Share Center (20122014)
(Commitment, Knowledge and Content Management)
(Horizontal Portals and Social Networks)
Diego E. Malpica Chauvet et al.
"Share Center" is a web multiuser mind map, a knowledge management tool that can increase for capabilities to understand and resolve
problems. Accessible to individuals, groups and small business.
What happens when social networks, knowledge management and commitment management interacts? It is possible to take concepts
from the real world social networks and extend their impact to achieve common goals? In this paper we propose a Knowledge
Management Model that merges these concepts in a solution that we called "Share Center".
Social Networks exist everywhere around us: families, friends, school groups, work groups, sports clubs, etc. Some of this networks are
successful and others not. What is the secret to generate long term relationships within a network? Which are the elements that make
Through observation and experimentation we developed a conceptual model that helps us to distinguish the causes and conditions that
may benefit the development of a Social Network.
For the elaboration of our conceptual model we take concepts from the following knowledge areas:
1. Social Networks
2. Project Management
3. Gift Economy
4. Knowledge Management
5. Commitment Management
6. Open Source
7. Abstract Models
9. Business Process Modeling
11. Massive Multiuser Games
Then we applied the model to build a web solution "Share Center" with the following main requirements:
Provide and Integral solution considering following three mayor knowledge areas: Social Networks, Knowledge and
Support for at least 1000 users with high concurrency.
Define an updated architecture that considers the inherent complexity of the problem and the full life cycle of an open
2 Knowledge Areas
2.1 Social Networks
Technology changes everything in our world, it affects all human activities without exception: economics, social relationships, politics,
science, etc. Mobile devices, computers and the Web are some examples of the most recent innovations that have altered the
interactions between persons, changing our work patterns and merging with our daily activities. This evolution has given birth, among
other things, to what we now know as Social Networking.
Online Social Networks are virtual spaces where a group of people can come together to share content (photos, videos, experiences,
art, etc) and interact with each other using tools such as chats or forums. Some of the most popular examples regarding these networks
are Facebook, Linkedin, Twitter and Circles .
Most online Social Networks provide tools for contact management, communication and content sharing. The use of tools to perform
activities develops bonds among member and over time to develop attachment to the network. Time is one of the most valuable
resources for community members. It is therefore essential for a Social Network to provide a full suite of tools that supports the members
activities. A good set of tools will take care of its members time and will help them to focus on meeting the network goals.
2.2 Project Management
Social networks are groups of people who share social spaces. A community is a social network whose members share common goals.
When this social networks needs to achieve this goals consistently manner we enter in the realm of Project Management.
There are a lot of methodologies for Project Management, they all share the same concern base. What is more relevant for a project
management methodology is the definition of goals in a specific, measurable, realistic, feasible and bounded in time way .
A project is divided in stages by most methodologies. Here we define the stages in a generic way that can easily be applied to various
areas of knowledge :
Inception Definition of Goals
Elaboration Definition of activities, their time of execution and their needs for resources.
Construction Assignation of resources and execute activities.
Transition Delivery of products according to plan.
A good methodology for community projects should ensure that all community members are involved, especially with the activities
related to goals definition and resource assignations. The activities must be performed in an agile and transparent way, ensuring that the
project represents a benefit to the community.
The following table shows the equivalences between project stages from different points of view.
Inception Preparation Invention Observation
Elaboration Negotiation Planning Hypothesis
Construction Execution Development Experimentation
Transition Acceptance Innovation Verification
2.3 Gift economy
Investment (ROI >= 300%)
The role of economics in Social Networks can be of great significance since it gives a purpose to its creation, consolidation and growth.
The mathematician John F. Nash stated that in a competitive environment it is possible to achieve a balance in which both parties do not
have to change its position because all their needs have been completely satisfied . Inspired by this work, we can say that in the
social networking context, you can increase the benefits to the community and achieve a responsible selfsustaining business model by
promoting the exchange of goods and services as gifts. In this context, gifts are products that represent a relatively low cost to the giver,
but have a high value for the receiver.
A gift economy model applied to a social network has the following benefits:
It can help to transform projects into community projects.
It can help the social network to become selfsustaining by increasing its value.
It can improve key business lines by increasing the bonds between its members and the attachment of members to the
It can improve the circulation and redistribution of values within the community .
It can help recruit and retain members by increasing the value of the social network.
It can help the funding of projects by involving community members.
The most difficult part of building a gift economy is to identify a high value gift for the receiver. There are two relevant quality
characteristics that must be found in gifts: durability and transparency. Durability is important because time generates attachment. By
transparency we mean the explicit statement of the giver's intentions which is essential to create bonds of trust.
