<ul><li>Understand how P2 has been viewed by historians </li></ul><ul><li>Divide aspects of P2’s reign into  </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Enemies – ‘aggressive imperialist’ – ‘tyrant’ </li></ul><ul><li>Motley ‘ tyrant’, ‘monstrous crimes’ ‘considered h...
<ul><li>Castilian contemporaries – ‘El Prudente’ </li></ul><ul><li>Kamen ‘ clear responsibility for his subjects’ </li></u...
<ul><li>Act above the law –  You need to include examples </li></ul><ul><li>Act as a tyrant –  You need to include example...
 
<ul><li>Monarchy – ‘divine right’  </li></ul><ul><li>Powers to make war and peace </li></ul><ul><li>Monarquia </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Centralisation of government </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid 1561 </li></ul><ul><li>Escorial </li></ul><ul><li>Conciliar ...
<ul><li>‘ There is no Pope in Spain’ </li></ul><ul><li>Appointment of Bishops  </li></ul><ul><li>Inquisition part of P2’s ...
<ul><li>Sell land and privileges - Grandees  given land – form local militia </li></ul><ul><li>Monarquia  - resources </li...
 
 
<ul><li>P2 himself – Paper King – micromanaging detail </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Chief clerk of the Spanish empire’ </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>1566/1567 & 1570 – ‘redress before supply’ – P2 forced to accept 100 legal conditions before 1590 milliones tax </...
<ul><li>Limited funds due to financial debt </li></ul><ul><li>Forced into selling off lands/titles/offices which eroded ce...
<ul><li>Moriscos 1568 </li></ul><ul><li>Aragonese 1590-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Longevity of Dutch Revolt 1566 – 1609 </li></ul...
<ul><li>Corregidors acted in self interest and relied on to implement P2’s policies </li></ul><ul><li>Monarquia a drain  <...
<ul><li>Size of monarquia </li></ul><ul><li>Determination of P2 </li></ul><ul><li>Scale of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Unl...
<ul><li>Physical checks on powers – distance </li></ul><ul><li>Centralisation starts to break down after Armada </li></ul>
<ul><li>Viewed in terms of 16 Th  Century – cruel tyrant must be challenged – comparison to other rulers e.g. Henry VIII, ...
 
 
<ul><li>Split page into four boxes </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative Chaos </li></ul><ul><li>P2 was weak </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Insisted on seeing consultas </li></ul><ul><li>Never affected overall strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies – ‘immor...
<ul><li>ADMIN CHAOS </li></ul><ul><li>Consultas  </li></ul><ul><li>Paper King </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies – virtual autonom...
<ul><li>STRONG </li></ul><ul><li>Vives – maximum concentration of power at the summit, minimum diffusion downwards </li></...
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Summary To What Extent Was Philip Ii An Absolute Monarch

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Summary To What Extent Was Philip Ii An Absolute Monarch

