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Marc Records and Bibliographic Control


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A presentation with an overview of MARC records in libraries and bibliographic control

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Marc Records and Bibliographic Control

  1. 1. Bibliographic control features, or MARC and access points IST 603 September 20, 2006 Denise A. Garofalo
  2. 2. Bibliographic control features <ul><li>Imposing bibliographic control in order to retrieve information packets requires a means of locating the desired information packet </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliographic control is most commonly achieved through access points </li></ul>
  3. 3. Choice of access points <ul><li>Select all names and titles under which the user might look for the item </li></ul><ul><li>For each item there is one primary access point, a.k.a. the main entry </li></ul><ul><li>The other access points are called added entries </li></ul>
  4. 4. Main entry <ul><li>Historically the one place the user could find all the information about the work in the printed catalog </li></ul><ul><li>Added entries could contain less information since you could refer to the main entry for the entire body of information </li></ul><ul><li>Technology and online catalogs has changed this situation, but card catalogs still follow this pattern </li></ul>
  5. 5. Main entry <ul><li>In AACR2, 2002 revision , chapter 21, choice of access point and main entry are discussed </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of main entry still useful even in an online environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main entry helps in the creation of uniform titles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main entry necessary to distinguish it from added entries when creating a listing with a single citation for each work, i.e. bibliography </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Uniform title <ul><li>Used when a work has appeared under more than one title </li></ul><ul><li>Brings all appearances of a work together </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally used for sacred scriptures, creeds, liturgical works, and anonymous classics, generally as main entries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mother Goose </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. More on uniform titles <ul><li>For music, laws, liturgical works, and translations there is a main entry with a uniform title </li></ul><ul><li>The problem with uniform titles is choosing which title IS the uniform title </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 25 in AACR2, 2002 revision covers uniform titles in detail </li></ul>
  8. 8. Basic rules from AACR2, 2002 rev. <ul><li>Access points are located in the chief source of information (rule 1.0A1) </li></ul><ul><li>Relative information may appear in locations other than the chief source of information, but stress is placed on the info located in the chief source—it’s the authoritative spot to find the information </li></ul>
  9. 9. General rule <ul><li>A personal author is the person chiefly responsible for the creation of the intellectual or artistic content of a work </li></ul>
  10. 10. Personal author—general rule <ul><li>Personal authors can be composers, writers, photographers, performers, cartographers, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Rules for works of single personal authorship are found in 21.4 </li></ul><ul><li>Rules for added entries are found in 21.29-21.30 </li></ul>
  11. 11. Corporate bodies <ul><li>A corporate body is an organization or a group of persons that is identified by a particular name and that acts, or may act, as an entity </li></ul>
  12. 12. Corporate body—general rule <ul><li>Litmus test of a corporate body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does it have a name, a specific name and not just a description of the corporate body? (United Nations) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are the initial letters of important words in the name capitalized? (American Medical Association) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are the words associated with a definite article? (rarer) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corporate bodies are institutions, business firms, associations, governments and parts thereof, conferences, ad hoc events such as festivals, and ships </li></ul>
  13. 13. Clues to corporate bodies <ul><li>Work deals with the body itself </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with official pronouncements </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a work of a collective nature such as the activities of conferences/expeditions/events </li></ul><ul><li>Performances that are the responsibility of the group </li></ul><ul><li>Cartographic items for which the group does more than distribute and publish </li></ul>
  14. 14. If not a corporate body, then what? <ul><li>If a work does not fit the corporate rules then the main entry is chosen as if no corporate body is involved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Added entry for the corporate body is made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a subordinate unit of the corporate body is responsible then the name of the unit and not the corporate body as a whole is used if the unit’s name and responsibility is stated prominently </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Title main entry <ul><li>Title main entry is used when there is no known author or personal authorship is diffuse and the work is not eligible for entry under corporate body, or when the work is a collection of multiple authorship or editorial direction, or the work is accepted as sacred scripture by a religious group </li></ul>
  16. 16. Changes--monographs <ul><li>Monographs which have been modified by someone other than the person responsible for the original edition are treated according to rules 21.9-21.23 </li></ul><ul><li>If nature and/or content has been changed, the main entry will be different than the original </li></ul><ul><li>If an abridgement the original main entry is used </li></ul>
