How far and why did Philip’s foreign relations change in the course of his reign?
 
Avoid the Key hole view
Areas of study <ul><li>Aims </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Relations with England, France, Turks and Portu...
How successful was Philip II’s foreign policy  after  1584? Interpretations of Philip’s Foreign Policy
 
Turks – Pick 6 <ul><li>1556 Tunis threatened </li></ul><ul><li>1560 – Djerba  - surprised and defeated huge cost lost 28 g...
 
Successful against Turks <ul><li>Removed threat in Med after 1571 </li></ul><ul><li>Costly – Spain supplied most of costs ...
Portugal – turning point <ul><li>Turned away from MED towards Atlantic . </li></ul><ul><li>Defeated rival Dom Antonio for ...
England – Pre 1584  <ul><li>Marriage to Mary and alliance against France </li></ul><ul><li>Feared Anglo-France alliance </...
 
England – Post 1584  <ul><li>Treaty of Nonsuch 1585 - £126K, 6K Troops Earl of Leicester  </li></ul><ul><li>Harboured oppo...
Successful against England? <ul><li>Cost 10 M ducats , 15,000 men </li></ul><ul><li>Diversion of troops helped Dutch rebel...
France – Pre 1584 <ul><li>Treaty of Cateau Cambresis </li></ul><ul><li>Kept France out of Italian affairs for next 200 yea...
 
France – Post 1584 <ul><li>Death of Anjou 1584 left Protestant heir </li></ul><ul><li>Henry of Navarre – threat to Netherl...
Conclusions <ul><li>Successful </li></ul><ul><li>Failure </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretations – defensive pre 1584 </li></ul>...
Successful against France? <ul><li>Did not prevent Henry becoming King  </li></ul><ul><li>Continued war after 1593 when He...
Final Analysis Post 1584 <ul><li>War costly </li></ul><ul><li>Armada and French war – over committed </li></ul><ul><li>Led...
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Successes Of Fp Summary

