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Bibliographic Control and Oclc

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A presentation covering the concept of bibliographic control as well as OCLC

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Bibliographic Control and Oclc

  1. 1. Bibliographic control, library automation, and OCLC IST 603 October 25, 2006 Denise A. Garofalo
  2. 2. Bibliographic control and library automation <ul><li>Using a controlled vocabulary and following established rules for providing access to materials using technology was a natural progression </li></ul><ul><li>The standardized MARC record and the move towards using bibliographic utilities for processing helped the success of technology in libraries </li></ul>
  3. 3. Processing <ul><li>Automation and computerization have changed traditional methods of cataloging processing materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most libraries have centralized technical services or are a part of a cooperative network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Libraries purchase processing from vendors and suppliers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing is centralized, cooperative, and/or commercial (and generally automated) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Bibliographic data sources <ul><li>The Library of Congress has supplied bibliographic data to the majority of American libraries during this century </li></ul><ul><li>Automation has seen the development of large databases by vendors, networks and libraries (based on LC’s records) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cataloging operations <ul><li>Libraries do two types of cataloging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>copy cataloging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>original cataloging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cataloging and processing are tied together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>both can be purchased from vendors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>both are no longer isolated procedures </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Centralized processing <ul><li>Centralized processing is any consolidated effort to bring under one control the operations necessary to prepare library materials for access and use at different service locations </li></ul>
  7. 7. Centralized processing <ul><li>A central office is responsible for the acquisition and processing of materials for all branches/members </li></ul><ul><li>Revisions are sent back to the central office for processing </li></ul>
  8. 8. Processing centers <ul><li>Different types include those responsible for task groups such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>acquisitions and complete technical processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ordering, cataloging, classifying but not physical processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cataloging and classifying only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online db maintenance </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Why a processing center? <ul><li>Centralization and simplification of routines </li></ul><ul><li>Higher quality of cataloging </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of a union catalog </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to use more sophisticated tools (bib sources, equipment) </li></ul><ul><li>Greater level of efficiency (lower cost due to higher volume, staff specialization) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Processing center problems <ul><li>Compromises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>traditional local practices may be eliminated for the “good of the whole” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sacrifice local control and flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost analysis is needed to determine if cost savings is being achieved </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cooperative systems <ul><li>Cooperative systems involve independent libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Each library continues to perform some technical services tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation can involve sharing access to a bibliographic utility, discounts on bulk purchases and processing, some exchange of data, etc. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Union catalogs <ul><li>Generally developed to support resource sharing (ILL) in a specific geographic area </li></ul><ul><li>Union catalogs may be specialized (newspapers, serials) </li></ul><ul><li>Online union catalogs include those of the bibliographic utilities, regional and state networks, and those of individual libraries and their branches </li></ul>
  13. 13. Purchased commercial processing <ul><li>LC sold printed catalog cards in 1901 </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial cataloging is usually described as centralized cataloging which is performed and sold by a non-library for-profit agency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Baker and Taylor, Brodart (jobbers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Library Corp (Bibliophile) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Library automation <ul><li>With MARC records easily available and library automation more accessible to all types of libraries, the arduous process of converting records and becoming automated is much less a hardship today than it was 10, 20 or 30 years ago </li></ul>
  15. 15. Questions?
  16. 16. Break time
  17. 17. LC’s bibliographic services <ul><li>Cataloging records </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Card Division sold printed catalog cards for materials, foreign and domestic, for which LC had performed cataloging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Card Division became the CDS ( C ataloging D istribution S ervice) in 1975 to reflect change in product from mostly printed cards to mostly MARC records </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. LC’s bibliographic services <ul><li>Print services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Printed cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CIP ( C ataloging- i n- P ublication) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishing book catalogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NUC ( N ational U nion C atalog) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bibliographies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LC Classification Schedules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LCSH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New Serial Titles, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. LC’s bibliographic services <ul><li>Non-print formats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many of LC’s bibliographic tools are no longer available in print format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The NUC is only on microfiche (1983) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name authority records and subject authority records are now available for free online </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. LC’s bibliographic services <ul><li>Print order process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CDS has The Complete Catalog, which provides information on establishing an account, pricing and completing an order form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ordering is best accomplished through the use of the LCCN ( L ibrary of C ongress c ard n umber) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The LCCN is found in CBI ( C umulative B ook I ndex), WR ( W eekly R ecord), the BPR (American B ook P ublishing R ecord), LJ ( L ibrary J ournal), and in CIP </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. LC’s bibliographic services <ul><li>CDS Alert Service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issues subject selections of bib records produced at LC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent weekly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subscribers complete profile and receive full LC cataloging for those subject areas selected </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. LC’s bibliographic services <ul><li>CIP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Started in 1971 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on preliminary data provided by publishers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CIP is replaced by a full record when made available (i.e. when fully cataloged by LC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://cip.loc.gov/ </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. LC’s bibliographic services <ul><li>MARC http://www.