Future of Cataloging, Classification


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A presentation on what the future of information processing, cataloging, classification and information management might bring

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Future of Cataloging, Classification

  1. 1. Cataloging and the future, plus a review for the final IST 603 Denise A. Garofalo December 6, 2006
  2. 2. Technology’s role <ul><li>The decreasing cost of online systems means they are entering the realm of possibility for more and more libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications changes and the prevalence of the Internet are making connections to shared networks more of a reality in many more areas than before </li></ul>
  3. 3. Are catalogers still needed? <ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>Someone will need to handle the description and analysis of materials which cannot be found through mainstream methods </li></ul><ul><li>A knowledge of cataloging, codes and structures increases the abilities of public service librarians to serve the users </li></ul>
  4. 4. A real-life example <ul><li>UC Berkeley downsized for cost containment (less professionals) </li></ul><ul><li>Cataloging has since evolved from highly localized procedures to standardized regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>A new division of labor between professional and copy catalogers has occurred as a result of downsizing and reorganization </li></ul>
  5. 5. Catalog changes <ul><li>Format is the most readily-evident change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From book catalogs to card catalogs and microform catalogs to online catalogs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standards for preparing catalog entries have also changed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More an evolutionary process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But the content or essence of bib info remains the same </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Changes in workload <ul><li>Constant growth of the bib database and the evolution of technology and functionality requires continuous re-evaluation in order to keep running smoothly </li></ul><ul><li>Catalogers need to be aware of cataloging, classification, policies, procedures, options on processing with book jobbers, MARC, and online vendors </li></ul>
  7. 7. MARC and the future <ul><li>MARC is considered an ideal way to hold bibliographic data </li></ul><ul><li>MARC was an innovative format at a time when most computer systems represented text as fixed length fields with capital letters only. </li></ul><ul><li>It remains a vital format for libraries, but it’s showing its age. </li></ul><ul><li>Speculation on the future of MARC is complicated by the enormous investment that libraries have made in it. </li></ul>
  8. 8. MARC and the future <ul><li>Whatever its future, MARC was a pioneering achievement in the history of both computing and libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Some speculate that with metadata and Dublin Core, SGML (Standard Generalized MarkUp Language) and the greater use of XML (and the promise it brings) that MARC is dead </li></ul><ul><li>It’s more likely that XML will be used to provide flexible access to complicated bibliographic records stored in MARC format </li></ul>
  9. 9. MARC and the future <ul><li>A timely MARC-SGML maintenance process that allows the flexible testing of new approaches beyond those feasible in MARC is also needed </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval and control systems need to be developed in which SGML-MARC can, when necessary, be merged into other systems of metadata </li></ul>
  10. 10. MARC and the future <ul><li>A way to keep SGML MARC files in synch with corresponding MARC files, with respect to authorities and other “catalog maintenance” duties needs to be developed </li></ul><ul><li>Needed changes in cataloging practice both to be able to describe and &quot;bibliographically control&quot; new types of documents and publications must be investigated, especially in light of new indexing, retrieval and display tools and concepts. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Metadata <ul><li>Simply put, metadata is data about data </li></ul><ul><li>In general all information objects, regardless of the physical or intellectual form they take, have three features - content, context, and structure - all of which can be reflected through metadata . </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.niso.org/standards/resources/UnderstandingMetadata.pdf#search=%22metadata%22 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Dublin Core <ul><li>Dublin Core is an element set for describing a wide range of networked resources </li></ul><ul><li>Dublin Core is also a standard but it is not a structure. </li></ul><ul><li>The element set can be repeated many times. </li></ul><ul><li>It recommends AACR for content. </li></ul><ul><li>http://dublincore.org/ </li></ul>
  13. 13. Dublin Core <ul><li>Dublin Core does not and cannot replace MARC. </li></ul><ul><li>It was established through consensus by an international, cross-disciplinary group of professionals from librarianship, computer science, text encoding, the museum community, and other related fields of scholarship </li></ul>
  14. 14. Questions?
  15. 15. Break time
  16. 16. SGML <ul><li>Stands for Standardized General Markup Language </li></ul><ul><li>It is a system for organizing and tagging elements of a document </li></ul><ul><li>It is an enabling technology used in applications such as HTML </li></ul><ul><li>HTML is one way of defining and interpreting tags according to SGML rules </li></ul>
  17. 17. SGML Resources <ul><li>What is SGML? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/S/SGML.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>On SGML and HTML </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/intro/sgmltut.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Overview of SGML resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/SGML/ </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. XML <ul><li>XML stands for Extensible Markup Language </li></ul><ul><li>XML focuses on providing information about the data itself and how it relates to other data (HTML is more concerned with how that data is formatted on the page and how it displays) </li></ul>
  19. 19. XML <ul><li>XML can be considered a storage format, with HTML as the display format </li></ul><ul><li>HTML is rather simple to use, while XML is more complicated </li></ul><ul><li>XML can be used to store one document but have that data display differently for different users </li></ul>
  20. 20. XML <ul><li>“ XML is not the answer to all the world’s problems—it creates new problems, that are awfully damn interesting to solve.” </li></ul><ul><li>    Simon St. Laurent, </li></ul><ul><li>              author of XML : A Primer , </li></ul><ul><li>              on the xml -dev mailing list   </li></ul>
  21. 21. XML resources <ul><li>XML from the inside out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.xml.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>XML tutorial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.w3schools.com/xml/default.asp </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The XML FAQ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://xml.silmaril.ie/ </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Thoughts to ponder
  23. 23. Learning cataloging is obsolete <ul><li>Information can always be found somewhere else </li></ul><ul><li>Can purchase materials with cataloging </li></ul>
  24. 24. Public service is what is #1 <ul><li>Just get the materials on the shelf ASAP </li></ul><ul><li>Need staff more to help users in reference and circulation </li></ul>
  25. 25. Online catalogs solve everything <ul><li>All catalogers have to do is fine-tune </li></ul><ul><li>Patrons don’t care where the info comes from or how—just that they can get to it </li></ul>
  26. 26. XML solves everything <ul><li>XML is a good storage facility but not display or search or retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>A blend of MARC and XML with a good front-end for searching may free libraries from the “tyranny” of library automation vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Or perhaps more open source ventures, such as Koha (http://www.koha.org/) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Questions?
  28. 28. Review for final <ul><li>Many questions are taken directly from the midterm---so use the midterm as a study guide </li></ul><ul><li>Brush up on general MARC tags (subjects in 6xx, notes in 5xx, etc.) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Review for final <ul><li>Subject analysis and subject heading systems are covered </li></ul><ul><li>Remember---Sears and LCSH are subject heading systems, while Dewey and LCC are classification systems </li></ul>
  30. 30. Review for final <ul><li>Don’t confuse them and think that Dewey is a subject heading system, as some have done </li></ul><ul><li>Remember that “bibliographic universe” and its control? If not, review. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Review for final <ul><li>Do traditional (card) catalogs have the capability of tracking usage by users? </li></ul><ul><li>Be familiar with the basic disciplines of classifying with DDC </li></ul>
  32. 32. Review for final <ul><li>Just what IS a bibliographic tool? </li></ul><ul><li>And access points. You should know what they are </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliographic utilities are also covered on the final </li></ul>
  33. 33. Questions? <ul><li>? </li></ul>
  34. 34. Assignment <ul><li>Review and then do </li></ul><ul><li>Final due December 13 </li></ul><ul><li>Bring SASE if you want to receive your graded final back </li></ul>