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Global economy in charts


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1. Global activity easing
2. Slowdown most apparent in euro area
3. China transitioning to slower growth, service economy
4. Central banks pulling back from tightening
5. UK growth dependent on Brexit: exit deal could see GDP growth > 1.0% this year, no deal growth could be < 0.5%
6. Risks to global growth tilting to downside

Published in: Business

Global economy in charts

  1. 1. Global economy in charts Ian Stewart, Debapratim De, Tom Simmons & Peter Ireson Economics & Markets Research, Deloitte, London
  2. 2. 2 Summary 1. Global activity easing 2. Slowdown most apparent in euro area 3. China transitioning to slower growth, service economy 4. Central banks pulling back from tightening 5. UK growth dependent on Brexit: exit deal could see GDP growth > 1.0% this year, no deal growth could be < 0.5% 6. Risks to global growth tilting to downside
  3. 3. 3 Synchronised slowdown in 2019 GDP growth: Actual & IMF forecasts (%) Post- crisis trend 2018 2019 2020 ‘11 – ‘17 Advanced economies 1.8 2.3 2.0 1.7 Emerging markets 5.0 4.6 4.5 4.9 World 3.6 3.7 3.5 3.6 Emerging markets World Developed economies Forecasts Developed economies and emerging markets expected to slow in 2019. Source: IMF World Economic Outlook Update, January 2019
  4. 4. 4 GDP growth in major economies: Actual & IMF forecasts Source: IMF World Economic Outlook Update, January 2019 GDP growth (% YoY) Post-crisis trend 2018 2019 forecast 2020 forecast ‘11 – ‘17 US 2.1 2.9 2.5 1.8 UK 2.0 1.4 1.5 1.6 Euro area 1.2 1.8 1.6 1.7 Germany 1.9 1.5 1.3 1.6 Japan 1.1 0.9 1.1 0.5 China 7.6 6.6 6.2 6.2 India 6.8 7.3 7.5 7.7
  5. 5. 5 Last year’s fall in oil prices has lowered inflation in advanced economies Despite a recent bounce back due to cuts in OPEC supply, oil prices remain 22% below their peak in October. This has brought G7 inflation to its lowest level in almost two years.
  6. 6. 6 Export-led German economy hit by slowing export growth Slower Chinese and European growth, tariffs imposed on goods exported to the US and China, and the vehicle emissions scandal have hit German industry. Germany’s Ifo Business Climate Index, a bellwether for the whole European economy, is at its lowest level in more than two years.
  7. 7. 7 Italy in recession for third time in a decade Italian GDP contracted in the second half of 2018 sending the country into recession. The Italian economy is expected to shrink further in 2019. High levels of unemployment and government debt and a weak banking system are particular vulnerabilities. Italy EU Share of population at risk of poverty or social exclusion % Source: Eurostat At risk-of-poverty are persons with disposable income below 60% of the national median disposable income. Severely materially deprived persons have living conditions severely constrained by a lack of resources
  8. 8. 8 Euro area expected to grow at slowest pace in five years Prospects for euro area growth have weakened, as reflected in the industrial and consumer confidence indicators.
  9. 9. 9 US growth softening The US economy boomed in 2018 partly as a result of major tax cuts. 2019 is likely to be a year of rather slower growth.
  10. 10. 10 Markets have lowered rate expectations The unexpected pace of the global slowdown has caused the US Fed and European Central Bank to pull back from monetary tightening. Financial markets assume US and euro area rates will stay on hold this year. December 2018, Financial Times March 2019, Financial Times
  11. 11. 11 Dovish move by US Fed = equity market rally & lower volatility Equities have rallied on the prospect of interest rates staying lower for longer. This has enabled the US S&P 500 equity index to regain all of its December losses. Equity market volatility has fallen back. Lehman crash Euro debt crisis US ratings downgrade China hard landing fears US monetary tightening fears
  12. 12. 12 Crude is best performing asset, Fed and ECB actions support risk assets A cut in OPEC supply and uncertainty over production in Venezuela and Iran have boosted crude prices by 23% this year, making it the best performing asset in our basket. A move towards dovish monetary policy in the West has bolstered equities.