2.4 Knowledge Management
We call knowledge management to the set of practices and tools and used to manage the store, consolidate, archive and retrieval of
knowledge for their use. Some of the most common tools for knowledge management are :
Papers: are public technical articles that explain technology and related ideas to both specialized and not technical
Patents: provide exclusive rights to its inventor for a limited period of time in exchange for a public disclosure of his
invention. The main idea behind patents is to encourage the development of an area of knowledge, but in practice
has a strong tendency to work in opposite directions.
Copyright: gives the creator of an original work exclusive right for a certain period of time in relation to that work, including
publication, distribution and adaptation. After that time the work is said to become public domain. There are many
emerging practices related to copyright that led to the birth of what we now know as Open Source .
Mind Maps: are used to generate, visualize, structure, and classify ideas, and as an aid to studying and organizing
information, solving problems, making decisions, and writing.
Search Engines: Provides index and retrieval of data and documents from a variety of sources such as: file systems,
intranets, document management systems, email, and databases. Search engines integrate structured and unstructured
data in their collections. Search systems also use access controls to enforce a security policy on their users.
Shared Content: Is considered a key factor for innovation and its the main driver of "Open Knowledge", "Open Source" and
"Social Networks" philosophies . According Charlene Li book "Open leadership" you may obtain a high
return of investment in benefits (ROI) en the following activities:
2.5 Commitment Management
Commitment Management can be seen as a specialized form of Knowledge Management. A process can be seen as a chain of
commitments. If each commitment takes care of defining a context for generating value. A chain of commitments it is also a value chain.
The "Commitment Management Protocol" resumes the best practices for establishing information contexts and honoring
Report Execution End
A tool that implements the "Commitment Management Protocol" should support the following activities:
1. Define a task
2. Identify the provider
3. Prepare a request
4. Send the request to the provider
5. Check if the provider take the order, according to the conditions
6. If necessary negotiate the conditions to reach an agreement
7. Monitor the progress
8. Wait for task completion
9. Review the task and if applies notify the provider that the terms has been complied.
10. Records the task as complete.
The benefits that can be obtained by using a commitment management tools in terms of productivity according "Actiontech" are:
Cycle time reductions of 40% to 70%
Cost reductions of 30% to 60%
Productivity gains of more than 30%
Quality improvements of 33%
ROI in excess of 300%
2.6 Open Source
Open Source technologies are those whose technical basis are exposed to the community. Companies in the software business are
implementing business based on gift economy models. The gift economy for Open Source is based on Copyrights that allow community
use and modification of a certain technology as needed. The software business main revenue lines are based in support services
instead of license fees. Large multinational enterprises, with huge investment in research material and infrastructure, have
transformed a considerable number of projects into open source, looking to minimize costs and maximize innovation. Open Source has
proven to be one of the most successful knowledge management and economy models based on copyright practices. These practices
may be taken to other kind of business as well.
2.7 Abstract Models
There are a lot of model representations in the software development industry, we choose and Object Oriented Model. This models help
us to deal with the proper level of abstractions to implementation solutions with the focus on the problem domain.
A heuristic is a method used to rapidly come to a solution that is expected to be close to the best possible answer, or 'optimal solution'.
Heuristics are educated guesses. In more precise terms, heuristics stand for strategies using readily accessible, though loosely
applicable, information to control problem solving in human beings and machines.
We generally use heuristics based methods to formulate and test our models.
2.9 Business Process Modeling
Rules and roles are transcendental for all social organizations since they define the capacity of action of its members and the capacity of
the organization as a whole, making mimic of what we can categorize as a collective intelligence. For governance we are using
conceptual tools from the "Commitment management protocol" . The more relevant part of this protocol is how it defines contexts,
rules and roles for achieve an efficient commitment management.
The success of a business depends of the loyalty that its clients have to the goods and services it provides.
Social Networks and Marketing can be merged into a "Social Marketing" approach. Solutions built from this can be considered an
evolution of CRM (Costumer Relation Manager) into SRM (Social Relation Manager).
Social Networks are specially susceptible to public segmentation. The consensus of goals and the coordination of actives frequently
needs an special strategy for each mayor segment. Social Networks represent non saturated channels that can be highly efficient. This
happens specially if marketing strategies are related with community projects and gift economy models. Social Networks are specially
susceptible of taking advantage of personal recommendations . In this context, clients and providers form networks of
recommendations for mutual benefits that increase the wealth of the whole network.
