Gender roles- The rigid categories that characterize what it means to be “feminine” or “masculine” in this society. (p.316) Examples: Men do not cry, women should always look beautiful (for men), women are emotional, men never ask for directions, women are “natural” caregivers, men are tough, men are studs, women are domestic and so on. Gender Socialization- These roles are taught to us by a process called gender socialization whereby the messages of what it means to be a man or a woman or conveyed to us by every possible socializing structure in society. (p. 316) Example: Our families tell us how to behave, our schools tell us what we can achieve, and our media tells us what we need to look like. This socialization begins before birth to insure the highest compliance from women and men. Gender Identity- This arises from an inner, self-reflective location and manifests a persons’ more authentic gendered self as a woman, man or Tran gendered person. (p. 317)
Gender roles and identity are experienced by others through “expression” or “presentation”.A person’s expression or presentation of a gender role is based on the dichotomous categories of how “man” and “woman” and “men” should look, act, and feel like, whereas the expression or presentation of a person’s gender identity exists within a broader and more fluid context that more accords with the complexity of gender. (p.317) Sexism- A system of advantages that serves to privilege men, subordinate women, denigrate women- identified values and practices, enforce male dominance and control, and reinforce norms of masculinity that are dehumanizing and damaging to men. (p.318)
Feminism- A movement that seeks to dismantle the patriarchal power structures that serve to subordinate women and transgender folks and unfairly advantage men in in every aspect of society. (p.318) Example: The family portrait is on HIS DESK: Ah, a solid responsible family man. Example: The family portrait is on HER DESK: Hmm, her family will come before her career. Example: HE’S aggressive; SHE’S pushy Example: HE looses his temper; SHE’S bitchy
Masculinity- a constantly changing collection of meanings thatwe construct through our relationships with ourselves, witheach other, and with our world. (p.327) The feministsdefinition is the drive for power.Homophobia- the fear of other men will unmask us,emasculate us, reveal to us and the world that we do notmeasure up, that we are not real men. (p.328)•Homophobia and sexism go hand in hand.•Manhood is equated with power-over women, over othermen.•We take enormous risks to prove our manhood,exposingourselves disproportionately to health risks, workplacehazards, and stress-relates illnesses. Men commit suicidethree times as often as women…..
Key Terms Patriarchal culture- This culture is about the core value of control and domination in almost every area of human existence. (p.334) Example: It is found in family divisions of labor that exempt fathers from most domestic work even when both parents work outside the home, and in the concentration of women in lower- level pink-collar jobs and male dominance almost everywhere else. Feminism- The struggle to end sexist oppression. (p.339)
Timeline of Key Events in the Efforts to Gain Equality, Access, and Choice for Women in the United States 1848: The first women’s rights convention is held in Seneca Falls, New York. After 2 days of discussion and debate, 68 women and 32 men sign a Declaration of Sentiments, which outlines grievances and sets the agenda for the women’s rights movement. A set of 12 resolutions is adopted calling for equal treatment of women and men under the law and voting rights for women. Presidential Election 2008 we have seen examples of women making history through their challenges to limiting gender roles and power structures that marginalize them.
FOR INDIVIDUALS, GENDER MEANS SAMENSS Although the possible combinations of genitalia, body shapes, clothing, mannerisms, sexuality, and roles could produce infinite varieties in human beings, the social institution of gender depends on the production and maintenance of a limited number of gender statuses and of making he members of these statuses similar to each other. Individuals are born sexed but not gendered, and they have to be taught masculine or feminine. According to Simone de Beauvoir” One is not born, but rather becomes a woman……it is civilization as a whole that produces this creature…..which is described as feminine.”
For Society, Gender Means Difference If men and women are doing the same tasks, they are usually segregated to maintain gender separation, and often the tasks are given different job titles as well, such as executive secretary and administrative assistant. Women recruits in the U.S. Marines are required to wear makeup- at a minimum, lipstick and eye shadow- and they have to take classes in makeup, hair care, poise, and etiquette. According to twenty-five year old drill instructor, (1989) “ A lot of the recruits who came here don’t wear makeup; they’re tomboyish or athletic. A lot of them have the preconceived idea that going into the military means that they can still be a tomboy. They don’t realize that you are Woman Marine.”
South Carolinas political gender gap is not just a gap . . . its a Grand Canyon! South Carolina ranks 50th - last - in the nation in terms of women in public office. In the current Legislature, there were no women State Senators and 16 women members of the House of Representatives, meaning just 8.8% of the Legislature was female. US House of Representatives from 1987 to 1993. Only four women in South Carolina history have been elected to statewide office: Lt. Governor Nancy Stevenson (1979-1982), Superintendent of Education Barbara Nielsen (1991-1999), Superintendent of Education Inez Tennebaum (1999-2007), and Governor Nikki Haley (2010-current) Just three women are presidents of private colleges or universities, and women make up only 17.5% of the Boards of Trustees of public institutions. Source: http://www.scelectswomen.com/about/
OCTOBER IS DOMESTIC VIOLENCE MONTH WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE IN 2012?