  13. 13. 13 Sharp contraction in global trade Global trade registered its sharpest contraction since the financial crisis, in December. Talks between the US and China have so far had little success in defusing trade tensions.
  14. 14. 14 Chinese growth expected to be slowest in almost three decades US protectionism and a rebalancing of Chinese growth away from investment and towards consumption is driving a slowdown. This is evidenced by a fall in Chinese manufacturing activity, its first since the financial crisis, and a sharp contraction in imports.
  15. 15. 15 Mixed picture across emerging markets India, Brazil and Russia are the only major emerging economies in our basket expected to post faster growth than their post-crisis trend this year. Country-specific factors are major determinants, with a general firming up of growth in Russia and reforms in Brazil, both of which were badly hit by the prolonged fall in commodity prices beginning in 2011. India’s fundamentals look strong, benefiting from strong growth in investment and personal consumption. GDP growth (% YoY) Post-crisis trend 2018 2019 2020 ‘11 – ‘17 China 7.4 6.6 6.2 6.2 India 6.9 7.3 7.5 7.7 Brazil 0.6 1.3 2.5 2.2 Russia 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.7 Mexico 2.7 2.1 2.1 2.2 Saudi Arabia 3.6 2.3 1.8 2.1 South Africa 1.7 0.8 1.4 1.7 Source: IMF World Economic Outlook Update, January 2019
  16. 16. 16 UK corporates braced for disruptive Brexit Uncertainty over the nature of Brexit has hit British corporate risk appetite, which is down to a nine-year low. Deloitte’s latest CFO Survey shows that CFOs are responding with their most defensive strategy stance in eight years, with cost reduction and cash control as top priorities. Source: Deloitte CFO Survey, Q4 2018 Source: Deloitte CFO Survey, Q4 2018
  17. 17. 17 UK consumer confidence subdued despite growth in real wages Despite real wages growing at their fastest pace in two years, consumers remain uncertain about Brexit and UK growth, which has left consumer confidence close to a five-year low.
  18. 18. 18 Nature of Brexit to determine growth Economists expect UK growth to slow sharply in the event of a no-deal exit from the EU, with the UK avoiding a recession. By contrast, if a transition deal were to be struck, UK growth is expected to accelerate modestly this year. Forecaster Nature of Brexit 2019 forecast 2020 forecast Average of NIESR & OECD forecasts* No deal 0.4% 0.3% Deal 1.5% 1.5% Latest IMF forecast** 1.5% 1.6% * National Institute of Economic and Social Research and Organisation for Economic Co- operation and Development forecasts released in Q4 2018, and Deloitte calculations ** IMF World Economic Outlook Update, January 2019
  19. 19. 19 Growth headwinds > tailwinds Tailwinds - Central Banks easing up - fiscal easing - low inflation, unemployment - wage growth - US-China trade deal? Headwinds - mature recovery - bubble, debt risks - trade tensions - manufacturing slowdown - politics - policy stretched
  20. 20. This publication has been written in general terms and we recommend that you obtain professional advice before acting or refraining from action on any of the contents of this publication. Deloitte LLP accepts no liability for any loss occasioned to any person acting or refraining from action as a result of any material in this publication. Deloitte LLP is a limited liability partnership registered in England and Wales with registered number OC303675 and its registered office at 2 New Street Square, London, EC4A 3BZ, United Kingdom. Deloitte LLP is the United Kingdom affiliate of Deloitte NWE LLP, a member firm of Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Limited, a UK private company limited by guarantee (“DTTL”). DTTL and each of its member firms are legally separate and independent entities. DTTL and Deloitte NWE LLP do not provide services to clients. Please see to learn more about our global network of member firms. © 2018 Deloitte LLP. All rights reserved. Contacts Data for all the charts in this document was sourced from Thomson Reuters Datastream unless otherwise stated. Charts as on 14th March 2019. Ian Stewart Partner & Chief Economist 020 7007 9386 Debapratim De Lead Author & Senior Economist 020 7303 0888 Tom Simmons Economic Analyst 020 7303 7370 Peter Ireson Economic Analyst 011 7984 1727