  1. 3. <ul><li>Understand how P2 has been viewed by historians </li></ul><ul><li>Divide aspects of P2’s reign into </li></ul><ul><li>tools/examples of absolutism </li></ul><ul><li>vs </li></ul><ul><li>restraints/examples of his absolutism </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate a conclusion </li></ul>
  2. 4. <ul><li>Enemies – ‘aggressive imperialist’ – ‘tyrant’ </li></ul><ul><li>Motley ‘ tyrant’, ‘monstrous crimes’ ‘considered himself not a king but a God’ </li></ul><ul><li>Cadoux ‘ monstrous tyrant’ </li></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><li>Castilian contemporaries – ‘El Prudente’ </li></ul><ul><li>Kamen ‘ clear responsibility for his subjects’ </li></ul><ul><li>Absolutism only on paper </li></ul><ul><li>In theory not in practice </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>Act above the law – You need to include examples </li></ul><ul><li>Act as a tyrant – You need to include examples </li></ul><ul><li>Abuse of the powers that P2 had – You need examples </li></ul><ul><li>A lack of effective restraints – You need examples </li></ul>
  5. 8. <ul><li>Monarchy – ‘divine right’ </li></ul><ul><li>Powers to make war and peace </li></ul><ul><li>Monarquia </li></ul><ul><li>Central Government – Conciliar System </li></ul><ul><li>Local government - Cortes </li></ul><ul><li>Law </li></ul><ul><li>Grandees </li></ul><ul><li>Military </li></ul><ul><li>Religion – in Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Inquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Economy and Finance e.g. taxation / duties </li></ul>
  6. 9. <ul><li>Centralisation of government </li></ul><ul><li>Madrid 1561 </li></ul><ul><li>Escorial </li></ul><ul><li>Conciliar system later use of Juntas </li></ul><ul><li>Castilians employed throughout </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in councils – appoint/dismiss </li></ul><ul><li>P2 final decision – Consultas via Sectretaries </li></ul><ul><li>Could veto and act by decree </li></ul><ul><li>Docile Cortes ‘rubber stamping’ P2’s financial demands and edicts </li></ul>
  7. 10. <ul><li>‘ There is no Pope in Spain’ </li></ul><ul><li>Appointment of Bishops </li></ul><ul><li>Inquisition part of P2’s government rather than church – used for political means in Perez affair </li></ul><ul><li>Autos da fe </li></ul><ul><li>Tridentine Decrees enforced but not at expense of Crowns powers </li></ul><ul><li>Clashes with Pope e.g. after Lepanto and over Carranza affair. Ignored papal bulls and appeals to Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Lynch claims that the crowns control ‘ was probably more complete in Spain in the 16 th Century than in any other part of Europe’. </li></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>Sell land and privileges - Grandees given land – form local militia </li></ul><ul><li>Monarquia - resources </li></ul><ul><li>Abuses of power – ‘council of blood’ in Netherlands execution of leading Dutch Grandees, massacre at Haarlem by Alva, assassination of WWO, controversy around death of Don Carlos, annexation of Portugal 1580 (Catholic Country) , New World, treatment of Moriscos 1568 </li></ul>
  9. 14. <ul><li>P2 himself – Paper King – micromanaging detail </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Chief clerk of the Spanish empire’ </li></ul><ul><li>Gonzalo Perez – slow government that even a ‘cripple’ could keep up with </li></ul><ul><li>Excessively bureaucratic </li></ul><ul><li>Faction – Toledo vs Eboli faction </li></ul>
  10. 15. <ul><li>1566/1567 & 1570 – ‘redress before supply’ – P2 forced to accept 100 legal conditions before 1590 milliones tax </li></ul><ul><li>Following the Aragonese Revolt – still preserved many fureos (liberties/rights) </li></ul>
  11. 16. <ul><li>Limited funds due to financial debt </li></ul><ul><li>Forced into selling off lands/titles/offices which eroded central government </li></ul>
  12. 17. <ul><li>Moriscos 1568 </li></ul><ul><li>Aragonese 1590-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Longevity of Dutch Revolt 1566 – 1609 </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal retained many privileges – sign of P2 understanding limitations to avoid revolt </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance of local Grandees, corregidors (local judges/law officers) and militia </li></ul>
  13. 18. <ul><li>Corregidors acted in self interest and relied on to implement P2’s policies </li></ul><ul><li>Monarquia a drain </li></ul><ul><li>Struggled against time and distance </li></ul><ul><li>‘ If death comes from Spain we would all be immortal’. </li></ul>
  14. 19. <ul><li>Size of monarquia </li></ul><ul><li>Determination of P2 </li></ul><ul><li>Scale of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Unlimited powers </li></ul><ul><li>Armed forced insufficient </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to impose wishes </li></ul><ul><li>Administration slow/ineffective </li></ul><ul><li>Annual revenue hamstrung policies </li></ul>
  15. 20. <ul><li>Physical checks on powers – distance </li></ul><ul><li>Centralisation starts to break down after Armada </li></ul>
  16. 21. <ul><li>Viewed in terms of 16 Th Century – cruel tyrant must be challenged – comparison to other rulers e.g. Henry VIII, Mary I, religious wars in France </li></ul><ul><li>Historians now agree absolute in theory not in practice </li></ul><ul><li>Area of debate now if P2 acted in self interest or for his subjects </li></ul>
  17. 24. <ul><li>Split page into four boxes </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative Chaos </li></ul><ul><li>P2 was weak </li></ul><ul><li>P2 was Strong </li></ul><ul><li>P2 acted as El Prudente (wise/cautious) </li></ul>
  18. 25. <ul><li>Insisted on seeing consultas </li></ul><ul><li>Never affected overall strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies – ‘immortal’ </li></ul><ul><li>Finest Courier network in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Power of Secretaries of state </li></ul><ul><li>Vives – ‘maximum concentration of power at the summit, minimum diffusion downwards’. </li></ul><ul><li>Gonzalo Perez - Cripple </li></ul><ul><li>Parker – firmly in control </li></ul><ul><li>Cordoba – El Prudente </li></ul><ul><li>Refusal to attend council meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Parker ‘followed a wait and see’ strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Power of Juntas </li></ul><ul><li>Delays e.g. sending Alva to Netherlands when eventually MOP had solved the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Kamen – factions in balance </li></ul><ul><li>No dependence on any one individual </li></ul>
  19. 26. <ul><li>ADMIN CHAOS </li></ul><ul><li>Consultas </li></ul><ul><li>Paper King </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies – virtual autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Refusal to attend council meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Lovett – slow , bureaucratic </li></ul><ul><li>Koenigsberger – at times almost complete breakdown of govt </li></ul><ul><li>Delays e.g. Armada, Alva in Neths </li></ul><ul><li>EL PRUDENTE </li></ul><ul><li>Kamen – never affected overall strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Cordoba ‘El Prudente’ – cautious and wise </li></ul><ul><li>Parker – only philip knew everything </li></ul><ul><li>Followed a ‘wait and see’ policy </li></ul><ul><li>Finest courier network in Europe – therefore well informed </li></ul>
  20. 27. <ul><li>STRONG </li></ul><ul><li>Vives – maximum concentration of power at the summit, minimum diffusion downwards </li></ul><ul><li>No dependence on any one individual </li></ul><ul><li>Divide and rule approach </li></ul><ul><li>Kamen – factions in balance </li></ul><ul><li>Parker – firmly in control </li></ul><ul><li>WEAK </li></ul><ul><li>Letrados undermined P2’s autocracy </li></ul><ul><li>Perez affair </li></ul><ul><li>Micromanagement </li></ul><ul><li>Did nothing but approve decisions already made – G.Perez </li></ul><ul><li>Power of secretaries of state and later Juntas </li></ul><ul><li>A weak agent in a strong structure </li></ul>

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