  17. 17. Work where its nature changed <ul><li>Look before you bounce : based on the original story by A.A. Milne / Walt </li></ul><ul><li>Disney Productions. </li></ul><ul><li>32 p. : col. ill. ; 28 cm. </li></ul><ul><li>I. Milne, A. A. Hundred acre wood. II. Walt Disney Productions. </li></ul>
  18. 18. An abridged work <ul><li>Grimes, Martha. </li></ul><ul><li>The case has altered [sound recording] / Martha Grimes ; abridged by Judith Benenson ; read by Tim Curry. </li></ul><ul><li>I. Benenson, Judith. II. Curry, Tim. III. Title. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Changes--serials <ul><li>A serial requires a new entry for the following changes in persons or body: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the serial have a corporate body main entry and that corporate body has changed its name? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the serial have a corporate body or personal author as main entry and that body or person is no longer responsible for the serial? </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Works of single person authors <ul><li>If the item contains a work or works by a single personal author than the main entry is the heading for that person </li></ul>
  21. 21. Single corporate bodies <ul><li>An item which has a work or works for which a corporate body is responsible should have the heading for that corporate body as main entry (if one or more of the categories of rule 21.1B2 apply) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Works of unknown origin <ul><li>If the authorship of an item is unknown or of uncertain responsibility or the group responsible for the work lacks a name then the items will have a title main entry </li></ul>
  23. 23. Works of shared responsibility <ul><li>In those situations where two or more persons or corporate bodies have made the same kind of contribution to a work, or when the same kinds of contributions come from one or more persons and one or more corporate bodies follow the rules (for mixed responsibility, rules 21.8-21.27; main rules are found at 21.6) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Editorial direction given <ul><li>If contributions by different persons or corporate bodies are brought together either as collections of previously existing independent works or extracts from those works or as contributions produced under editorial direction, or as combinations of these two situations then use rule 21.7 </li></ul>
  25. 25. Mixed responsibility <ul><li>Determination of main entry in a work where the intellectual or artistic content contributions come from different sources and which did different tasks (illustrating, writing, translating, etc.) is based to a large extent on the relative importance of such contributions (rule 21.8) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Adaptations <ul><li>Adaptations (where there are changes in literary form, such as a dramatization, or a paraphrasing or an adaptation for children) are entered under the heading for the adaptor or if the adaptor is unknown then under the title (rule 21.10) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Illustrated texts <ul><li>Works of collaboration between a writer and an artist are found under rule 21.24 </li></ul><ul><li>If an illustrator adds illustrations to a text then the main entry is the heading appropriate to the text and an added entry for the illustrator may be given (rule 21.11) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Revisions of text <ul><li>If either the name of the original author appears in a statement of responsibility in the revision or the name of the original author appears in the revision’s title proper and no other person is named in a statement of responsibility or other title information, then the main entry for the original work is used (rule 21.12) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Texts with commentary <ul><li>If the chief source of information presents the work as a commentary then the entry is under the heading appropriate to the commentary </li></ul><ul><li>If the chief source of information presents the work as an edition of the original then the entry is under the heading for the original work </li></ul><ul><li>If the information is hazy then determine entry based on emphasis in the preface, typographical presentation or the extent of text and commentary (rule 21.13) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Translations <ul><li>A single translation is entered under the heading appropriate for the original work, with an added entry for the translator (rule 21.14) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Texts with bio or critical material <ul><li>If an item consists of a writer’s work or works accompanied by biographical or critical material written by someone else then the heading determination is based on how the item is represented in the chief source of information – if presented as a bio or criticism then the ME is for the biographer/critic; if an edition with editor, compiler, etc. then ME under the original writer (rule 21.15) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Break time
  33. 33. Art works <ul><li>Includes paintings, engravings, photographs, drawings, sculptures, etc., and any other creative work that can be reproduced pictorially (e.g. ceramic design, tapestries, fabrics) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Art works—adaptations (21.16) <ul><li>If an art work is adapted from one medium to another , the main entry is the adaptor; if the adaptor is unknown then use a title main entry, i.e. a reproduction of a sculpture is an adaptation and would most likely be a title main entry </li></ul><ul><li>If an art work is reproduced the main entry is the heading for the original </li></ul>
  35. 35. Art work reproductions (21.17) <ul><li>If there is no text in the item and it consists of reproductions of an artist’s works the main entry is the heading for the artist </li></ul><ul><li>If text accompanies the reproductions of an artist’s works then the entry is under the personal heading for the author of the text if in the chief source of information that person is represented as author; otherwise the entry is under the artist </li></ul>
