blisters
Frostbite: First Aid
Do not rub the affected area
Keep the hands and feet in natural
position
After warming if there is still numbness,
wrap the affected area
Elevate arms and legs
Call 112
Frostbite: Do Not

DO NOT thaw out a frostbitten area if it cannot
be kept thawed. Refreezing may make tissue
damage even worse.
DO NOT use direct dry heat (such as a radiator,
campfire, heating pad, or hair dryer) to thaw the
frostbitten areas. Direct heat can burn the
tissues that are already damaged.
DO NOT rub or massage the affected area.
DO NOT disturb blisters on frostbitten skin.
DO NOT smoke or drink alcoholic beverages
during recovery as both can interfere with blood
circulation.

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Burns and freezing

  • 1. BURNS & FROSTBITE Assist. Prof. Hülya Akan, M.D. Yeditepe University Medical Faculty Department of Family Medicine
  • 2.
  • 3. BURNS A burn is damaged tissue caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or nuclear radiation. Burns can be caused by dry heat (like fire), wet heat (such as steam or hot liquids), radiation, friction, heated objects, the sun, electricity, or chemicals.
  • 4. TYPES OF BURNS PHYSICAL - Heat - Electricity - Radiation - Friction - Freezing CHEMICAL - Acid and alkali chemicals
  • 5. FACTORS AFFECTING THE SEVERITY OF BURNS Depth Extension Region The risk of infection Age Harm to airways Previous diseases
  • 6. Definition There are three levels of burns: First-degree burns affect only the outer layer of the skin. They cause pain, redness, and swelling. Second-degree burns affect both the outer and underlying layer of skin. They cause pain, redness, swelling, and blistering. Third-degree burns extend into deeper tissues. They cause white or blackened, charred skin that may be numb.
  • 7. The First degree burns The First degree burns damage the outer layer of skin (epidermis) and cause pain, redness and swelling (erythema).
  • 8. Mild, or first degree burns cause only reddening of the epidermis (outer layer of the skin), as seen in this photograph.
  • 9. Second degree burns damage the epidermis and the inner layer, the dermis, causing erythema and blistering.
  • 10. Burn, Blister - Close-Up Second degree burns produce blistering, as seen here.
  • 11. Damage from third degree burns extend into the hypodermis, causing destruction of the full thickness of skin with its nerve supply (numbness). Third degree burns leave scars and may cause loss of function and/or sensation.
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14. NEGATIVE AFFECTS OF BURNS According to depth, extensiveness and region it causes organ dysfunction and failure. Due to pain and loss of water it causes shock. Due to the microorganisms which found on the patient/victims own body, infections occur.
  • 15. Children under age 4 and adults over age 60 have a higher chance of complications and death from severe burns. Burns to the head, neck, chest, and groin are the most dangerous.
  • 16. FIRST AID IN HEAT BURNS If person is still burning, prevent panic and STOP him/ her Cover the patient/victim with a blanket and ROLL over and over and over,
  • 17. Check the vital signs ABC Check if the air ways are affected. Run cool water over the burn area for at least 20 MINUTES ( if the burn is very extensive don’t do, because of loss of heat) Think about edema, so take off rings, bracelets, watches etc Take the clothes of without peeling the skin.
  • 18. Take care of hygiene and cleanness Don’t burst the blisters Don’t put anything on the burned area Cover with dry, nonstick, sterile dressing, keep area clean
  • 19. Cover the patient/victim with a blanket Don’t bandage the burned areas together If the burned area is large and the medical aid will be late and if the person is conciouss, give some water to prevent dehydration: 1 litre water,1 teaspoon carbonate,1 teaspoon salt Call 112
  • 20. Minor Burn First Aid - Series: Procedure, part 1 To treat a minor burn, run cool water over the area of the burn or soak it in a cool water bath (not ice water). Keep the area submerged for at least 5 minutes
  • 21. Minor Burn First Aid - Series: Procedure, part 2 After flushing or soaking for several minutes, cover the burn with a sterile bandage or a clean cloth. Over the counter pain medications, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen, may be used to help relieve the pain. Minor burns will usually heal without further treatment
  • 22.
  • 23. First Aid In Chemical Burns Stop the contact of the chemical with the skin as soon is possible Rinse the area with water 15-20 minutes gently Take the clothes off Cover the patient/victim Call 112