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Successes Of Fp Summary

  1. 1. How far and why did Philip’s foreign relations change in the course of his reign?
  2. 3. Avoid the Key hole view
  3. 4. Areas of study <ul><li>Aims </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Relations with England, France, Turks and Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Key turning points </li></ul><ul><li>Overall assessment in 1598 </li></ul><ul><li>Why and how these themes/issues have been interpreted in different ways by historians. </li></ul>
  4. 5. How successful was Philip II’s foreign policy after 1584? Interpretations of Philip’s Foreign Policy
  5. 7. Turks – Pick 6 <ul><li>1556 Tunis threatened </li></ul><ul><li>1560 – Djerba - surprised and defeated huge cost lost 28 galleys and 10K men </li></ul><ul><li>Raids along S/Eat Coast by barbary pirates </li></ul><ul><li>1565 Malta relieved – showed Turks beatable </li></ul><ul><li>1566 Death of Suleiman / 1566 Iconoclastic fury in Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing space for Sp </li></ul><ul><li>1568 Moriscos revolt and Dutch WOO </li></ul><ul><li>1571 Lepanto </li></ul><ul><li>1578 Truce </li></ul><ul><li>1581 Lasting truce with Turks </li></ul>
  6. 9. Successful against Turks <ul><li>Removed threat in Med after 1571 </li></ul><ul><li>Costly – Spain supplied most of costs and on verge of bankruptcy </li></ul><ul><li>Diverted attention from Netherlands allowed revolt to start 1566 </li></ul><ul><li>Criticised and seen as betrayal by papacy for not continuing on an anti-Islamic crusade further into Turks territory </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence that FP was not ideologically driven – not Champion of Catholicism – strategic dynastic best interests </li></ul><ul><li>Pierson – Lepanto was an ‘empty victory’ – Turks went on toe take Cyprus, rebuilt fleet, cost forced into truce. </li></ul>
  7. 10. Portugal – turning point <ul><li>Turned away from MED towards Atlantic . </li></ul><ul><li>Defeated rival Dom Antonio for the throne after death of Sebastian and Cardinal Henry 1580 </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent attack via back door on Sp – both militarily and religiously </li></ul><ul><li>Silver from new world </li></ul><ul><li>Ports on Western Coastline gave easier access to Atlantic </li></ul><ul><li>However drain on Sp resources e.g. defence costs, little control of colonials </li></ul>
  8. 11. England – Pre 1584 <ul><li>Marriage to Mary and alliance against France </li></ul><ul><li>Feared Anglo-France alliance </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage proposal and attempted prevention of excommunication </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing provocation </li></ul><ul><li>Hawkins - Atlantic Slave Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Seizure of Spanish Bullion 1568 </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth’s excommunication 1570 </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure from the Pope </li></ul>
  9. 13. England – Post 1584 <ul><li>Treaty of Nonsuch 1585 - £126K, 6K Troops Earl of Leicester </li></ul><ul><li>Harboured opponents – Perez </li></ul><ul><li>Armada 1588 </li></ul><ul><li>Diverted Parma away from Netherlands to invade England </li></ul><ul><li>1596 Triple Alliance against Sp – Fr/Eng/Neth </li></ul><ul><li>War ended at Treaty of London 1604 </li></ul>
  10. 14. Successful against England? <ul><li>Cost 10 M ducats , 15,000 men </li></ul><ul><li>Diversion of troops helped Dutch rebels </li></ul><ul><li>Mckinnon Bell ‘ beginning of the end of Spain’s Golden Age’ </li></ul><ul><li>In Philip’s defence - threat to Netherlands , escalation of events, defending Habsburg inheritance </li></ul><ul><li>Final analysis – Armada failed on three occasions 1596/1597, no clear gains, huge costs </li></ul>
  11. 15. France – Pre 1584 <ul><li>Treaty of Cateau Cambresis </li></ul><ul><li>Kept France out of Italian affairs for next 200 years </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage to Elizabeth Valois </li></ul><ul><li>Hamstrung by chaotic civil war </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of Anglo-French alliance </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of Protestant Huguenots (French Calvinists) </li></ul>
  12. 17. France – Post 1584 <ul><li>Death of Anjou 1584 left Protestant heir </li></ul><ul><li>Henry of Navarre – threat to Netherlands and heresy in Northern Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Joinville 1584 – Philip and Catholic League in France </li></ul><ul><li>Parma sent in support of Guise family 1590 Paris siege </li></ul><ul><li>1593 Henry converted to Catholicism Philip continued war </li></ul><ul><li>1596 Triple Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Vervins 1598 </li></ul>
  13. 18. Conclusions <ul><li>Successful </li></ul><ul><li>Failure </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretations – defensive pre 1584 </li></ul><ul><li>Turning points late 1570’s / early 1580’s </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretations – aggressive post 1584 </li></ul>
  14. 19. Successful against France? <ul><li>Did not prevent Henry becoming King </li></ul><ul><li>Continued war after 1593 when Henry converted </li></ul><ul><li>Military campaigns were unwise, costly and unsuccessful </li></ul><ul><li>Unclear what Philip hoped to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>Diverted Parma from Netherlands – allowed Dutch rebels to regroup </li></ul><ul><li>In defence of Philip – forced Henry to become Catholic, Henry was a threat – changing political scene necessitated a direct approach – merely continuing his aims in face of change </li></ul><ul><li>On balance – war costly, Henry remained, after conversion to Catholicism Spanish aggression used as rallying point for Frenchmen, led ultimately to Triple Alliance of England, France and United Provinces against Spain. </li></ul>
  15. 20. Final Analysis Post 1584 <ul><li>War costly </li></ul><ul><li>Armada and French war – over committed </li></ul><ul><li>Led to Triple Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of ‘reputacion’ in contemporary eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Intervention in Portugal, France and England – countries felt threatened. </li></ul><ul><li>Philip ‘blinded’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Towards the end of his life, Philips ideological rigidity led him to take on commitments that good sense would have counselled against’. </li></ul><ul><li>Bankrupt by 1598, defeated by France, revolt in Netherlands, repelled by English and caught in an expensive war, financially and economically ruined. </li></ul><ul><li>Failed to concentrate his efforts. </li></ul><ul><li>In defence maintained and grew his monarquia yet at what cost? Beginning of the end? </li></ul>

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