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The MARC Distribution Service began in 1964 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Started with English-language monographs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formats for other materials developed over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Format integration (one format for all) was implemented in 1993 </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Other bibliographic services <ul><li>The CONSER ( Con version of Ser ials) database </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sponsored by the Council on Library Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used OCLC’s online facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed through LC’s MARC Distribution Service--Serials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Began in 1976 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After two-year pilot became a part of OCLC </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Other bibliographic services <ul><li>REMARC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A retrospective conversion project to add MARC records for those materials previously cataloged on cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begun in 1980 by Carrollton Press </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal was to convert the over 5 million titles cataloged by LC between 1897 and 1968 </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Other bibliographic projects <ul><li>NCCP ( N ational C ooperative C ataloging P roject) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Began in the early 1980s to create cataloging records in MARC format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved LC, Harvard and the University of Chicago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data was input by Harvard and U of Chicago directly into LC’s database </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Other bibliographic projects <ul><li>LSP ( L inked S ystem P roject) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiated by LC to link together the major bibliographic utilities in the US and LC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves the creation and maintenance of authority records </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Other bibliographic projects <ul><li>NACO ( N ame A uthority Co operative Project) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All new names, series, uniform titles and subjects are entered into the LC database in MARC authorities format (established in the late 1970s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under the project cooperating libraries provide additional authority records through LSP </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. MARC record types <ul><li>LC creates USMARC records </li></ul><ul><li>Canada uses CANMARC </li></ul><ul><li>The United Kingdom uses UKMARC </li></ul><ul><li>Many countries use UNIMARC (established through the IFLA--the I nternational F ederation of L ibrary A ssociations and Institutions) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.ifla.org/ </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Online bibliographic records <ul><li>To share such requires a network--those multilibrary entities established to facilitate resource sharing, reference, processing, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>These entities are also called bibliographic utilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>providers of computerized cataloging records </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seek to make cataloging data widely and conveniently available, foster speed and efficiency, and facilitate resource sharing </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Online bibliographic records <ul><li>Only one major online bibliographic network/utility today in the US </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OCLC Online Computer Library Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RLIN ( R esearch L ibraries I nformation N etwork) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WLN ( W ashington L ibrary N etwork) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both now a part of OCLC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>UTLAS used to be around </li></ul><ul><ul><li>served some American libraries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>was mainly used by Canadian libraries </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. OCLC <ul><li>Established in 1967 </li></ul><ul><li>Is the oldest and the largest bib utility </li></ul><ul><li>Online operations began in 1971 </li></ul><ul><li>Serves libraries through broker networks--NELINET, SYNY OCLC, SOLINET </li></ul>
  33. 33. OCLC <ul><li>Primary service is the OLUC ( O n l ine U nion C atalog), called WorldCat </li></ul><ul><li>WorldCat has over 68 million MARC records with close to 1 billion individual locations/holdings </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.oclc.org/worldcat/default.htm </li></ul>
  34. 34. OCLC <ul><li>You can search by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>browse search </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>names (personal, corporate, conference) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>name and title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control numbers (LCCN, ISBN, ISSN, CODEN or OCLC control number) </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. OCLC <ul><li>Has authority files </li></ul><ul><li>The CJK system provides for cataloging Chinese, Japanese and Korean materials through this system and special terminals </li></ul>
  36. 36. OCLC contributed cataloging <ul><li>OCLC members can contribute cataloging to WorldCat (“bibliographic responsibility”) </li></ul><ul><li>New cataloging is entered in MARC format following OCLC rules </li></ul><ul><li>Members are obligated to follow AACR2, 2005 revised and check all name, uniform title and series headings in the NAF ( N ame A uthority F ile) </li></ul>
  37. 37. OCLC’s other services <ul><li>FirstSearch provides access to online informational databases </li></ul><ul><li>Serials control is available </li></ul><ul><li>The ILL subsystem is used by libraries worldwide to locate and request materials </li></ul>
  38. 38. RLIN <ul><li>RLG ( R esearch L ibraries G roup) was formed in 1974 with Columbia, Harvard, Yale and NYPL </li></ul><ul><li>RLG adopted BALLOTS ( B ibliographic A utomation of L arge L ibrary O pera t ion s , from Stanford University) and RLIN resulted </li></ul><ul><li>Harvard withdrew and Stanford replaced it </li></ul>
  39. 39. RLIN <ul><li>RLIN membership (at its largest members exceeded 100) was supposed to foster support of inter-institutional communication and instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Primary services were bib control and access, shared resources, collection management and cooperative development, and preservation of research materials </li></ul>
  40. 40. RLIN <ul><li>Main difference from OCLC— </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OCLC attaches many holdings records to one bib record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RLIN preserves a separate bib record for every record cataloged and held by a library </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Much smaller database than OCLC </li></ul><ul><li>All records were in MARC format </li></ul>
  41. 41. WLN <ul><li>Started in 1977 by the State of Washington </li></ul><ul><li>Involved 10 pilot libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to give public and private libraries a comprehensive bib control system </li></ul><ul><li>WLN became a private, not-for-profit institution in 1988 </li></ul>
  42. 42. WLN <ul><li>Bib records ere in MARC format </li></ul><ul><li>Authority database was much more sophisticated than RLIN or OCLC </li></ul><ul><li>Provided a high level of quality control </li></ul>
  43. 43. Utlas <ul><li>Began in 1983 as the University of Toronto Library Automation Systems </li></ul><ul><li>In 1983 became Utlas </li></ul><ul><li>Like RLIN there were separate records for each library’s holdings </li></ul>
  44. 44. Bibliographic cooperation <ul><li>OCLC began offering partial memberships in 1982 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allowed for participation of all size libraries due to lower costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also allowed members of other networks, such as RLIN, to access OCLC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tapeload members contribute holdings to OCLC and meet their “bibliographic responsibility” to share materials </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Online bib services <ul><li>Use of an online bib utility does not necessarily result in change in the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Such participation should cause a reevaluation of policies and procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Generally the professional contribution to online cataloging is managerial--to organize policies and procedures for efficient use of the service </li></ul>
  46. 46. Considerations <ul><li>Utilization of all aspects of utility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pre-order verification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ILL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>citation verification for reference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bib problem solving/cataloging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Placement of equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling of staff on equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Policy--review, update, modify </li></ul>
  47. 47. Questions?
  48. 48. Assignment <ul><li>Wynar, Chapters 19, 20 and appendix </li></ul><ul><li>Cataloging homework assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Work on short paper </li></ul>

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