  • 24.
  • 25. First Aid In Electrical Burns Be quite and calm Stop the electrical current before touching the patient/victim If there is no possibilty to stop the current, cut the electrical contact with a wooden rod or fiber Do not interfere to the person with WATER Check the ABC of the patient/victim Do not move the patient/victim Cover the damaged area Call 112
  • 26. Burns: Do Not DO NOT apply ointment, butter, ice, medications, fluffy cotton dressing, adhesive bandages, cream, oil spray, or any household remedy to a burn. This can interfere with proper healing. DO NOT allow the burn to become contaminated. Avoid breathing or coughing on the burn. DO NOT disturb blistered or dead skin. DO NOT remove clothing that is stuck to the skin. DO NOT give the person anything by mouth, if there is a severe burn. DO NOT immerse a severe burn in cold water. This can cause shock. DO NOT place a pillow under the person's head if there is an airway burn and he or she is lying down. This can close the airway.
  • 27. HEAT STROKE High temperatures and humidity results uncontrolled body heat. The signs of heat stroke: - Muscle cramps - Tiredness - Vertigo, dizziness - Behavioural disorders, anxiety - Pale and warm skin
  • 28. HEAT STROKE - Sweating (later on decreases) - Stomach cramps - Nausea, vomiting - Loss of consiousness, day dreams - Rapid pulse
  • 29. FİRST AID IN HEAT STROKE Take the patient cool and airfresh place Take the clothes off Lay down back and elevate arms and legs If conciouss and no vomiting, to replace salt and water loss give 1 liter water- 1 teaspoon baking powder- 1 teaspoon salt mixture or soda
  • 30. RISK GROUPS IN HEAT STROKE Cardiac patients Hypertensive patients Diabetic patients Cancer patients Very low or very high body weight Physcologic or physciatric patients Nephrology patients Over 65 yrs old Younger than 5 yrs old Pregnants Contionous and unconciouss diet People who does not drink enough water
  • 31. PREVENTION IN HOT SUMMER DAYS Appropiate accessories like sun glasses, umbrella, hat to protect from sun light Light dresses appropiate with climate Drink lots of water Regular and enough meal portions Not use unnecessary and non-prescribed drugs Do not exposure to direct sun light Refresh air in closed areas regularly
  • 33. Frostbite Frostbite is the freezing of a part of the body, most often the nose, ears, cheeks, fingers or toes. Because of extreme cold, blood can’t circulate to the affected area and tissue harm occurs due to coagulation of the blood in the affected area.
  • 34. Frostbite Alternate Names : Cold Exposure - Extremities
  • 35. Frostbite FIRST DEGREE - Mildest form, with early intervention heals quickly - There is paleness of skin and sensation of cold - There is numbness and weakness - Later on redness and tingling sensation SECOND DEGREE - With increasing length of time the signs become more prominent - Feeling of stretching on the affected area - Edema, swelling, pain and blisters - When healing blistres turn to black crusts
  • 36. THIRD DEGREE - Irreversible damage of tissues - There is a black area with clear cut margins form healthy skin
  • 37. Frostbite: Prevention Be aware of factors that can contribute to frostbite, such as extreme cold, wet clothes, high winds, and poor circulation. This can be caused by tight clothing or boots, cramped positions, fatigue, certain medications, smoking, alcohol use, or diseases that affect the blood vessels, such as diabetes.
  • 38. Frostbite: First Aid Shelter the victim from the cold and move the victim to a warmer place. Keep the patient/victim calm Do not move the patient/victim Remove any constricting jewellery and wet clothing. Cover with dry dressings and give some hot liquids. Put dressings between frostbitten fingers or toes to keep them separated. Do not burst the blisters
  • 39. Frostbite: First Aid Do not rub the affected area Keep the hands and feet in natural position After warming if there is still numbness, wrap the affected area Elevate arms and legs Call 112
  • 40. Frostbite: Do Not DO NOT thaw out a frostbitten area if it cannot be kept thawed. Refreezing may make tissue damage even worse. DO NOT use direct dry heat (such as a radiator, campfire, heating pad, or hair dryer) to thaw the frostbitten areas. Direct heat can burn the tissues that are already damaged. DO NOT rub or massage the affected area. DO NOT disturb blisters on frostbitten skin. DO NOT smoke or drink alcoholic beverages during recovery as both can interfere with blood circulation.