2.11 Massive Multiuser Games
Massive Multiuser Games are well proved and mature business. They are relevant reference in various Knowledge areas including
sociology, psychology, artificial intelligence, collective behavior, teamwork analysis and business modeling. We are currently using them
as a test lab to assert our model. Massive Multiuser Games are especially useful for studying Social and Economy models, given the
complexity of its interactions among persons (dynamic contexts and roles) and the business models around them. 
3.1 Share Center
We elaborated a "Knowledge Management Model" that includes what we consider the more promising technologies and we used for
building a full scale functional prototype.
Analysis of indicators and patterns.
Collection of information for indicators
Recommendations for the development and improvement
of products and services.
Consultancy for the practical application
Development of new products and services
Involvement Investment (ROI >= 300%)
Knowledge Management Model
We implemented a full scale functional prototype "Share Center" kind of "Horizontal Portal". It was implemented using the technique
"Paradigm Shifting" that is based on the review and selection of what we consider the most promising concepts and technologies that
may help us to achieve our short, medium and longterm goals.
4. Revision and Improvements
Our solution is under continuous revision and improvement. For this purpose, our group is working on different user segments. Here is a
list of our undergoing efforts:
1. Innovation Networks for professionals in the Industrial and Academic sectors. Most of the times social networks are the
channel used by new technologies, concepts and inventions make their way to specialists and then to the industry.
2. Academics: In this implementation students, teachers and professionals are being included in the same online social
network in order to share knowledge and experiences.
3. Open Source Projects for Knowledge, Content and Commitment Management.
4. Small business innovation networks for the developing high value products and services.
The "Knowledge Management Model" and the tool "Share Center" may be used to identify elements that may increase the value of a
network, to develop high value products and services that as a consequence increase the members participation in order to achieve
6. Future Work
We are working on building a full opensource product based in our model and in our functional working prototype.
7. Open source Licenses
Share Center platform is composed by the following Open Source Products:
 "Social Networks Analysis: Methods and Applications". Wasserman, Stanley, & Faust, Katherine. (1994). Cambridge: Cambridge
 "The Development of Social Network Analysis". Freeman, Linton. 2006. Vancouver: Empirical Pres, 2006
 Facebook. 2013. http://www.facebook.com/
 Linked in. 2013. http://www.linkedin.com
 Twitter, 2013. http://twitter.com/
 Google Circles. 2013. http://www.google.com/+/learnmore/circles/
 A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. PMBOK Guide, Third Edition, Project Management Institute.
 "The Rational Unified Process Made Easy: A Practitioner's Guide to the RUP". Kroll, Per; Kruchten, Philippe (2003).
 "The Rational Unified Process: An Introduction (3rd Ed.)".Kruchten, Philippe (2004).
 "Make Sure Your Project Goals are SMART".Carr, David. http://www.pmhut.com/makesureyourprojectgoalsaresmart. 20042009
 "Money and Asymptotically Ideal Money" John F. Nash. 2004.
 "The Gift: Imagination and the Erotic Life of Property". Lewis Hyde. New York: Vintage, 1983, 5860; Fall 1982.
 "The Gift Economy". Cheal, David J (1988). New York: Routledge. pp. 119.
 "The open source definition | Open Source Initiative", 2013. http://www.opensource.org/docs/osd
 "Sourceforge". SourceForge, Inc. 2009. http://sourceforge.net
 "Structural Cohesion and Embeddedness: A Hierarchical Concept of Social Groups."
Moody, James, and Douglas R. White (2003). American Sociological Review 68(1):103127.
 "WIPO | World Intellectual Property Organization". 2009. http://www.wipo.int/portal/index.html.en
 "Innovation happens elsewhere". Elsevier, 2005. Morgan Kaufmann publications, USA, , http://dreamsongs.com/IHE/IHE.html
 "Creando organizaciones para el futuro". Fernando Flores, 1997.
 "Objectoriented Software Construction". Bertrand Meyer. Prentice Hall International Series in Computer Science. 1988, Great
 "Heuristics". Wikipedia. 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heuristic
 "Patent". Wikipedia. 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patent
 "Papers". Wikipedia. 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technical_writing
 "Copyright". Wikipedia. 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyright
 "Stories". Extreme Programming. 2013 http://www.extremeprogramming.org/rules/userstories.html
 "Massive Multiplayer Games". Wikipedia. 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Travian
 "Commitment Management Protocol". Fernando Flores. 2008.
 "Word of mouth marketing". Wikipedia.2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Word_of_mouth
 "Mind maps as active learning tools", by Willis, CL. Journal of computing sciences in colleges. ISSN: 19374771. 2006. Volume: 21