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CONTROLLING PROCESS IN SUPERVISION

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CONTROLLING PROCESS IN SUPERVISION

  1. 1. CONTROLLING PROCESS IN SUPERVISION INSTRUCTOR :Mr. SANCHAWA, Denis dsanchawa@mnma.ac.tz. +255(0)717151218
  2. 2. Learning objectives • The Instructor is expecting that upon the completion of this two hrs lecture , learners should be able to :- a) Describe the concept of control in supervision b) Explain the objectives of control c) Describe the controlling process d) Demonstrate essentials for effective control e) List and explain the types of control
  3. 3. An introduction • Controlling is an essential element of supervision . That, all supervisors perform supervisory functions in which controlling is one among the supervisory functions. • It is the process that measures current performance and guides it towards some predetermined objectives • It sees to it that the right things happen, in the right ways, and at the right time.
  4. 4. Definition • According to George R Terry-"Controlling is determining what is being accomplished i.e., evaluating the performance and if necessary ,applying corrective measures so that the performance takes place according to plans." • In the words of Haynes and Massie- "Fundamentally, control is any process that guides activity towards some predetermined goal.
  5. 5. Objectives of controlling • To ensure that the overall directions of individuals and groups are consistent with short and long range plans. • To helps ensure that objectives and accomplishments are consistent with one another throughout an organization. • It helps maintain compliance with essential organizational rules and policies
  6. 6. Other objectives? (students) • ……………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………
  7. 7. Steps in controlling process • Establish objectives and standards. • Measure actual performance. • Compare results with objectives and standards. • Take necessary action or corrective measures
  8. 8. 1. Establish objectives and standards • The control process begins with planning and the establishment of performance objectives. • Performance objectives are defined and the standards for measuring them are set
  9. 9. 1. Establish performance objectives and standards • There are two types of standards: • Output Standards – measures performance results in terms of quantity, quality, cost, or time. • Input Standards - measures work efforts that go into a performance task.
  10. 10. 2. Measuring actual performance • Measurements must be accurate enough to spot deviations or variances between what really occurs and what is most desired. • Without measurement, effective control is not possible. Measurement of performance can be done by personal observation, by reports charts and statements. • A quick comparison of actual performance with the standard performance is possible, if the control system is well organized.
  11. 11. 3. Comparing results with objectives and standards • The comparison of actual performance with desired performance establishes the need for action. • Ways of making such comparisons include: • Benchmarking
  12. 12. 4. Taking corrective actions • After comparing the actual performance with the prescribed standards and finding the deviations, the next step that should be taken by the manager is to correct these deviations. • Corrective action should be taken without wasting of time so that the normal position can be restored quickly. • These steps must be repeated periodically until the organizational goal is achieved.
  13. 13. 4. Taking corrective actions (ctd) • Taking any action necessary to correct or improve things. • Management-by-Exception focuses managerial attention on substantial differences between actual and desired performance.
  14. 14. Taking corrective actions (ctd) • Management-by Exception can save the managers time, energy, and other resources, and concentrates efforts on areas showing the greatest need. • There are two types of exceptions: •Problems - below standard •Opportunities - above standard
  15. 15. Effective control • Effective control in an organization should be:- • Strategic and results oriented • Understandable • Encourage self-control • Timely and exception oriented • Positive in nature • Fair and objective • Flexible and realistic
  16. 16. Types of control • Preliminary control • They are accomplished before a work activity begins. • They make sure that proper directions are set and that the right resources are available to accomplish them.
  17. 17. Types of control • Concurrent control • Focus on what happens during the work process. Sometimes called steering controls, they monitor ongoing operations and activities to make sure that things are being done correctly
  18. 18. Types of control • Post action control • Sometimes called feedback controls, they take place after an action is completed. They focus on end results, as opposed to inputs and activities
  19. 19. Types of control • Internal Controls • Allows motivated individuals to exercise self- control in fulfilling job expectations. • The potential for self-control is enhanced when capable people have clear performance objectives and proper resource support
  20. 20. Types of control • External Controls • It occurs through personal supervision and the use of formal administrative systems. • Performance appraisal systems, compensation and benefit systems, employee discipline systems, and management-by-objectives.
  21. 21. Individual Assignment ( 5 Marks) • What are the common used organizational control systems ? • INSTRUCTIONS: • It is an open assignment which carries 5 marks • It must be typed • A minimum of three typed pages excluding cover page are required • To be submitted on 23rd April, 2015 at 14:00 Pm

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