  36. 36. Musical works <ul><li>All types of arrangements of musical works where the medium of performance has changed, the original has been simplified, the new work states “based on”, etc., new material has been incorporated or the harmony or style of the original has been changed are included in rule 21.18 </li></ul>
  37. 37. Musical works with words <ul><li>If a musical work includes words then the main entry is under the composer with an added entry for the writer of the words if the writer’s work is represented as in a full score or vocal score (rule 21.19) </li></ul><ul><li>This rule does not include librettos—see rule 21.28; footnote 7 contains an alternative rule </li></ul>
  38. 38. Sound recordings <ul><li>Rule 21.23 only applies to sound recordings which are modifications of other works—readings of texts like a book-on-tape/CD or performances of musical works </li></ul><ul><li>For oral history and other interviews, rule 21.25 </li></ul><ul><li>Communications presented as having been received from a spirit are in rule 21.26 </li></ul><ul><li>Academic disputations (defense of a dissertation) are covered under rule 21.27 </li></ul><ul><li>Lectures and improvisations should be handled under the general rules </li></ul>
  39. 39. Chapter 21—the remainders <ul><li>Provides detail on broad areas for dealing with choice of access points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Related works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Added entries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special rules for special materials </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. MARC……………
  41. 41. What is a record? <ul><li>A record is a collection of fields </li></ul><ul><li>A field contains a single unit of information within a record </li></ul><ul><li>A field may have one or more subfields </li></ul><ul><li>Tags (3-digit numeric codes) identify each field </li></ul><ul><li>Each field ends with a field terminator </li></ul><ul><li>Each subfield is preceded by a deliminator sign followed by a single character code </li></ul><ul><li>Each record has the same components: leader, record directory, control fields—fixed fields, and variable fields </li></ul>
  42. 42. MARC <ul><li>Once access points and main entry are determined, filling in a MARC record becomes less complicated </li></ul><ul><li>A MARC record can have 999 fields, the majority of which are variable in length and content </li></ul><ul><li>It is the MARC record upon which all standard library automation is built </li></ul>
  43. 43. MARC anatomy <ul><li>LEADER </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The leader identifies the beginning of a new record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The leader is fixed in length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The leader contains 24 characters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RECORD DIRECTORY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains a series of fixed length entries which identify the tag, length and starting position of each field in the record </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. More MARC anatomy <ul><li>CONTROL FIELDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry alphanumeric, often encoded, data elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always begin with a 0 (zero) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many are fixed in length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They include: 007, 008, 010, 020, 022, 040, 041, 043, 045, 050, 082, 090, 092 </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. And more MARC anatomy <ul><li>FIXED FIELDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The two fixed length control fields which are commonly called fixed fields are 007 and 008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>007 carries encoded data about the physical description of bibliographic items and is used predominantly for nonbook materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>008 carries general information about the content of the bibliographic record and is usually displayed in a single paragraph at the top of the screen with mnemonic tags. There are 40 character positions in this field </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Still more MARC anatomy <ul><li>VARIABLE FIELDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry alphanumeric data of variable length which is the traditional cataloging data elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three-digit number tags from 100-999 identify the variable fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion of variable fields is generally done in groups—the 1xx fields, the 2xx fields, the 6xx fields, and so on </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. MARC <ul><li>Review the MARC record information handout sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Note the indicators between the 3-digit field number and the first subfield </li></ul>
  48. 48. Format integration
  49. 49. MARC and formats <ul><li>MARC was developed for English-language monographs </li></ul><ul><li>Different formats for MARC were developed to handle different materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound recordings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manuscripts and so on </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Format integration <ul><li>With the various formats for MARC records there were instances where a field or subfield was valid for one format but no others, or indicators or subfield codes would vary </li></ul><ul><li>In 1993 MARC format integration was implemented—one format for all materials </li></ul>
  51. 51. Questions?
  52. 52. Assignment <ul><li>Read Chapters 8, 14, & 17 </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to review the corresponding sections in a library’s copy of AACR2, 2002 revised </li></ul><ul><li>Complete the homework assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Locate a MARC record, print it out and bring to class. Be prepared to discuss the record (you can generally get to a MARC record display in most Web-available OPACs) </li></ul>